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Practice Guidelines

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A Practical Approach to Neonatal Jaundice - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Kernicterus and neurologic sequelae caused by severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are preventable conditions. A structured and practical approach to the identification and care of infants with jaundice can facilitate prevention, thus decreasing rates of morbidity and mortality. Primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1255.html

A Practical Guide to Crisis Management - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2006 - Family physicians often treat patients who are experiencing psychological or medical crises. Any event perceived as overwhelming by the patient may trigger a crisis reaction consisting of psychological and physiological symptoms. Physicians are encouraged to assist patients who are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1159.html

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2006 - Most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are asymptomatic, not detectable on physical examination, and silent until discovered during radiologic testing for other reasons. Tobacco use, hypertension, a family history of AAA, and male sex are clinical risk factors for the development of an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1198.html

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2012 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome manifests as rapidly progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and hypoxemia. Diagnostic criteria include acute onset, profound hypoxemia, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and the absence of left atrial hypertension. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p352.html

Antimicrobial Resistence: A Plan of Action for Community Practice - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2001 - Antibiotic resistance was once confined primarily to hospitals but is becoming increasingly prevalent in family practice settings, making daily therapeutic decisions more challenging. Recent reports of pediatric deaths and illnesses in communities in the United States have raised ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0315/p1087.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Aortic stenosis affects 3% of persons older than 65 years. Although survival in asymptomatic patients is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, it decreases rapidly after symptoms appear. During the asymptomatic latent period, left ventricular hypertrophy and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p371.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2008 - Aortic stenosis is the most important cardiac valve disease in developed countries, affecting 3 percent of persons older than 65 years. Although the survival rate in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, the average ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/p717.html

Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention - American ...

Sep 1, 2017 - The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p314.html

Assessment and Management of Acute Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 1999 - Acute low back pain is commonly treated by family physicians. In most cases, only conservative therapy is needed. However, the history and physical examination may elicit warning signals that indicate the need for further work-up and treatment. These

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1115/p2299.html

Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. It impairs cardiac function and increases the risk of stroke. The incidence of atrial fibrillation increases with age. Key treatment issues include deciding when to restore normal sinus rhythm, when to control rate only, and how...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p61.html

Cardiac Rehabilitation - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2009 - An estimated 80 million (nearly one in three) Americans have cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the United States alone, more than 850,000 deaths are attributed annually to cardiovascular disease, and more than 8 million Americans...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1101/p955.html

Cardiomyopathy: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2017 - The definition and classification of cardiomyopathy have evolved considerably in recent years. Cardiomyopathy can be separated into primary (genetic, mixed, or acquired) and secondary categories, which result in varied phenotypes including dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p640.html

Cardiomyopathy: An Overview - American Family Physician

May 1, 2009 - Cardiomyopathy is an anatomic and pathologic diagnosis associated with muscle or electrical dysfunction of the heart. Cardiomyopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that often lead to progressive heart failure with significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiomyopathies may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0501/p778.html

Care of the Military Veteran: Selected Health Issues - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 18.2 million veterans were living in the United States in 2017, of whom 1.6 million were female. Less than one-half of all veterans receive care at a Veterans Health Administration or military treatment facility, leaving most to receive services from...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p544.html

Care of the Returning Veteran - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2010 - Of the 23.8 million military veterans living in the United States, approximately 3 million have served in Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom. The injuries and illnesses that affect veterans returning from combat are predictable. Blast injuries are common and most ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p43.html

Caregiver Care - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - Eighty percent of adults requiring long-term care currently live at home in the community, and unpaid family caregivers provide 90% of their care. Family caregivers serve as a critical extension of the U.S. health care system, and the demand for family caregivers is expected to increase...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p699.html

Caregiver Care - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2011 - In 2009, nearly 66 million Americans (three in 10 U.S. households) reported at least one person providing unpaid care as a family caregiver. More adults with chronic conditions and disabilities are living at home than ever before, and family caregivers have an even higher level of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0601/p1309.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Prevention and Treatment of Common Complications - American ...

