American Family Physician

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Cochrane for Clinicians

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Cochrane for Clinicians: The Epley Maneuver for Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal ...

Aug 1, 2015 - Treatment with the Epley maneuver resolves benign paroxysmal positional vertigo better than sham therapy or control. Minor adverse effects are uncommon.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p184.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Alpha Blockers to Speed Ureteral Stone Passage - American ...

Feb 1, 2015 - Compared with patients receiving standard therapy (e.g., fluids, analgesics), placebo, or calcium channel blockers, patients receiving alpha blockers had about three fewer days to ureteral stone expulsion and were less likely to be hospitalized. Adverse effects of alpha blocker therapy ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p164.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Optimal Duration of Treatment Regimens for H. pylori ...

Dec 1, 2014 - When using proton pump inhibitor (PPI) triple therapy, increasing the duration of treatment from seven to 10 days or from 10 to 14 days significantly increases the eradication of H. pylori. When using other treatment regimens, it is unclear whether increasing duration of treatment ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/p766.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Zinc Supplementation in Children Six Months to 12 Years of Age...

Jan 1, 2015 - Preventive zinc supplementation for children in low- and middle-income countries appears to reduce rates of diarrhea and may slightly reduce rates of growth failure.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p27.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Oral Contraceptives Are Not an Effective Treatment for Ovarian...

Nov 1, 2014 - Oral contraceptives are not an effective treatment for ovarian cysts, whether the cysts are spontaneous or associated with medically induced ovulation. Most cysts resolve without intervention within two to three months. Those that do not resolve in this time frame are more likely to be ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1101/p623.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Effectiveness of Calcium Channel Blockers for Raynaud ...

Aug 1, 2014 - CCBs are modestly effective at reducing the frequency of attacks of primary Raynaud phenomenon. There is no evidence that attack severity or physiologic measurements are reduced by CCBs. Treatment is associated with adverse effects such as headache, flushing, and edema.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p143.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: First-Line Treatment for Hypertension - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2010 - In comparing the effects of thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) with placebo, thiazide diuretics lowered mortality and morbidity from stroke, heart attack, and heart failure more than beta blockers.1 ACE ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1333.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Early Developmental Intervention Programs for Preterm Infants ...

Mar 1, 2014 - Early intervention programs improve cognitive performance in preterm infants up to 36 months of age, but no effect can be detected by five years of age. A small effect of early intervention on motor performance was found in infancy, but it did not persist until preschool or school age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p336.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Impact of Industry Sponsorship on Research Outcomes - American...

Dec 1, 2013 - Are research studies sponsored by industry more likely to have favorable results and conclusions than studies without industry sponsorship?

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p746.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Text Message Appointment Reminders - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2013 - Text message reminders increase attendance at health care appointments compared with no reminders or postal reminders. They are as effective as telephone call reminders but are less expensive.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p20.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Caffeine as an Analgesic Adjuvant for Acute Pain in Adults - ...

Jan 1, 2013 - Overall, there appears to be a small but clinically significant benefit to adding caffeine to analgesic therapy for various types of acute pain. More research is needed to determine the optimal dosing.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p11.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Is Oral Vitamin B12 as Effective as Intramuscular Injection? -...

Jan 1, 2006 - In patients with vitaminB12 deficiency, two oral regimens have been shown to achieve neurologic and hematologic response in the short term. Effective dosages were (1) 2,000 mcg daily or (2) 1,000 mcg daily for 10 days, then weekly and monthly.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p65.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Financial Incentives for Improving the Quality of Primary Care...

Apr 1, 2012 - Financial incentives are associated with minimal, if any, improvements in quality of care provided by primary care physicians. It is uncertain whether financial incentives are cost-effective relative to other types of quality-improvement interventions.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p690.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Steroids for the Treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion in ...

Feb 1, 2012 - Oral steroid use, alone or in combination with antibiotics, speeds the resolution of otitis media with effusion. However, there is no evidence that oral steroids improve symptoms or affect long-term outcomes, such as hearing loss. Topical nasal steroids have no effect on otitis media ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p235.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Exercise for Treatment of the Vasomotor Symptoms of Menopause ...

Feb 1, 2012 - Although menopausal women who exercise are less likely to report vasomotor symptoms than those who do not, there is insufficient evidence that counseling women to exercise is more effective than no treatment or hormone therapy for vasomotor symptoms of menopause.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p237.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Opioid Antagonists for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence - ...

Nov 1, 2011 - Although it does not improve overall alcohol abstinence rates, the oral formulation of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Revia) is moderately effective in decreasing the amount and frequency of alcohol consumption in patients with alcohol dependence.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1101/p990.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Management Options for Early Incomplete Miscarriage - American...

Feb 1, 2011 - For the management of incomplete miscarriage, limited-quality evidence shows that medical treatment with misoprostol (Cytotec), expectant care, and surgical evacuation have a completion of miscarriage success rate between 80 to 99 percent in pregnancies at less than 13 weeks' ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0201/p258.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Instruments for Assisted Vaginal Delivery - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2011 - Use of forceps is more likely to result in a vaginal delivery than use of vacuum devices (relative risk [RR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.2), but has a higher rate of perineal trauma, tears, pain, and incontinence, and a trend toward more cesarean deliveries. Use of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p26.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Effectiveness of Acamprosate in the Treatment of Alcohol ...

Mar 1, 2011 - When used in conjunction with detoxification and psychosocial interventions for treating alcohol dependence, acamprosate can reduce the risk of any return to drinking and improve cumulative abstinence rates.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0301/p522.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Screening for Prostate Cancer: Prostate-Specific Antigen ...

Apr 1, 2011 - Several large randomized controlled trials show that PSA screening does not significantly reduce prostate cancer mortality, even in a U.S. study that included black men and men with a family history of prostate cancer. However, PSA screening does lead to overdiagnosis, overtreatment, ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0401/p802.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Chest Physiotherapy for Pneumonia in Adults - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2010 - There is little evidence to support the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy for adults with pneumonia. In two small studies by the same investigator, only osteopathic manipulation was shown to improve some outcomes (i.e., length of stay and duration of antibiotic therapy).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1201/p1340.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Stage-Based Interventions for Smoking Cessation - American ...

Mar 1, 2011 - Although providing stage-based smoking cessation interventions for those trying to quit appears to be more effective than not intervening at all, the evidence does not support tailoring interventions to a patient's perceived motivational stage of change.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0301/p524.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Copper Intrauterine Device vs. Depot Medroxyprogesterone ...

Jan 1, 2011 - The copper IUD is more effective in preventing pregnancy compared with Depo-Provera.1 Each contraceptive method has different adverse effects; the evidence is too limited to make comparisons of discontinuation rates.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p35.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Preoperative Testing for Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery ...

Dec 1, 2009 - Routine preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not reduce intraoperative or postoperative complications.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1201/p1228.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Does Metformin Increase the Risk of Fatal or Nonfatal Lactic ...

Nov 1, 2010 - In patients without standard contraindications to metformin therapy, metformin does not increase the risk of lactic acidosis.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1101/p1068.html

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