American Family Physician

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Cochrane for Clinicians

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Cochrane for Clinicians: The Epley Maneuver for Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal ...

Aug 1, 2015 - Treatment with the Epley maneuver resolves benign paroxysmal positional vertigo better than sham therapy or control. Minor adverse effects are uncommon.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p184.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: The Role of Levetiracetam in Treating Chronic Neuropathic Pain...

Jul 1, 2015 - Based on low-quality evidence, levetiracetam was found to be ineffective for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain symptoms. Moreover, patients who were taking levetiracetam experienced adverse effects at a significantly higher rate than those who were taking placebo.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p23.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Primary Hypertension - American ...

Apr 15, 2015 - ACE inhibitors and ARBs have similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in head-to-head trials. However, slightly more adverse effects were noted in patients assigned to ACE inhibitor therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p522.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Colchicine for Acute Gout - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Low-quality evidence shows that low-dose colchicine (up to 1.8 mg over one hour) is an effective therapy for acute gout.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p759.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Antibiotics for Sore Throat - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Compared with placebo, antibiotics can shorten the duration of sore throat symptoms by about 16 hours and can reduce complications. In countries where the absolute rates of complications are higher, antibiotic therapy is more likely to be effective. The effectiveness of antibiotic ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p23.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Aclidinium for Stable COPD - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Aclidinium did not decrease all-cause mortality or exacerbations requiring oral steroids, antibiotics, or both. However, aclidinium decreased the number of patients with exacerbations requiring hospitalization and improved quality of life in those with stable COPD.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p760.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Risk of Venous Thromboembolism with Use of Combined Oral ...

Mar 1, 2015 - All combined oral contraceptives increase VTE risk. The risk is greater for those containing desogestrel, drospirenone, gestodene (not available in the United States), and cyproterone acetate (not available in the United States) when compared with levonorgestrel. All combined oral ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p287.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for the Treatment of ADHD in...

Apr 1, 2015 - In adults with ADHD, immediate-release methylphenidate improves symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness compared with placebo. Short-term adverse effects such as weight loss and decreased appetite do not appear to be serious. However, larger studies of longer ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p445.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Magnesium Sulfate for Prevention of Preterm Birth - American ...

Apr 1, 2015 - Magnesium sulfate does not delay delivery when used in patients with preterm labor. Although magnesium sulfate is not associated with any serious adverse maternal outcomes, it may be associated with an increase in total fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p444.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Controlled-Release Oxycodone for Neuropathic Pain and ...

Mar 1, 2015 - Oxycodone CR has limited effectiveness for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia. Evidence is lacking regarding treatment benefit for other neuropathic pain syndromes or fibromyalgia. Adverse effects of oxycodone CR therapy are common.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p286.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals - ...

Apr 15, 2015 - Low-quality evidence suggests that training health care professionals in patient-centered communication improves the engagement of patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in their health care. Interventions that were primarily educational appeared to be ineffective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p523.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Alpha Blockers to Speed Ureteral Stone Passage - American ...

Feb 1, 2015 - Compared with patients receiving standard therapy (e.g., fluids, analgesics), placebo, or calcium channel blockers, patients receiving alpha blockers had about three fewer days to ureteral stone expulsion and were less likely to be hospitalized. Adverse effects of alpha blocker therapy ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p164.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Methotrexate Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis - American ...

Jan 1, 2015 - Methotrexate monotherapy demonstrated statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement of symptoms and physical function compared with placebo at 12 to 52 weeks. Multiple adverse effects were reported with methotrexate use, and patients were twice as likely to discontinue ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p26.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Safety of Long-Acting Beta Agonists in Adults with Asthma - ...

Oct 1, 2014 - LABAs appear to be safe when used with inhaled corticosteroids. LABA monotherapy is associated with an increase in asthma-related mortality and nonfatal serious adverse events, but not in all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p453.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Optimal Duration of Treatment Regimens for H. pylori ...

Dec 1, 2014 - When using proton pump inhibitor (PPI) triple therapy, increasing the duration of treatment from seven to 10 days or from 10 to 14 days significantly increases the eradication of H. pylori. When using other treatment regimens, it is unclear whether increasing duration of treatment ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/p766.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Buprenorphine Maintenance vs. Methadone Maintenance or Placebo...

Feb 1, 2015 - At dosages greater than 2 mg per day, buprenorphine maintains treatment retention better than placebo. When flexible dosing (doses adjusted based on patient symptoms) is used, the effectiveness of buprenorphine is comparable to that of methadone in suppressing opioid use.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p165.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Bronchodilators for Bronchiolitis - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2014 - Albuterol does not improve any clinical outcomes in the outpatient or inpatient setting and should not be used in the treatment of bronchiolitis in a child 24 months or younger.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1101/p622.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Zinc Supplementation in Children Six Months to 12 Years of Age...

Jan 1, 2015 - Preventive zinc supplementation for children in low- and middle-income countries appears to reduce rates of diarrhea and may slightly reduce rates of growth failure.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p27.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Oral Contraceptives Are Not an Effective Treatment for Ovarian...

Nov 1, 2014 - Oral contraceptives are not an effective treatment for ovarian cysts, whether the cysts are spontaneous or associated with medically induced ovulation. Most cysts resolve without intervention within two to three months. Those that do not resolve in this time frame are more likely to be ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1101/p623.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Intranasal Corticosteroids for Acute Bacterial Sinusitis - ...

Sep 1, 2014 - Compared with patients not treated with intranasal corticosteroids, those who receive them have greater improvement or resolution of symptoms at two to three weeks, regardless of whether antibiotics are used. In a single head-to-head study, patients taking intranasal corticosteroids ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p286.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Exercise Programs for Older Patients with Dementia - American ...

Sep 1, 2014 - There is some evidence that exercise improves cognitive function and the ability to perform activities of daily living in patients with dementia.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p287.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Effectiveness of Calcium Channel Blockers for Raynaud ...

Aug 1, 2014 - CCBs are modestly effective at reducing the frequency of attacks of primary Raynaud phenomenon. There is no evidence that attack severity or physiologic measurements are reduced by CCBs. Treatment is associated with adverse effects such as headache, flushing, and edema.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p143.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: First-Line Treatment for Hypertension - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2010 - In comparing the effects of thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) with placebo, thiazide diuretics lowered mortality and morbidity from stroke, heart attack, and heart failure more than beta blockers.1 ACE ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1333.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Psychological Therapies for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress ...

Oct 1, 2014 - Trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) are more effective than other therapies in reducing PTSD symptom severity up to four months after treatment, but more robust studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p454.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Topiramate for the Prophylaxis of Episodic Migraine in Adults ...

Jul 1, 2014 - Topiramate in a dosage of 100 mg per day is effective for decreasing the frequency of headaches in adults with episodic migraine.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p24.html

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