Nov 15, 2004 - Chronic kidney disease is a progressive condition that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Because of the important role the kidneys play in maintaining homeostasis, chronic kidney disease can affect almost every body system. Early recognition and intervention are essential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1115/p1921.html

Chronic Low Back Pain: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2009 - Chronic low back pain is a common problem in primary care. A history and physical examination should place patients into one of several categories: (1) nonspecific low back pain; (2) back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis; (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/p1067.html

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2017 - The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be suspected in patients with risk factors (primarily a history of smoking) who report dyspnea at rest or with exertion, chronic cough with or without sputum production, or a history of wheezing. COPD may be suspected ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p433.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Prevention - American Family Physician

May 15, 2018 - Colorectal cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Most colorectal cancers arise from preexisting adenomatous or serrated polyps. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer can be reduced with screening of average-risk adults 50 to 75 years of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/p658.html

Common Questions About Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2014 - Developmental dysplasia of the hip is a common musculoskeletal condition in newborns. Infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip, whether treated or untreated, have a higher incidence of early-onset hip osteoarthritis in adulthood. Evidence to support universal screening by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1215/p843.html

Common Questions About Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection causes 15% to 30% of sore throats in children and 5% to 15% in adults, and is more common in the late winter and early spring. The strongest independent predictors of GABHS pharyngitis are patient age of five to 15 years, absence of...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p24.html

Common Questions About the Initial Management of Hypertension - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2015 - Hypertension is the most common chronic condition treated by family physicians. Elevated blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and death. Treatment of hypertension reduces the risk of these events. Several ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p172.html

Crohn's Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2018 - Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the gastrointestinal tract. It can cause lesions from mouth to anus and may result in extraintestinal complications. The prevalence of Crohn’s disease is increasing in adults and children. Genetic predispositions to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p661.html

Current Concepts in Adult Acute Rhinosinusitis - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions that physicians treat in ambulatory care. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viral upper respiratory infections. A meta-analysis based on individual patient data found that common clinical signs and symptoms were ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p97.html

Current Strategies in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood ...

Apr 15, 2009 - Symptoms of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder affect cognitive, academic, behavioral, emotional, social, and developmental functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is the most commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents. An ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0415/p657.html

Delirium in Older Persons: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2014 - Delirium is defined as an acute, fluctuating syndrome of altered attention, awareness, and cognition. It is common in older persons in the hospital and long-term care facilities and may indicate a life-threatening condition. Assessment for and prevention of delirium should occur at ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p150.html

Detection and Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 19 million adult Americans, and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes and hypertension are the underlying causes in most cases of chronic kidney disease. Evidence suggests that progression to kidney failure can be delayed or prevented...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1723.html

Diabetic Foot Infections - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2013 - Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/p177.html

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Globally, approximately 20% of the 400 million individuals with diabetes mellitus have diabetic kidney disease (DKD). DKD is associated with higher cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality, so timely diagnosis and treatment are critical. Screening for early DKD is best done ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p751.html

Diagnosis and Management of Adnexal Masses - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2016 - Adnexal masses can have gynecologic or nongynecologic etiologies, ranging from normal luteal cysts to ovarian cancer to bowel abscesses. Women who report abdominal or pelvic pain, increased abdominal size or bloating, difficulty eating, or rapid satiety that occurs more than 12 times ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0415/p676.html

Diagnosis and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2009 - Gestational diabetes occurs in 5 to 9 percent of pregnancies in the United States and is growing in prevalence. It is a controversial entity, with conflicting guidelines and treatment protocols. Recent studies show that diagnosis and management of this disorder have beneficial effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/p57.html

Diagnosis and Management of Kawasaki Disease - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2015 - Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects patients younger than five years. It represents the most prominent cause of acquired coronary artery disease in childhood. In the United States, 19 per 100,000 children younger than five years are hospitalized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0315/p365.html

