American Family Physician

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Cochrane for Clinicians

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Department Collections -- American Family Physician

Search Department collections from past and current issues of AFP, the peer-reviewed clinical journal of the American Academy of Family Physicians.

American Family Physician

http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp/explore/departments.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Quinine for Leg Cramps - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2016 - Quinine is moderately effective in decreasing the frequency and intensity of muscle cramps, but it is also associated with an increase in minor adverse effects. In addition, there is a risk of rare but serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p177.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation - American Family ...

Feb 1, 2016 - Electronic cigarettes with nicotine increase smoking cessation rates compared with placebo, with effectiveness similar to that of nicotine patches. In addition, more patients using electronic cigarettes with nicotine were able to halve their use of cigarettes than those using placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p178.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Therapist-Supported Online Cognitive Behavior Therapy for ...

Jan 1, 2016 - Therapist-supported online CBT is more effective than no treatment and as effective as face-to-face CBT for reducing overall anxiety as well as symptoms, and improving quality of life in adults with anxiety disorders.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0101/p19.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Primary Hypertension - American ...

Apr 15, 2015 - ACE inhibitors and ARBs have similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in head-to-head trials. However, slightly more adverse effects were noted in patients assigned to ACE inhibitor therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p522.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Chewing Gum for Postoperative Recovery of Gastrointestinal ...

Dec 1, 2015 - Having patients chew gum reduces the time to first flatus and time to first bowel movement, as well as the length of hospitalization by about half a day.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p974.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Exercise for Osteoarthritis of the Knee - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Land-based exercise programs reduce knee pain and improve quality of life and physical function following treatment in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p774.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Calcium Supplementation for Preventing Hypertensive Disorders ...

Oct 1, 2015 - High-dose calcium supplementation (i.e., at least 1,000 mg per day) during pregnancy reduces the risk of developing hypertension and preeclampsia. The most significant risk reduction occurs in women at risk of hypertensive disorders and those with low-calcium diets.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p570.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Point-of-Care C-Reactive Protein Testing to Help Guide ...

Oct 1, 2015 - Point-of-care C-reactive protein (CRP) testing used as an adjunct to a physician's clinical examination can modestly reduce antibiotic use. Measurement of CRP to guide antibiotic prescription does not appear to affect the duration of illness or recovery, although one study suggests that...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p571.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Psychological Interventions for Medically Unexplained Physical...

Dec 1, 2015 - Psychological therapy, specifically cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), has been shown to reduce the severity of medically unexplained physical symptoms in patients with somatoform disorders. The effect is small to moderate in magnitude, but in these studies CBT was as acceptable as usual...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p975.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Interventions Aimed at Increasing Childhood Vaccination Rates ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Community discussions, community meetings, and information campaigns may increase immunization uptake in areas with only moderate vaccine use. There is no clear evidence to guide face-to-face educational interventions, and the impact of face-to-face interventions is uncertain in areas ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p775.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Pharmacologic Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in ...

Sep 1, 2015 - Among infants younger than 12 months diagnosed with GERD, weak evidence supports the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2 antagonists. Among children 12 months and older, studies have shown moderate benefit from PPIs and weak benefit from H2 antagonists for providing ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p351.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: The Role of Levetiracetam in Treating Chronic Neuropathic Pain...

Jul 1, 2015 - Based on low-quality evidence, levetiracetam was found to be ineffective for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain symptoms. Moreover, patients who were taking levetiracetam experienced adverse effects at a significantly higher rate than those who were taking placebo.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p23.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: The Epley Maneuver for Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal ...

Aug 1, 2015 - Treatment with the Epley maneuver resolves benign paroxysmal positional vertigo better than sham therapy or control. Minor adverse effects are uncommon.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p184.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Tricyclic Antidepressants for the Treatment of ADHD in ...

Sep 1, 2015 - TCAs, specifically desipramine and nortriptyline (Pamelor), are superior to placebo at reducing ADHD symptoms in the short term (two to six weeks); however, the quality of evidence is low. Increased heart rate and diastolic blood pressure may be noted with treatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p352.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Colchicine for Acute Gout - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Low-quality evidence shows that low-dose colchicine (up to 1.8 mg over one hour) is an effective therapy for acute gout.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p759.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Aclidinium for Stable COPD - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Aclidinium did not decrease all-cause mortality or exacerbations requiring oral steroids, antibiotics, or both. However, aclidinium decreased the number of patients with exacerbations requiring hospitalization and improved quality of life in those with stable COPD.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p760.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Alpha Blockers to Speed Ureteral Stone Passage - American ...

Feb 1, 2015 - Compared with patients receiving standard therapy (e.g., fluids, analgesics), placebo, or calcium channel blockers, patients receiving alpha blockers had about three fewer days to ureteral stone expulsion and were less likely to be hospitalized. Adverse effects of alpha blocker therapy ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p164.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Magnesium Sulfate for Prevention of Preterm Birth - American ...

Apr 1, 2015 - Magnesium sulfate does not delay delivery when used in patients with preterm labor. Although magnesium sulfate is not associated with any serious adverse maternal outcomes, it may be associated with an increase in total fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p444.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals - ...

Apr 15, 2015 - Low-quality evidence suggests that training health care professionals in patient-centered communication improves the engagement of patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in their health care. Interventions that were primarily educational appeared to be ineffective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p523.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for the Treatment of ADHD in...

Apr 1, 2015 - In adults with ADHD, immediate-release methylphenidate improves symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness compared with placebo. Short-term adverse effects such as weight loss and decreased appetite do not appear to be serious. However, larger studies of longer ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p445.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Controlled-Release Oxycodone for Neuropathic Pain and ...

Mar 1, 2015 - Oxycodone CR has limited effectiveness for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia. Evidence is lacking regarding treatment benefit for other neuropathic pain syndromes or fibromyalgia. Adverse effects of oxycodone CR therapy are common.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p286.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Methotrexate Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis - American ...

Jan 1, 2015 - Methotrexate monotherapy demonstrated statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement of symptoms and physical function compared with placebo at 12 to 52 weeks. Multiple adverse effects were reported with methotrexate use, and patients were twice as likely to discontinue ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p26.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Risk of Venous Thromboembolism with Use of Combined Oral ...

Mar 1, 2015 - All combined oral contraceptives increase VTE risk. The risk is greater for those containing desogestrel, drospirenone, gestodene (not available in the United States), and cyproterone acetate (not available in the United States) when compared with levonorgestrel. All combined oral ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p287.html

Cochrane for Clinicians: Are Cranberry Products Effective for the Prevention of Urinary...

Dec 1, 2013 - Cranberry products are not effective and should not be recommended for the prevention of UTIs.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p745.html

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