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hypertension

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Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an underlying and potentially reversible cause. The prevalence and potential etiologies of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p453.html

Severe Asymptomatic Hypertension: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Hypertension affects one-third of Americans and is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal disease, and death. Severe asymptomatic hypertension is defined as severely elevated blood pressure (180 mm Hg or more systolic, or 110 mm Hg or more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p492.html

Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Pulmonary hypertension is a common, complex group of disorders that result from different pathophysiologic mechanisms but are all defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater. Patients often initially present to family physicians; however, because the symptoms ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p463.html

Diagnosis of Secondary Hypertension: An Age-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2010 - Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension with an underlying, potentially correctable cause. A secondary etiology may be suggested by symptoms (e.g., flushing and sweating suggestive of pheochromocytoma), examina- tion findings (e.g., a renal bruit suggestive of renal artery ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1215/p1471.html

Hypertension - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on hypertension and related issues, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies, and blood pressure monitoring and screening. This collection features AFP content on hypertension and related issues, including pharmacologic and ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=12

Nonpharmacologic Management of Hypertension: What Works? - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Hypertension is one of the most common conditions encountered in primary care. Nonpharmacologic strategies have been shown to help lower blood pressure. Lifestyle modifications are recommended for all patients with hypertension. The American Heart Association/American College of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p772.html

Common Questions About the Initial Management of Hypertension - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2015 - Hypertension is the most common chronic condition treated by family physicians. Elevated blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and death. Treatment of hypertension reduces the risk of these events. Several ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p172.html

JNC8 Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in Adults - Practice Guidelines - ...

Oct 1, 2014 - Hypertension is one of the most important preventable contributors to disease and death in the United States, leading to myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal failure when it is not detected early and treated appropriately. The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) recently ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p503.html

Antihypertensive Drug Therapy for Mild to Moderate Hypertension During Pregnancy - ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Compared with placebo, antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension (defined by the authors as a blood pressure of 140 to 169 mm Hg systolic or 90 to 109 mm Hg diastolic) caused by chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia during pregnancy does ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p403.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Severe Asymptomatic Hypertension - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2010 - Poorly controlled hypertension is a common finding in the outpatient setting. When patients present with severely elevated blood pressure (i.e., systolic blood pressure of 180 mm Hg or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 110 mm Hg or greater), physicians need to differentiate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0215/p470.html

Pharmacologic Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2008 - Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with diabetes, and adequate control of blood pressure significantly reduces the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Patients with diabetes should achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm Hg. The use of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1277.html

Coronary Artery Disease/Coronary Heart Disease - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on coronary artery disease (CAD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and related issues, including acute coronary syndrome, angina, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. This collection features AFP content on coronary artery disease ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=4

Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Combination therapy of hypertension with separate agents or a fixed-dose combination pill offers the potential to lower blood pressure more quickly, obtain target blood pressure, and decrease adverse effects. Antihypertensive agents from different classes may offset adverse reactions ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1279.html

Venous Ulcers: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Venous ulcers are the most common type of chronic lower extremity ulcers, affecting 1% to 3% of the U.S. population. Venous hypertension as a result of venous reflux (incompetence) or obstruction is thought to be the primary underlying mechanism for venous ulcer formation. Risk factors ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p298.html

Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Diagnosis and Management - American ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, also referred to as diastolic heart failure, causes almost one-half of the 5 million cases of heart failure in the United States. It is more common among older patients and women, and results from abnormalities of active ventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p582.html

Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2019 - Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 12% to 20% of Americans 60 years and older. The most significant risk factors for PAD are hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and smoking; the presence of three or more factors confers a 10-fold...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p362.html

Edema: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2013 - Edema is an accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space that occurs as the capillary filtration exceeds the limits of lymphatic drainage, producing noticeable clinical signs and symptoms. The rapid development of generalized pitting edema associated with systemic disease requires ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0715/p102.html

High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked. Children should be screened for elevated blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age or at every visit if risk factors are present. In children younger than 13 years, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/p486.html

Radiologic Evaluation of Suspected Renovascular Hypertension - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2009 - More than 72 million Americans have hypertension, and the majority of these persons have essential hypertension. However, a significant subset has a secondary cause. The most common cause of secondary hypertension is renal vascular hypertension, of which renal artery stenosis is the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0801/p273.html

Evaluation and Management of the Patient with Difficult-to-Control or Resistant ...