Diagnosis and Management of Malignant Melanoma - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2001 - The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased in recent years more than that of any other cancer in the United States. About one in 70 people will develop melanoma during their lifetime. Family physicians should be aware that a patient with a changing mole, an atypical mole or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0401/p1359.html

Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Cancer - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2016 - Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Less than one-half of patients survive for more than five years after diagnosis. Ovarian cancer affects women of all ages but is most commonly diagnosed after menopause. More than 75% of affected women are diagnosed at an advanced ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p937.html

Diagnosis and Management of Pancreatic Cancer - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2014 - Pancreatic cancer remains the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Risk factors include family history, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity, diabetes mellitus, heavy alcohol use, and possible dietary factors. Because more than two-thirds of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0415/p626.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections in women. Most urinary tract infections are acute uncomplicated cystitis. Identifiers of acute uncomplicated cystitis are frequency and dysuria in an immunocompetent woman of childbearing age who has no comorbidities or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p771.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Atrial fibrillation is a supraventricular arrhythmia that adversely affects cardiac function and increases the risk of stroke. It is the most common arrhythmia and a major source of morbidity and mortality; its prevalence increases with age. Pulse rate is sensitive, but not specific, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p442.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Basal Cell and Squamous Cell Carcinoma - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2012 - Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p161.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants and Children - American ...

Oct 15, 2015 - Gastroesophageal reflux is defined as the passage of stomach contents into the esophagus with or without accompanied regurgitation (spitting up) and vomiting. It is a normal physiologic process that occurs throughout the day in infants and less often in children and adolescents. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1015/p705.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2016 - Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes patients to temporarily stop or decrease their breathing repeatedly during sleep. This results in fragmented, nonrestful sleep that can lead to symptoms such as morning headache and daytime sleepiness. Obstructive sleep apnea ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0901/p355.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease and H. pylori Infection - American ...

Feb 15, 2015 - The most common causes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) are Helicobacter pylori infection and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The test-and-treat strategy for detecting H. pylori is appropriate in situations where the risk of gastric cancer is low based on age younger ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p236.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Plantar fasciitis, a self-limiting condition, is a common cause of heel pain in adults. It affects more than 1 million persons per year, and two-thirds of patients with plantar fasciitis will seek care from their family physician. Plantar fasciitis affects sedentary and athletic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p676.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension - American Family Physician

May 1, 2001 - Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease of unknown etiology, whereas secondary pulmonary hypertension is a complication of many pulmonary, cardiac and extrathoracic conditions. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, left ventricular dysfunction and disorders associated with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0501/p1789.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Sick Sinus Syndrome - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2003 - Sick sinus syndrome comprises a variety of conditions involving sinus node dysfunction and commonly affects elderly persons. While the syndrome can have many causes, it usually is idiopathic. Patients may experience syncope, pre-syncope, palpitations, or dizziness; however, they often ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0415/p1725.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2009 - Common signs and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis include sore throat, temperature greater than 100.4 degrees F (38 degrees C), tonsillar exudates, and cervical adenopathy. Cough, coryza, and diarrhea are more common with viral pharyngitis. Available diagnostic tests include throat...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/p383.html

Diagnosis of Eating Disorders in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2003 - Eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are significant causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. Eating disorders are associated with devastating medical and psychologic consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0115/p297.html

Diagnostic Approach to Pleural Effusion - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2014 - Pleural effusion affects more than 1.5 million people in the United States each year and often complicates the management of heart failure, pneumonia, and malignancy. Pleural effusion occurs when fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura. Processes causing a distortion in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p99.html

Diagnostic Evaluation of Urinary Incontinence in Geriatric Patients - American Family ...

