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Practice Guidelines

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A Practical Approach to Neonatal Jaundice - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Kernicterus and neurologic sequelae caused by severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are preventable conditions. A structured and practical approach to the identification and care of infants with jaundice can facilitate prevention, thus decreasing rates of morbidity and mortality. Primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1255.html

A Practical Guide to Crisis Management - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2006 - Family physicians often treat patients who are experiencing psychological or medical crises. Any event perceived as overwhelming by the patient may trigger a crisis reaction consisting of psychological and physiological symptoms. Physicians are encouraged to assist patients who are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1159.html

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2006 - Most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are asymptomatic, not detectable on physical examination, and silent until discovered during radiologic testing for other reasons. Tobacco use, hypertension, a family history of AAA, and male sex are clinical risk factors for the development of an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1198.html

ACC/AHA Guideline Update for the Management of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial ...

Jun 15, 2009 - The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association, in collaboration with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, have issued an update of the 2004 guideline for the management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The American Academy of Family ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/p1080.html

Acute Appendicitis: Efficient Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2018 - Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain in adults and children, with a lifetime risk of 8.6% in males and 6.7% in females. It is the most common nonobstetric surgical emergency during pregnancy. Findings from the history, physical examination, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p25.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Current Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Acute coronary syndrome continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Family physicians need to identify and mitigate risk factors early, as well as recognize and respond to acute coronary syndrome events quickly in any clinical setting. Diagnosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p232.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Acute Otitis Externa: An Update - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2012 - Acute otitis externa is a common condition involving inflammation of the ear canal. The acute form is caused primarily by bacterial infection, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus the most common pathogens. Acute otitis externa presents with the rapid onset of ear canal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1055.html

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2012 - Acute respiratory distress syndrome manifests as rapidly progressive dyspnea, tachypnea, and hypoxemia. Diagnostic criteria include acute onset, profound hypoxemia, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and the absence of left atrial hypertension. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p352.html

Addiction: Part II. Identification and Management of the Drug-Seeking Patient - ...

Apr 15, 2000 - The medications most often implicated in prescription drug abuse are opioid analgesics, sedative-hypnotics and stimulants. Patients with acute or chronic pain, anxiety disorders and attention-deficit disorder are at increased risk of addiction comorbidity. It is important to ask ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0415/p2401.html

Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2008 - Substance abuse in adolescents is undertreated in the United States. Family physicians are well positioned to recognize substance use in their patients and to take steps to address the issue before use escalates. Comorbid mental disorders among adolescents with substance abuse include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0201/p331.html

Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2004 - The spectrum of alcohol withdrawal symptoms ranges from such minor symptoms as insomnia and tremulousness to severe complications such as withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Although the history and physical examination usually are sufficient to diagnose alcohol withdrawal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1443.html

Amenorrhea: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Menstrual patterns can be an indicator of overall health and self-perception of well-being. Primary amenorrhea, defined as the lifelong absence of menses, requires evaluation if menarche has not occurred by 15 years of age or three years post-thelarche. Secondary amenorrhea is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p39.html

Amiodarone: Guidelines for Use and Monitoring - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2003 - Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic agent that is used to treat ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation. The drug prevents the recurrence of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and produces a modest reduction of sudden deaths in high-risk patients. Amiodarone is more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1201/p2189.html

Anaphylaxis: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2011 - Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, systemic allergic reaction that is almost always unanticipated and may lead to death by airway obstruction or vascular collapse. Anaphylaxis occurs as the result of an allergen response, usually immunoglobulin E–mediated, which leads to mast ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1111.html

Anemia in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2001 - Anemia in children is commonly encountered by the family physician. Multiple causes exist, but with a thorough history, a physical examination and limited laboratory evaluation a specific diagnosis can usually be established. The use of the mean corpuscular volume to classify the anemia...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1015/p1379.html

Anticoagulation: Updated Guidelines for Outpatient Management - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2019 - Anticoagulation therapy is recommended for preventing, treating, and reducing the recurrence of venous thromboembolism, and preventing stroke in persons with atrial fibrillation. Direct oral anticoagulants are first-line agents for eligible patients for treating venous thromboembolism ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p426.html

Antimicrobial Resistence: A Plan of Action for Community Practice - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2001 - Antibiotic resistance was once confined primarily to hospitals but is becoming increasingly prevalent in family practice settings, making daily therapeutic decisions more challenging. Recent reports of pediatric deaths and illnesses in communities in the United States have raised ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0315/p1087.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Aortic stenosis affects 3% of persons older than 65 years. Although survival in asymptomatic patients is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, it decreases rapidly after symptoms appear. During the asymptomatic latent period, left ventricular hypertrophy and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p371.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2008 - Aortic stenosis is the most important cardiac valve disease in developed countries, affecting 3 percent of persons older than 65 years. Although the survival rate in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, the average ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/p717.html

Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention - American ...

Sep 1, 2017 - The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p314.html

Assessment and Management of Acute Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 1999 - Acute low back pain is commonly treated by family physicians. In most cases, only conservative therapy is needed. However, the history and physical examination may elicit warning signals that indicate the need for further work-up and treatment. These

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1115/p2299.html

Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. It impairs cardiac function and increases the risk of stroke. The incidence of atrial fibrillation increases with age. Key treatment issues include deciding when to restore normal sinus rhythm, when to control rate only, and how...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p61.html

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Management - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2001 - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is a neurophysiologic disorder defined in behavioral terms and associated with significant morbidity in the realms of social and academic success,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1015/p1355.html

Atypical Pathogens and Challenges in Community-Acquired Pneumonia - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2004 - Atypical organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila are implicated in up to 40 percent of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic treatment is empiric and includes coverage for both typical and atypical organisms. Doxycycline, a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0401/p1699.html

