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Practice Guidelines

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Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p281.html

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p350.html

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2017 - Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of this infection. RSV is transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets either directly from an infected person or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p94.html

Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2016 - Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of death. Risk factors include older age and medical comorbidities. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of cough, dyspnea, pleuritic pain, or acute functional or cognitive decline, with abnormal vital signs (e.g., fever, tachycardia) and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p698.html

Acute Appendicitis: Efficient Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2018 - Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain in adults and children, with a lifetime risk of 8.6% in males and 6.7% in females. It is the most common nonobstetric surgical emergency during pregnancy. Findings from the history, physical examination, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p25.html

Revised AAP Guideline on UTI in Febrile Infants and Young Children - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2012 - In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics released a revision of its 1999 clinical practice guideline on urinary tract infections in febrile infants and young children two to 24 months of age. The new clinical practice guideline has several important updates based on evidence ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1115/p940.html

Common Questions About Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection causes 15% to 30% of sore throats in children and 5% to 15% in adults, and is more common in the late winter and early spring. The strongest independent predictors of GABHS pharyngitis are patient age of five to 15 years, absence of...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p24.html

Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention - American ...

Sep 1, 2017 - The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p314.html

Hepatitis B: Screening, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2019 - Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partly double-stranded DNA virus that causes acute and chronic liver infection. Screening for hepatitis B is recommended in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and in adolescents and adults at high risk of chronic infection. Hepatitis B vaccination ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p314.html

Current Concepts in Adult Acute Rhinosinusitis - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions that physicians treat in ambulatory care. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viral upper respiratory infections. A meta-analysis based on individual patient data found that common clinical signs and symptoms were ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p97.html

Acute Otitis Externa: An Update - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2012 - Acute otitis externa is a common condition involving inflammation of the ear canal. The acute form is caused primarily by bacterial infection, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus the most common pathogens. Acute otitis externa presents with the rapid onset of ear canal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1055.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections in women. Most urinary tract infections are acute uncomplicated cystitis. Identifiers of acute uncomplicated cystitis are frequency and dysuria in an immunocompetent woman of childbearing age who has no comorbidities or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p771.html

Diabetic Foot Infections - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2013 - Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/p177.html

Diagnosis and Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2011 - Community-acquired pneumonia is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation should determine the need for hospitalization versus outpatient management using validated ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0601/p1299.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2009 - Common signs and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis include sore throat, temperature greater than 100.4 degrees F (38 degrees C), tonsillar exudates, and cervical adenopathy. Cough, coryza, and diarrhea are more common with viral pharyngitis. Available diagnostic tests include throat...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/p383.html

Treatment of the Common Cold in Children and Adults - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2012 - The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p153.html

Common Questions About Pneumonia in Nursing Home Residents - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2015 - Pneumonia in older adults residing in nursing homes can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Pneumococcal and influenza immunizations decrease the risk of pneumonia and are recommended for all nursing home patients. Older adults with pneumonia may not display classic signs and symptoms...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p612.html

Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management - American ...

Dec 15, 2012 - Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the columnar epithelium of the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as nongenital sites such as the lungs and eyes. The bacterium is the cause of the most frequently reported sexually transmitted disease in the United ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1215/p1127.html

Diagnosis, Initial Management, and Prevention of Meningitis - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2010 - Although the annual incidence of bacterial meningitis in the United States is declining, it remains a medical emer- gency with a potential for high morbidity and mortality. Clinical signs and symptoms are unreliable in distinguishing bacterial meningitis from the more common forms of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1215/p1491.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2011 - Herpes zoster (shingles) is diagnosed clinically by recognition of the distinctive, painful vesicular rash appearing in a unilateral, dermatomal distribution. An estimated 1 million cases occur in the United States each year, and increasing age is the primary risk factor. Laboratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/p1432.html

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2011 - Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an RNA virus that causes respiratory tract infections in children. In the North- ern Hemisphere, the peak infection season is November through April. By two years of age, most children will have had an RSV infection. Bronchiolitis, a lower ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/p141.html

Guidelines for the Use of Antibiotics in Acute Upper Respiratory Infections - American ...

Sep 15, 2006 - To help physicians with the appropriate use of antibiotics in children and adults with upper respiratory tract infection, a multidisciplinary team evaluated existing guidelines and summarized key practice points. Acute otitis media in children should be diagnosed only if there is abrupt...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/p956.html

Update on Helicobacter pylori Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2007 - One half of the world's population has Helicobacter pylori infection, with an estimated prevalence of 30 percent in North America. Although it is unclear whether eradication of H. pylori improves symptoms in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia, there is strong evidence that eradication of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0201/p351.html

Atypical Pathogens and Challenges in Community-Acquired Pneumonia - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2004 - Atypical organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila are implicated in up to 40 percent of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic treatment is empiric and includes coverage for both typical and atypical organisms. Doxycycline, a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0401/p1699.html

Hepatitis A - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2006 - The introduction of hepatitis A vaccines in 1995 led to a drop in the number of reported cases of hepatitis A and a shift to a higher percentage of cases occurring in older age groups. The hepatitis A virus survives for extended periods in the environment. Transmission primarily is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2162.html

Management of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2001 - Bacteria are responsible for approximately 5 to 10 percent of pharyngitis cases, with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci being the most common bacterial etiology. A positive rapid antigen detection test may be considered definitive evidence for treatment; a negative test should be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0415/p1557.html

Overview of Histoplasmosis - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2002 - Histoplasmosis is an endemic infection in most of the United States and can be found worldwide. The spectrum of this illness ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe disseminated disease. Life-threatening illness is usually associated with an immunocompromised state; however, 20 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1215/p2247.html

Antimicrobial Resistence: A Plan of Action for Community Practice - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2001 - Antibiotic resistance was once confined primarily to hospitals but is becoming increasingly prevalent in family practice settings, making daily therapeutic decisions more challenging. Recent reports of pediatric deaths and illnesses in communities in the United States have raised ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0315/p1087.html

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection and Reflux - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1999 - Urinary tract infections in children are sometimes associated with vesicoureteral reflux, which can lead to renal scarring if it remains unrecognized. Since the risk of renal scarring is greatest in infants, any child who presents with a urinary tract infection prior to toilet training ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0315/p1472.html

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