Jun 1, 1998 - In most cases, the evaluation of urinary incontinence requires only a history, a physical examination, urinalysis and measurement of postvoid residual urine volume. The initial purposes of the evaluation are to identify conditions requiring referral or specialized work-up and to detect ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0601/p2675.html

Diethylstilbestrol Exposure - American Family Physician

May 15, 2004 - Diethylstilbestrol is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen that was used to prevent miscarriage and other pregnancy complications between 1938 and 1971 in the United States. In 1971, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a warning about the use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0515/p2395.html

End-Stage Renal Disease: Symptom Management and Advance Care Planning - American Family...

Apr 1, 2012 - The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase, and dialysis is offered to older and more medically complex patients. Pain is problematic in up to one-half of patients receiving dialysis and may result from renal and nonrenal etiologies. Opioids can be prescribed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p705.html

Evaluation and Management of Neck Masses in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2014 - Neck masses in children usually fall into one of three categories: developmental, inflammatory/reactive, or neoplastic. Common congenital developmental masses in the neck include thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts, dermoid cysts, vascular malformations, and hemangiomas. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p353.html

Evaluation and Treatment of ADHD - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2001 - Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are present in as many as 9 percent of school-age children. ADHD-specific questionnaires can help determine whether children meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The recommended evaluation also includes documenting the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0901/p817.html

Evaluation and Treatment of the Suicidal Patient - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2012 - Evaluation and treatment of a suicidal patient are challenging tasks for the physician. Because no validated predictive tools exist, clinical judgment guides the decision-making process. Although there is insufficient evidence to support routine screening, evidence shows that asking ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0315/p602.html

Evaluation of a First Seizure - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Seizure is a common presentation in the emergency care setting, and new-onset epilepsy is the most common cause of unprovoked seizures. The patient history and physical examination should direct the type and timing of laboratory and imaging studies. No single sign, symptom, or test ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1342.html

Evaluation of Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1999 - In patients without significant urologic symptoms, microscopic hematuria is occasionally detected on routine urinalysis. At present, routine screening of all adults for microscopic hematuria with dipstick testing is not recommended because of the intermittent occurrence of this finding ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1143.html

Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Jaundice in adults can be an indicator of significant underlying disease. It is caused by elevated serum bilirubin levels in the unconjugated or conjugated form. The evaluation of jaundice relies on the history and physical examination. The initial laboratory evaluation should include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p164.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Chronic Cough - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2011 - Initial evaluation of the patient with chronic cough (i.e., of more than eight weeks’ duration) should include a focused history and physical examination, and in most patients, chest radiography. Patients who are taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor should switch to a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1015/p887.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Chronic Cough - American Family Physician

May 1, 2004 - Patients with chronic cough should avoid exposure to irritants that can trigger cough, and those who smoke should stop smoking. Patients who develop chronic cough in association with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy should be switched to an agent from another drug class. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0501/p2159.html

Evaluation of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common radiologic finding that is often discovered incidentally and may require significant workup to establish a definitive diagnosis. A solitary pulmonary nodule is a well-circumscribed round lesion measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and surrounded by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1084.html

Evaluation of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2009 - Solitary pulmonary nodules are common radiologic findings, typically discovered incidentally through chest radiography or computed tomography of the neck, chest, and abdomen. Primary care physicians must decide how to pursue an evaluation of a nodule once it has been identified. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/p827.html

Fetal Chromosomal Abnormalities: Antenatal Screening and Diagnosis - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2009 - Pregnant women of all ages should be offered screening and invasive diagnostic testing for chromosomal abnormalities before 20 weeks' gestation. New developments in screening methods have increased the number of options for patients. Diagnostic options include chorionic villus sampling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0115/p117.html

General Parenting Strategies: Practical Suggestions for Common Child Behavior Issues - ...

May 15, 2018 - Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/p642.html

Guidelines for the Use of Antibiotics in Acute Upper Respiratory Infections - American ...