May 15, 2009 - High blood pressure is often difficult to control. Resistant hypertension is blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three antihypertensive medications of different classes, optimally dosed and usually including a diuretic. The approach to blood pressure...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/p863.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Stable coronary artery disease refers to a reversible supply/demand mismatch related to ischemia, a history of myocardial infarction, or the presence of plaque documented by catheterization or computed tomography angiography. Patients are considered stable if they are asymptomatic or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p376.html

Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2011 - Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing when compared with blood pressure from the sitting or supine position. It results from an inadequate physiologic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p527.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension: ACP and AAFP Release Recommendations for ...

May 1, 2017 - The American College of Physicians (ACP) and American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) have made recommendations for all clinicians to treat hypertension in persons 60 years and older, based on the benefits and harms of higher (less than 150 mm Hg) and lower (140 mm Hg or less) ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p588.html

Diets for Health: Goals and Guidelines - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2018 - Diet is the single most significant risk factor for disability and premature death. Patients and physicians often have difficulty staying abreast of diet trends, many of which focus primarily on weight loss rather than nutrition and health. Recommending an eating style can help patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p721.html

Beta Blockers Compared with Other Drug Options for the Treatment of Hypertension - ...

Feb 1, 2018 - Although beta blockers seem to have a positive impact on patient-oriented evidence that matters in patients with hypertension, they appear to be inferior when compared with other medications.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/od1.html

Nonpharmacologic Strategies for Managing Hypertension - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2006 - The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recommends lifestyle modification for all patients with hypertension or prehypertension. Modifications include reducing dietary sodium to less than 2.4 g per ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1953.html

Nebivolol/Valsartan (Byvalson) for Hypertension - STEPS - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2018 - Nebivolol/valsartan is an option for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled hypertension. Although it offers a new beta-blocker option, no research has demonstrated its benefit over existing treatments.

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/p124.html

Hypertension in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

May 1, 2006 - The development of a national database on normative blood pressure levels throughout childhood has contributed to the recognition of elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents. The epidemic of childhood obesity, the risk of developing left ventricular hypertrophy, and evidence ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/p1558.html

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p538.html

Causes and Evaluation of Chronic Dyspnea - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2012 - Chronic dyspnea is shortness of breath that lasts more than one month. The perception of dyspnea varies based on behavioral and physiologic responses. Dyspnea that is greater than expected with the degree of exertion is a symptom of disease. Most cases of dyspnea result from asthma, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p173.html

AHA/ACC/ASH Release Guideline on the Treatment of Hypertension and CAD - Practice ...

Dec 1, 2015 - The American Heart Association (AHA), American College of Cardiology (ACC), and American Society of Hypertension (ASH) have released a guideline on the management of hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). It updates a previous AHA guideline to reflect newer data.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p1023.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Aortic stenosis affects 3% of persons older than 65 years. Although survival in asymptomatic patients is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, it decreases rapidly after symptoms appear. During the asymptomatic latent period, left ventricular hypertrophy and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p371.html

Some Benefit to Treating Mild Hypertension to Prevent Stroke, CV Deaths, and Overall ...

Dec 1, 2015 - Treating mild hypertension over five years decreases the risk of stroke, cardiovascular (CV) death, and overall mortality in a small proportion of patients.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p1020.html

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - Heart failure is a common clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, and signs of volume overload, which may include peripheral edema and pulmonary rales. Heart failure has high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in older persons. Many conditions, such as coronary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1161.html

Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2016 - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. One-third of these deaths may be preventable through healthy lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity. The Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, whereas the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p919.html

Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents - Putting Prevention ...

Feb 15, 2015 - L.S. is a 14-year-old black adolescent who presents for a routine school physical examination. Her mother tells you that she and her husband have hypertension, and they worry about their daughter's blood pressure. She asks you whether L.S. should be periodically checked for high blood ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p257.html

Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: Recommendation ...

Feb 15, 2015 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for primary hypertension in asymptomatic children and adolescents to prevent subsequent cardiovascular disease in childhood or ...

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/od1.html

Managing Hypertension in Athletes and Physically Active Patients - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2002 - Athletes and other physically active patients should be screened for hypertension and given appropriate therapy if needed. Mild hypertension should be treated with non-pharmacologic measures for six months. If blood pressure control is adequate, lifestyle modifications are continued. If...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0801/p445.html

High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2012 - High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p693.html

Diagnosing Secondary Hypertension - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2003 - Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure that results from an underlying, identifiable, often correctable cause. Only about 5 to 10 percent of hypertension cases are thought to result from secondary causes. The ABCDE mnemonic can be used to help determine a secondary cause of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0101/p67.html

Hyperlipidemia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on hyperlipidemia and related issues, including dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, kidney disease, lipid disorders, metabolic syndrome, statins, and triglyceride levels. This collection features AFP content on hyperlipidemia ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=13

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Current Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Acute coronary syndrome continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Family physicians need to identify and mitigate risk factors early, as well as recognize and respond to acute coronary syndrome events quickly in any clinical setting. Diagnosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p232.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

JNC 8 Report on Prevention, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension - POEMs - ...