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2014 - Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited cause of kidney disease. Enlarging cysts within the kidneys are the clinical hallmark of the disease. Renal manifestations include varying degrees of kidney injury, urinary tract infections, kidney stones,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p303.html

Cardiac Rehabilitation - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2009 - An estimated 80 million (nearly one in three) Americans have cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the United States alone, more than 850,000 deaths are attributed annually to cardiovascular disease, and more than 8 million Americans...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1101/p955.html

Cardiac Rehabilitation: Improving Function and Reducing Risk - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive multidisciplinary program individually tailored to the needs of patients with cardiovascular disease. The overall goals focus on improving daily function and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiac rehabilitation includes interventions ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p37.html

Cardiomyopathy: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2017 - The definition and classification of cardiomyopathy have evolved considerably in recent years. Cardiomyopathy can be separated into primary (genetic, mixed, or acquired) and secondary categories, which result in varied phenotypes including dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p640.html

Cardiomyopathy: An Overview - American Family Physician

May 1, 2009 - Cardiomyopathy is an anatomic and pathologic diagnosis associated with muscle or electrical dysfunction of the heart. Cardiomyopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that often lead to progressive heart failure with significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiomyopathies may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0501/p778.html

Care of the Homeless: An Overview - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2014 - Homelessness affects men, women, and children of all races and ethnicities. On any given night, more than 610,000 persons in the United States are homeless; a little more than one-third of these are families. Homeless persons are more likely to become ill, have greater hospitalization ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0415/p634.html

Care of the Military Veteran: Selected Health Issues - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 18.2 million veterans were living in the United States in 2017, of whom 1.6 million were female. Less than one-half of all veterans receive care at a Veterans Health Administration or military treatment facility, leaving most to receive services from...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p544.html

Care of the Returning Veteran - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2010 - Of the 23.8 million military veterans living in the United States, approximately 3 million have served in Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom. The injuries and illnesses that affect veterans returning from combat are predictable. Blast injuries are common and most ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p43.html

Caregiver Care - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - Eighty percent of adults requiring long-term care currently live at home in the community, and unpaid family caregivers provide 90% of their care. Family caregivers serve as a critical extension of the U.S. health care system, and the demand for family caregivers is expected to increase...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p699.html

Caregiver Care - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2011 - In 2009, nearly 66 million Americans (three in 10 U.S. households) reported at least one person providing unpaid care as a family caregiver. More adults with chronic conditions and disabilities are living at home than ever before, and family caregivers have an even higher level of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0601/p1309.html

Caring for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Persons: What Clinicians Should Know - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Persons whose experienced or expressed gender differs from their sex assigned at birth may identify as transgender. Transgender and gender-diverse persons may have gender dysphoria (i.e., distress related to this incongruence) and often face substantial health care disparities and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p645.html

Cerumen Impaction: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - Cerumen production is a normal and protective process for the ear canal. However, cerumen should be removed when it causes symptoms (e.g., hearing loss, itching, pain, tinnitus) or prevents assessment of the external auditory canal, the tympanic membrane, or audiovestibular system. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/p525.html

Cesarean Delivery: Counseling Issues and Complication Management - American Family ...

Feb 1, 2015 - Nearly one-third of all deliveries in the United States are cesarean deliveries. Compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Interventions that decrease the chance of a cesarean delivery ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p178.html

Childhood Eye Examination - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2013 - Vision screening in children is an ongoing process, with components that should occur at each well-child visit. The purpose is to detect risk factors and visual abnormalities that necessitate treatment and to identify those patients who require referral to an ophthalmologist skilled in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0815/p241.html

Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management - American ...

Dec 15, 2012 - Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the columnar epithelium of the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as nongenital sites such as the lungs and eyes. The bacterium is the cause of the most frequently reported sexually transmitted disease in the United ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1215/p1127.html

Chronic Cough: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2017 - Although chronic cough in adults (cough lasting longer than eight weeks) can be caused by many etiologies, four conditions account for most cases: upper airway cough syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease/laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p575.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2011 - Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1138.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Prevention and Treatment of Common Complications - American ...

Nov 15, 2004 - Chronic kidney disease is a progressive condition that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Because of the important role the kidneys play in maintaining homeostasis, chronic kidney disease can affect almost every body system. Early recognition and intervention are essential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1115/p1921.html

Chronic Low Back Pain: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2009 - Chronic low back pain is a common problem in primary care. A history and physical examination should place patients into one of several categories: (1) nonspecific low back pain; (2) back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis; (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/p1067.html

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2017 - The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be suspected in patients with risk factors (primarily a history of smoking) who report dyspnea at rest or with exertion, chronic cough with or without sputum production, or a history of wheezing. COPD may be suspected ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p433.html

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Part 1. Definition, ...

Sep 1, 2004 - In February 2002, the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation published clinical practice guidelines on chronic kidney disease. The first six of the 15 guidelines are of the greatest relevance to family physicians. Part I of this two-part article ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0901/p869.html

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Part II. Glomerular ...

Sep 15, 2004 - The Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation published clinical practice guidelines on chronic kidney disease in February 2002. Of the 15 guidelines, the first six are of greatest relevance to family physicians. Part II of this two-part review covers ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0915/p1091.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Prevention - American Family Physician

May 15, 2018 - Colorectal cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Most colorectal cancers arise from preexisting adenomatous or serrated polyps. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer can be reduced with screening of average-risk adults 50 to 75 years of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/p658.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillance in Individuals at Increased Risk - ...

Jan 15, 2018 - Individuals at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer include those with a personal or family history of advanced adenomas or colorectal cancer, a personal history of inflammatory bowel disease, or genetic polyposis syndromes. In general, these persons should undergo more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/p111.html

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