American Family Physician

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Cochrane for Clinicians

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Department Collections -- American Family Physician

Search Department collections from past and current issues of AFP, the peer-reviewed clinical journal of the American Academy of Family Physicians.

American Family Physician : AFP Home

http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp/explore/departments.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Topical Antihistamines and Mast Cell Stabilizers for Treating ...

Jun 1, 2016 - Topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers, either alone or in combination, are safe and effective for reducing the symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p915.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: When to Discontinue Antiepileptic Drug Therapy for Patients in...

Jun 1, 2016 - Children with epilepsy should be seizure-free for at least two years before stopping antiepileptic drug therapy, especially those who have partial seizures or a history of abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) results.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p914.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Antiviral Therapy for Bell Palsy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - The combination of antiviral agents and corticosteroids is more effective than corticosteroids alone for the complete recovery of patients with Bell palsy (number needed to treat [NNT] = 15) and for the resolution of motor synkinesis and excessive tear production (NNT = 12). Antivirals ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p742.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Pilates for the Treatment of Low Back Pain - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2016 - There is low- to moderate-quality evidence that Pilates exercises taught by certified instructors improve pain and reduce disability in patients with chronic low back pain. It is unclear whether a Pilates regimen is superior to other exercise plans for the treatment of low back pain. ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p556.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Fluoride Varnish for Preventing Dental Caries in Children and ...

May 1, 2016 - Topically applied fluoride varnishes are safe and effective in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. There is little information about adverse effects or treatment acceptability. Family physicians should consider incorporating fluoride varnish into childhood preventive ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p743.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Impact of Antenatal Dietary Education and Supplementation on ...

Apr 1, 2016 - Antenatal dietary education appears to decrease the rate of preterm birth and increase infant birth weight among undernourished women. Providing balanced energy and protein supplements to pregnant women decreases the risk of stillbirth, low birth weight, and having an infant that is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p557.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: The Impact of Contraception on Lactation - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Use of hormonal contraception does not appear to shorten breastfeeding duration or negatively impact infant growth, based on inconsistent evidence of moderate quality. It is unclear if hormonal contraception negatively impacts breast milk volume or composition. Overall, there was ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p356.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Influenza Vaccination for the Prevention of Cardiovascular ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Influenza vaccination may reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with established cardiovascular disease. The effect of vaccination is unclear among patients in the general population without known cardiovascular disease.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p357.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Quinine for Leg Cramps - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2016 - Quinine is moderately effective in decreasing the frequency and intensity of muscle cramps, but it is also associated with an increase in minor adverse effects. In addition, there is a risk of rare but serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p177.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation - American Family ...

Feb 1, 2016 - Electronic cigarettes with nicotine increase smoking cessation rates compared with placebo, with effectiveness similar to that of nicotine patches. In addition, more patients using electronic cigarettes with nicotine were able to halve their use of cigarettes than those using placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p178.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Therapist-Supported Online Cognitive Behavior Therapy for ...

Jan 1, 2016 - Therapist-supported online CBT is more effective than no treatment and as effective as face-to-face CBT for reducing overall anxiety as well as symptoms, and improving quality of life in adults with anxiety disorders.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0101/p19.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Chewing Gum for Postoperative Recovery of Gastrointestinal ...

Dec 1, 2015 - Having patients chew gum reduces the time to first flatus and time to first bowel movement, as well as the length of hospitalization by about half a day.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p974.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Psychological Interventions for Medically Unexplained Physical...

Dec 1, 2015 - Psychological therapy, specifically cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), has been shown to reduce the severity of medically unexplained physical symptoms in patients with somatoform disorders. The effect is small to moderate in magnitude, but in these studies CBT was as acceptable as usual...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p975.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Exercise for Osteoarthritis of the Knee - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Land-based exercise programs reduce knee pain and improve quality of life and physical function following treatment in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p774.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Point-of-Care C-Reactive Protein Testing to Help Guide ...

Oct 1, 2015 - Point-of-care C-reactive protein (CRP) testing used as an adjunct to a physician's clinical examination can modestly reduce antibiotic use. Measurement of CRP to guide antibiotic prescription does not appear to affect the duration of illness or recovery, although one study suggests that...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p571.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Calcium Supplementation for Preventing Hypertensive Disorders ...

Oct 1, 2015 - High-dose calcium supplementation (i.e., at least 1,000 mg per day) during pregnancy reduces the risk of developing hypertension and preeclampsia. The most significant risk reduction occurs in women at risk of hypertensive disorders and those with low-calcium diets.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p570.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Interventions Aimed at Increasing Childhood Vaccination Rates ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Community discussions, community meetings, and information campaigns may increase immunization uptake in areas with only moderate vaccine use. There is no clear evidence to guide face-to-face educational interventions, and the impact of face-to-face interventions is uncertain in areas ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p775.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Pharmacologic Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in ...

Sep 1, 2015 - Among infants younger than 12 months diagnosed with GERD, weak evidence supports the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2 antagonists. Among children 12 months and older, studies have shown moderate benefit from PPIs and weak benefit from H2 antagonists for providing ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p351.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: The Epley Maneuver for Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal ...

Aug 1, 2015 - Treatment with the Epley maneuver resolves benign paroxysmal positional vertigo better than sham therapy or control. Minor adverse effects are uncommon.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p184.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: The Role of Levetiracetam in Treating Chronic Neuropathic Pain...

Jul 1, 2015 - Based on low-quality evidence, levetiracetam was found to be ineffective for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain symptoms. Moreover, patients who were taking levetiracetam experienced adverse effects at a significantly higher rate than those who were taking placebo.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p23.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Primary Hypertension - American ...

Apr 15, 2015 - ACE inhibitors and ARBs have similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in head-to-head trials. However, slightly more adverse effects were noted in patients assigned to ACE inhibitor therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p522.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Tricyclic Antidepressants for the Treatment of ADHD in ...

Sep 1, 2015 - TCAs, specifically desipramine and nortriptyline (Pamelor), are superior to placebo at reducing ADHD symptoms in the short term (two to six weeks); however, the quality of evidence is low. Increased heart rate and diastolic blood pressure may be noted with treatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p352.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Colchicine for Acute Gout - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Low-quality evidence shows that low-dose colchicine (up to 1.8 mg over one hour) is an effective therapy for acute gout.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p759.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Aclidinium for Stable COPD - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Aclidinium did not decrease all-cause mortality or exacerbations requiring oral steroids, antibiotics, or both. However, aclidinium decreased the number of patients with exacerbations requiring hospitalization and improved quality of life in those with stable COPD.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p760.html

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