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Cochrane for Clinicians

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Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Detection of Alzheimer Disease in Patients with Mild...

Jun 1, 2018 - There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the detection of progressive dementias in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These tests carry the risk of overdiagnosis of dementia and, therefore, overtreatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p714.html

Atypical Antipsychotics for Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents -...

Jun 1, 2018 - Risperidone reduces measures of aggression and improves conduct in children with disruptive behavior disorders; however, only short-term use is recommended. Weight gain of 2 to 2.5 kg (4.4 to 5.5 lb) is common. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the benefits of other ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p715.html

Effectiveness and Safety of Celecoxib for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis - ...

May 1, 2018 - Compared with placebo, celecoxib improves pain (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4) and clinical symptoms (NNT = 7), but it has no effect on physical function in patients with RA.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p573.html

Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy for Epilepsy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

May 1, 2018 - In patients with partial-onset (focal) seizures, levetiracetam (Keppra), lamotrigine (Lamictal), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) were associated with the longest time to treatment withdrawal (i.e., the recommended patient-oriented outcome measure that balances tolerability with ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p572.html

Use of Niacin for Primary or Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular or Cerebrovascular ...

Apr 1, 2018 - Prescription niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) does not reduce myocardial infarctions, strokes, or overall mortality when used for primary or secondary prevention.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p436.html

DPP-4 Inhibitors and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes...

Apr 1, 2018 - There is only limited-quality evidence that at-risk patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists are less likely to progress to diabetes (number needed to treat [NNT] = 23). Serious adverse events were more likely in patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists than in patients taking placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p437.html

Effect of Pacifier Use on Duration of Breastfeeding - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2018 - In healthy, full-term, breastfeeding infants, there is moderate evidence that unrestricted pacifier use, started at birth or after lactation has been established, does not decrease the likelihood of continued exclusive or partial breastfeeding through four months of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p311.html

Written Action Plans for Self-Management of COPD Exacerbations - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2018 - Written self-management plans, especially those that include guidance on smoking cessation, increase health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. They also decrease the need for respiratory-related hospital admissions among patients with high or low baseline risk.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p310.html

Injected Corticosteroids for Plantar Heel Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Feb 1, 2018 - There is low-quality evidence that corticosteroid injections slightly reduce heel pain at one month, but they make no significant difference beyond that time. Patients treated with corticosteroid injections were less likely to experience treatment failureā€”a designation that was defined ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p169.html

Oral Rehydration Solutions for the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhea - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2017 - Oral rehydration solutions are distinguished by high or low osmolarity and by whether they are made with complex (i.e., polymer) or simple (i.e., glucose) carbohydrates. When oral rehydration solutions with high osmolarity (310 mOsm per L or greater) are compared, polymer-based ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p700.html

Effectiveness of Moisturizers in the Treatment of Patients with Eczema - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Moisturizers decrease the rate of eczema flare-ups by 3.7 times vs. no treatment (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4), as well as the amount of topical corticosteroids used per eczema flare-up (9.3 g less). Adverse effects are minimal.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p18.html

Effectiveness of Skin-to-Skin Care for Procedure-Related Pain in Newborns - Cochrane ...

Feb 1, 2018 - Skin-to-skin care, also known as kangaroo care, effectively reduces physiologic and behavioral measures of pain in neonates during painful procedures and has no identified adverse effects. Infants who received skin-to-skin care during painful procedures had a heart rate of 10.8 beats ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p170.html

Dietary Interventions for Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Childhood - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Probiotics relieve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain in the short term (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8). There is no convincing evidence that fiber supplements improve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p19.html

Topical NSAIDs for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Topical diclofenac and ketoprofen are slightly more effective than placebo for relieving chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis in adults. Evidence is lacking to determine the effectiveness of topical NSAIDs compared with oral NSAIDs.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p573.html

Vitamin D for the Management of Asthma - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - Despite the authors' caution that further data are needed to clarify the role of vitamin D in care, this Cochrane review found that its use reduces the average number of asthma exacerbations requiring corticosteroid treatment from 0.44 to 0.28 per person per year.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p290.html

Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Patients Being Treated for or Recovering from ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Pharmacotherapy alone and pharmacotherapy plus counseling are effective for tobacco cessation among patients being treated for or recovering from alcohol and substance use disorders. Counseling interventions without pharmacotherapy are not effective for tobacco cessation among patients ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p572.html

Pregabalin for Fibromyalgia Pain in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - There is high-quality evidence that pregabalin in daily dosages of 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg reduces pain associated with fibromyalgia. The most effective dosage seems to be 450 mg daily; this dosage is more effective than placebo at reducing pain by at least 50% (number needed to ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p291.html

Yoga for Cancer-Related Symptoms in Women with Breast Cancer - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Oct 1, 2017 - Yoga improves health-related quality of life, reduces sleep disturbances, and decreases fatigue in the short term (up to 12 weeks) among women diagnosed with breast cancer who have completed cancer-related treatment or are receiving cancer treatment compared with no intervention.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p434.html

Laxatives for the Management of Childhood Constipation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2017 - Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is superior to placebo (mean difference [MD] = 2.61 more stools per week; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 4.08), lactulose (MD = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.31), and milk of magnesia (MD = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.89) at increasing the number of bowel ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p433.html

Antiplatelet vs. Anticoagulation Therapy for Patients with Heart Failure in Sinus ...

Aug 1, 2017 - Heart failure increases the risk of thrombotic complications, but use of warfarin does not lower all-cause mortality more than aspirin in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in sinus rhythm.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p160.html

Acupuncture for Migraine Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - There is moderate-quality evidence that whole-body acupuncture is effective for migraine prevention. Compared with usual care, acupuncture is more effective at reducing headache frequency by at least 50% (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p23.html

Surgery vs. Medical Therapy for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jul 1, 2017 - In women of reproductive age with chronic heavy menstrual bleeding, hysterectomy is the most effective treatment for controlling symptoms. Conservative surgery is more effective for controlling bleeding symptoms at one and two years than oral medications or the levonorgestrel-releasing ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p24.html

Self-Monitoring and Self-Management of Oral Anticoagulation - Cochrane for Clinicians -...

Jun 1, 2017 - In patients taking warfarin (Coumadin) for anticoagulation, there is moderate-quality evidence that both self-monitoring (number needed to treat [NNT] = 100) and self-management (NNT = 53) reduce thromboembolic events, and that self-management reduces all-cause mortality (NNT = 67).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p700.html

Beta2 Agonists for Acute Cough or a Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Bronchitis - Cochrane ...

May 1, 2017 - There is insufficient evidence to determine whether beta2 agonists can improve symptoms for children with acute cough or bronchitis with wheeze. Beta2 agonists are not likely to benefit and may cause adverse effects in adults who do not have evidence of airflow restriction (number ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p551.html

Effects of Yoga in Patients with Asthma - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2017 - Regular yoga improves quality of life as measured on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (mean difference = 0.57 units on a seven-point scale; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.77); improves asthma symptoms (standardized mean difference = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.65); and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p159.html

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