Apr 1, 2014 - See the Synopsis section for a summary of the updated hypertension treatment recommendations from the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8).

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p574a.html

Vitamin D Does Not Affect Isolated Systolic Hypertension - POEMs - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2013 - Vitamin D supplementation in patients with isolated systolic hypertension and low levels of vitamin D does not decrease systolic blood pressure after one year of treatment.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p739a.html

Pharmacotherapy for Mild Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2013 - Pharmacologic treatment of mild hypertension for up to five years does not reduce coronary events, stroke, or mortality compared with placebo.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p21.html

New Developments in the Management of Hypertension - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2003 - The management of hypertension has evolved over the past decade. Isolated systolic blood pressure elevation, the most common form of uncontrolled hypertension, is recognized as a significant risk factor for vascular complications in patients with hypertension. Nutritional management of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p853.html

First-Line Treatment for Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2010 - In comparing the effects of thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) with placebo, thiazide diuretics lowered mortality and morbidity from stroke, heart attack, and heart failure more than beta blockers.1 ACE ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1333.html

Controlling Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2002 - Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in the United States. Patients with diabetes have a much higher rate of hypertension than would be expected in the general population. Regardless of the antihypertensive agent used, a reduction in blood pressure helps to prevent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1209.html

Diabetes: Treating Hypertension - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2013 - What are the effects of antihypertensives and different blood pressure targets in persons with diabetes and hypertension?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/p574.html

Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on heart failure and related issues, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), cardiomyopathy, cardioverter-defibrillators, congestive heart failure, and diastolic and systolic heart failure. This...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=26

ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline: What Is New? What Do We Do? - Editorials - American ...

Mar 15, 2018 - Choosing a threshold and target for treatment should be based on the science supporting CVD risk reduction, while considering the benefits and harms in individual patient circumstances and respecting patient choice.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p372.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Atrial fibrillation is a supraventricular arrhythmia that adversely affects cardiac function and increases the risk of stroke. It is the most common arrhythmia and a major source of morbidity and mortality; its prevalence increases with age. Pulse rate is sensitive, but not specific, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p442.html

Treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea Improves Essential Hypertension and Quality of Life - ...

Jan 15, 2002 - About one half of patients who have essential hypertension have obstructive sleep apnea, and about one half of patients who have obstructive sleep apnea have essential hypertension. A growing body of evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea is a major contributing factor in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0115/p229.html

Blood Pressure Targets for Patients with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease - ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Achieving a target BP of 135/85 mm Hg or less does not decrease the risk of total cardiovascular events vs. treating to a target of 140 to 160/90 to 100 mm Hg. Further, treating to the lower BP target does not improve total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p276.html

Updated Guidelines on Outpatient Anticoagulation - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2013 - The American College of Chest Physicians provides recommendations for the use of anticoagulant medications for several indications that are important in the primary care setting. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, is recommended for the treatment of venous thromboembolism and for the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/p556.html

High Blood Pressure: ACC/AHA Releases Updated Guideline - Practice Guidelines - ...

Mar 15, 2018 - The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) recently updated their guideline on the prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high BP in adults. The ACC/AHA recommendations were based on a systematic review that addressed four questions ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p413.html

Atrial Fibrillation - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on atrial fibrillation and related issues, including anticoagulation therapy, antiplatelet therapy, arrhythmias, and palpitations. This collection features AFP content on atrial fibrillation and related issues, including anticoagulation therapy, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=33

Managing the Patient with Hard-to-Control Hypertension - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 1998 - Less than 25 percent of patients with hypertension in the United States have their blood pressure under control, mainly because of inadequate or inappropriate therapy and noncompliance. Approximately one half of these treatment failures are related to factors such as cost and adverse ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0301/p1007.html

Diastolic Heart Failure: The Challenges of Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2004 - Diastolic heart failure, a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is defined as symptoms of heart failure in a patient with preserved left ventricular function. It is characterized by a stiff left ventricle with decreased compliance and impaired relaxation, which leads to increased end...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0601/p2609.html

