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Cochrane for Clinicians

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Cochrane for Clinicians: Mini-Mental State Examination for the Detection of Dementia in...

Dec 1, 2016 - When scores are adjusted based on a patient's education level, the MMSE may be useful to rule out a diagnosis of dementia in clinically unevaluated patients 65 years and older (sensitivity = 97%; specificity = 70%). Scores of less than 24 may also be useful to rule in dementia in ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p880.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Impact of Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation - American ...

Dec 1, 2016 - Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation reduces cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization. There is no evidence that it reduces the rates of total mortality, myocardial infarctions, coronary artery bypass grafts, or percutaneous coronary interventions.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p881.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: The Risk of MI and Ischemic Stroke with Combined Oral ...

Nov 1, 2016 - The overall risk of MI and ischemic stroke is increased in women who use combined oral contraceptives. The relative risk of MI and ischemic stroke increases as estrogen dose rises, increasing by 60% with doses of 20 mcg and more than doubling when doses of 50 mcg or more are used.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p691.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Amiodarone for the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death - ...

Nov 1, 2016 - Although not a substitute for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), amiodarone is effective for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death when compared with placebo (number needed to treat [NNT] = 47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 100), but it does not ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p692.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Fibromyalgia - ...

Oct 1, 2016 - SSRIs may have a small to moderate effect on pain (number needed to treat [NNT] = 10), global improvement (NNT = 7), and depression (NNT = 13) in patients with fibromyalgia, but the quality of evidence is very low because of bias and small studies. SSRIs do not reduce fatigue related to...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p548.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Topical Tacrolimus for Eczema - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2016 - For children and adults with moderate to severe eczema, topical tacrolimus is an effective, albeit costly, alternative to topical corticosteroids. Both tacrolimus strengths (0.03% and 0.1%) are superior to low-potency topical corticosteroids, whereas tacrolimus 0.1% has similar ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p549.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Honey for Acute Cough in Children - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - For patients one to 18 years of age, providing honey for cough symptoms can reduce the frequency and severity of cough, as well as improve sleep for patients and parents, when compared with placebo or no treatment. Honey is no better than dextromethorphan for symptom control.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p20.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Second-Generation H1-Antihistamines for Chronic Spontaneous ...

Sep 1, 2016 - There is good evidence that second-generation H1-antihistamines are helpful in the short- and intermediate-term suppression of urticaria. Cetirizine (Zyrtec) in a dosage of 10 mg daily is effective at completely suppressing symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria (number needed to ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0901/p352.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Acetaminophen for the Treatment of Pain in Newborns - American...

Aug 1, 2016 - Acetaminophen does not significantly reduce pain associated with heel lance, eye examinations, or assisted vaginal births in newborns. Acetaminophen may reduce the total amount of morphine a newborn needs in the first 48 hours following major abdominal or thoracic surgery.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p216.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroid Therapy for Mild ...

Jul 1, 2016 - Intermittent inhaled corticosteroid therapy reduces the risk of asthma exacerbations in children and adults with mild persistent asthma. Intermittent use appears to be safe in these patients.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p21.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Antiviral Therapy for Bell Palsy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - The combination of antiviral agents and corticosteroids is more effective than corticosteroids alone for the complete recovery of patients with Bell palsy (number needed to treat [NNT] = 15) and for the resolution of motor synkinesis and excessive tear production (NNT = 12). Antivirals ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p742.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Capsaicin for Nonallergic Rhinitis - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2016 - Intranasal capsaicin is safe and effective for reducing symptoms of nonallergic rhinitis (number needed to treat = 4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 to 22). There is insufficient evidence to compare the effectiveness of capsaicin to other topical or systemic medications.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p217.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: When to Discontinue Antiepileptic Drug Therapy for Patients in...

Jun 1, 2016 - Children with epilepsy should be seizure-free for at least two years before stopping antiepileptic drug therapy, especially those who have partial seizures or a history of abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) results.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p914.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Primary Hypertension - American ...

Apr 15, 2015 - ACE inhibitors and ARBs have similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in head-to-head trials. However, slightly more adverse effects were noted in patients assigned to ACE inhibitor therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p522.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Pilates for the Treatment of Low Back Pain - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2016 - There is low- to moderate-quality evidence that Pilates exercises taught by certified instructors improve pain and reduce disability in patients with chronic low back pain. It is unclear whether a Pilates regimen is superior to other exercise plans for the treatment of low back pain. ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p556.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Topical Antihistamines and Mast Cell Stabilizers for Treating ...

Jun 1, 2016 - Topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers, either alone or in combination, are safe and effective for reducing the symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p915.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Fluoride Varnish for Preventing Dental Caries in Children and ...

May 1, 2016 - Topically applied fluoride varnishes are safe and effective in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. There is little information about adverse effects or treatment acceptability. Family physicians should consider incorporating fluoride varnish into childhood preventive ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p743.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Impact of Antenatal Dietary Education and Supplementation on ...

Apr 1, 2016 - Antenatal dietary education appears to decrease the rate of preterm birth and increase infant birth weight among undernourished women. Providing balanced energy and protein supplements to pregnant women decreases the risk of stillbirth, low birth weight, and having an infant that is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p557.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Chewing Gum for Postoperative Recovery of Gastrointestinal ...

Dec 1, 2015 - Having patients chew gum reduces the time to first flatus and time to first bowel movement, as well as the length of hospitalization by about half a day.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p974.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: The Impact of Contraception on Lactation - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Use of hormonal contraception does not appear to shorten breastfeeding duration or negatively impact infant growth, based on inconsistent evidence of moderate quality. It is unclear if hormonal contraception negatively impacts breast milk volume or composition. Overall, there was ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p356.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Quinine for Leg Cramps - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2016 - Quinine is moderately effective in decreasing the frequency and intensity of muscle cramps, but it is also associated with an increase in minor adverse effects. In addition, there is a risk of rare but serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p177.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Exercise for Osteoarthritis of the Knee - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Land-based exercise programs reduce knee pain and improve quality of life and physical function following treatment in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p774.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Influenza Vaccination for the Prevention of Cardiovascular ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Influenza vaccination may reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with established cardiovascular disease. The effect of vaccination is unclear among patients in the general population without known cardiovascular disease.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p357.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Therapist-Supported Online Cognitive Behavior Therapy for ...

Jan 1, 2016 - Therapist-supported online CBT is more effective than no treatment and as effective as face-to-face CBT for reducing overall anxiety as well as symptoms, and improving quality of life in adults with anxiety disorders.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0101/p19.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation - American Family ...

Feb 1, 2016 - Electronic cigarettes with nicotine increase smoking cessation rates compared with placebo, with effectiveness similar to that of nicotine patches. In addition, more patients using electronic cigarettes with nicotine were able to halve their use of cigarettes than those using placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p178.html

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