Sep 15, 2006 - To help physicians with the appropriate use of antibiotics in children and adults with upper respiratory tract infection, a multidisciplinary team evaluated existing guidelines and summarized key practice points. Acute otitis media in children should be diagnosed only if there is abrupt...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/p956.html

Hepatitis A - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2006 - The introduction of hepatitis A vaccines in 1995 led to a drop in the number of reported cases of hepatitis A and a shift to a higher percentage of cases occurring in older age groups. The hepatitis A virus survives for extended periods in the environment. Transmission primarily is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2162.html

Hepatitis B: Screening, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2019 - Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partly double-stranded DNA virus that causes acute and chronic liver infection. Screening for hepatitis B is recommended in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and in adolescents and adults at high risk of chronic infection. Hepatitis B vaccination ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p314.html

Hepatitis C: Part II. Prevention Counseling and Medical Evaluation - American Family ...

Jan 15, 1999 - An estimated 3.9 million Americans are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and most do not know that they are infected. This group includes persons who are at risk for HCV-associated chronic liver disease and who also serve as reservoirs for transmission of HCV to others. Because ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0115/p349.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2011 - Herpes zoster (shingles) is diagnosed clinically by recognition of the distinctive, painful vesicular rash appearing in a unilateral, dermatomal distribution. An estimated 1 million cases occur in the United States each year, and increasing age is the primary risk factor. Laboratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/p1432.html

Hirsutism in Women - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Hirsutism is the excessive growth of terminal hair in a typical male pattern in a female. It is often a sign of excessive androgen levels. Although many conditions can lead to hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hyperandrogenism account for more than 85% of cases. Less ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p168.html

Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2000 - Mental retardation in young children is often missed by clinicians. The condition is present in 2 to 3 percent of the population, either as an isolated finding or as part of a syndrome or broader disorder. Causes of mental retardation are numerous and include genetic and environmental ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0215/p1059.html

Interventions to Facilitate Smoking Cessation - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2006 - Tobacco use, primarily cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and nearly one third of those who try a cigarette become addicted to nicotine. Family physicians, who see most of these patients in their offices every year, have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0715/p262.html

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Treatment Principles, and Screening - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2015 - Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non–small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p250.html

Management of Falls in Older Persons: A Prescription for Prevention - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2011 - Although falls are a common cause of injury in older persons, they are not just a normal part of the aging process. The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1267.html

Management of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2001 - Bacteria are responsible for approximately 5 to 10 percent of pharyngitis cases, with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci being the most common bacterial etiology. A positive rapid antigen detection test may be considered definitive evidence for treatment; a negative test should be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0415/p1557.html

Management of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2004 - Gait instability, urinary incontinence, and dementia are the signs and symptoms typically found in patients who have normal pressure hydrocephalus. Estimated to cause no more than 5 percent of cases of dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus often is treatable, and accurate recognition ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0915/p1071.html

Management of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2007 - Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common cause of knee pain in the outpatient setting. It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and extension, particularly with overloading of the joint. Risk factors include overuse, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/p194.html

Managing Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2002 - Medical and surgical options for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia have expanded in recent years. Saw palmetto, the most widely used complementary medication, is less effective than standard medical therapy but has fewer side effects. Although non-selective alpha blockers ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0701/p77.html

Managing the Adverse Effects of Radiation Therapy - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2010 - Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p381.html

Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2009 - Nephrotic syndrome may be caused by primary (idiopathic) renal disease or by a variety of secondary causes. Patients present with marked edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and often hyperlipidemia. In adults, diabetes mellitus is the most common secondary cause, and focal segmental ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1115/p1129.html

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2009 - Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an illness that can cause marked distress and disability. It often goes unrecognized and is undertreated. Primary care physicians should be familiar with the various ways obsessive-compulsive disorder can present and should be able to recognize clues to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0801/p239.html

Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2012 - Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative disorder of the articular cartilage associated with hypertrophic bone changes. Risk factors include genetics, female sex, past trauma, advancing age, and obesity. The diagnosis is based on a history of joint pain worsened by movement, which can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0101/p49.html

Osteoporosis: Part I. Evaluation and Assessment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2001 - Osteoporosis afflicts 75 million persons in the United States, Europe and Japan and results in more than 1.3 million fractures annually in the United States. Because osteoporosis is usually asymptomatic until a fracture occurs, family physicians must identify the appropriate timing and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0301/p897.html

Outpatient Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Optimal outpatient treatment of systolic heart failure has three goals that should be pursued simultaneously: (1) control of risk factors for the development and progression of heart failure, (2) treatment of heart failure, and (3) education of patients. Control of risk factors includes...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2157.html

Overview of Histoplasmosis - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2002 - Histoplasmosis is an endemic infection in most of the United States and can be found worldwide. The spectrum of this illness ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe disseminated disease. Life-threatening illness is usually associated with an immunocompromised state; however, 20 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1215/p2247.html

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection and Reflux - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1999 - Urinary tract infections in children are sometimes associated with vesicoureteral reflux, which can lead to renal scarring if it remains unrecognized. Since the risk of renal scarring is greatest in infants, any child who presents with a urinary tract infection prior to toilet training ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0315/p1472.html

Pituitary Adenomas: An Overview - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2013 - Prolactinomas and nonfunctioning adenomas are the most common types of pituitary adenomas. Patients with pituitary adenomas may present initially with symptoms of endocrine dysfunction such as infertility, decreased libido, and galactorrhea, or with neurologic symptoms such as headache ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0901/p319.html

Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Women - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2006 - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the primary cause of death in women for almost a century, and more women than men have died of CVD every year since 1984. Although CVD incidence can be reduced by adherence to a heart-healthy lifestyle and detection and treatment of major risk ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1015/p1331.html

Preventing Falls in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2017 - The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p240.html

Primary Care Issues in Patients with Mental Illness - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2008 - Family physicians commonly care for patients with serious mental illness. Patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders have more comorbid medical conditions and higher mortality rates than patients without serious mental illness. Many medications prescribed for serious mental illness ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/p355.html

Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Summary of the Evidence - American Family...

Aug 1, 2017 - Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p170.html

Pulmonary Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - ...

Sep 15, 2010 - Pulmonary rehabilitation is a nonpharmacologic therapy that has emerged as a standard of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, patient-centered intervention that includes patient assessment, exercise training, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/p655.html

Recognition and Management of Hereditary Hemochromatosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2002 - Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most common inherited single-gene disorder in people of northern European descent. It is characterized by increased intestinal absorption of iron, with deposition of the iron in multiple organs. Previously, the classic description was combined diabetes ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0301/p853.html

Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2011 - A previous venous thromboembolism is the most important risk factor for predicting recurrence of the condition. Several studies have shown that routine testing for inherited thrombophilias is not helpful in predicting the risk of recurrence or altering treatment decisions, and therefore...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0201/p293.html

Reducing Adverse Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2012 - Proton pump inhibitors effectively treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, duodenal ulcers, and pathologic hypersecretory conditions. Proton pump inhibitors cause few adverse effects with short-term use; however, long-term use has been scrutinized for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0701/p66.html

Reducing the Risk of Adverse Drug Events in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2013 - Adverse drug events occur in 15 percent or more of older patients presenting to offices, hospitals, and extended care facilities. These events are potentially preventable up to 50 percent of the time. Common serious manifestations include falls, orthostatic hypotension, heart failure, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p331.html

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2017 - Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of this infection. RSV is transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets either directly from an infected person or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p94.html

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2011 - Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an RNA virus that causes respiratory tract infections in children. In the North- ern Hemisphere, the peak infection season is November through April. By two years of age, most children will have had an RSV infection. Bronchiolitis, a lower ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/p141.html

Role of the Primary Care Physician in Hodgkin Lymphoma - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Approximately 8,200 new cases of Hodgkin lymphoma are diagnosed annually in the United States. Common presenting features include painless lymphadenopathy (usually above the diaphragm), cough, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. To decrease late complications, treatment has gradually ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p615.html

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