Hyperlipidemia: Drugs for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Adults - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2017 - Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the U.K. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) indicate that lipid-lowering drugs have benefit for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p78.html

Treatment of Hypertension: Insights from the JNC-VI Report - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 1998 - The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-VI) provides updated guidelines for the treatment of hypertension. Antihypertensive drug therapy may be initiated either after a trial of lifestyle ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1323.html

Secondary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2010 - Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. In patients who have had a myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure, secondary prevention of coronary artery disease by comprehensive risk factor modification reduces mortality, decreases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0201/p289.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Blood Pressure Treatment Targets for Uncomplicated Hypertension - Cochrane for ...

Apr 1, 2010 - To date, there is no evidence to support treating patients with uncomplicated hypertension to blood pressure goals lower than the standard blood pressure target of less than or equal to 140 to 160/90 to 100 mm Hg. In randomized controlled trials, patients treated to lower blood pressure...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p848.html

Outpatient Diagnosis of Acute Chest Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2013 - Approximately 1 percent of primary care office visits are for chest pain, and 1.5 percent of these patients will have unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. The initial goal in patients presenting with chest pain is to determine if the patient needs to be referred for further ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0201/p177.html

Peripheral Vascular Disease - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - ...Hypertension Musculoskeletal Care Respiratory Tract Infections Urinary Tract Infections/Dysuria Email Alerts Don't miss a single issue. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents. Sign Up Now Legend Algorithm Point of Care Resource...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=82

Cardiomyopathy: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2017 - The definition and classification of cardiomyopathy have evolved considerably in recent years. Cardiomyopathy can be separated into primary (genetic, mixed, or acquired) and secondary categories, which result in varied phenotypes including dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p640.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension in Adults Aged 60 Years or Older: A Guideline ...

May 1, 2017 - A high standard must be met when guidelines recommend lifelong preventive medications, knowing that at best, a small minority of patients will benefit and that all are risking harm.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p547.html

Evaluation and Management of Heart Murmurs in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Heart murmurs are common in healthy infants, children, and adolescents. Although most are not pathologic, a murmur may be the sole manifestation of serious heart disease. Historical elements that suggest pathology include family history of sudden cardiac death or congenital heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p793.html

Chlorthalidone vs. Hydrochlorothiazide for Treatment of Hypertension - FPIN's Help Desk...

Dec 1, 2015 - Chlorthalidone produces slightly greater reductions in blood pressure compared with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), but it is associated with greater declines in serum potassium levels. Chlorthalidone lowers the risk of cardiovascular events about 18% more than HCTZ at the same achieved ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p1015.html

AHA Releases Guidelines for Hypertension Management in Adults with or at Risk of CAD - ...

Jul 15, 2008 - The American Heart Association (AHA) Council for High Blood Pressure Research and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology and Epidemiology and Prevention have released guidelines on the management of hypertension in adults with or at risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0715/p270.html

Statin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults: ...

Jan 15, 2017 - The USPSTF recommends that adults without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (i.e., symptomatic coronary artery disease or ischemic stroke) use a low- to moderate-dose statin for the prevention of CVD events and mortality when all of the following criteria are met: (1) they are ...

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/od1.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2008 - Aortic stenosis is the most important cardiac valve disease in developed countries, affecting 3 percent of persons older than 65 years. Although the survival rate in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, the average ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/p717.html

Management of Hypertension in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2005 - Antihypertensive therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in older patients with elevated systolic or diastolic blood pressures. This benefit appears to persist in patients older than 80 years, but less than one third of older patients have adequate blood pressure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0201/p469.html

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors vs. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers - FPIN's ...

Feb 1, 2015 - ACE inhibitors should be used in patients with hypertension because they reduce all-cause mortality, whereas ARBs do not.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p193.html

Interventions to Improve Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Hypertension - ...

Aug 1, 2007 - One large study of adults with hypertension showed that a rigorous, systematic program including regular patient review and aggressive antihypertensive drug therapy improved systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reduced all-cause mortality (7.8 to 6.4 percent at five years; number ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/p373.html

Perioperative Cardiovascular Medication Management in Noncardiac Surgery: Common ...

May 15, 2017 - Several medications have been used perioperatively in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery in an attempt to improve outcomes. Antiplatelet therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular events should generally be discontinued seven to 10 days before surgery to avoid increasing the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p645.html

Aliskiren (Tekturna) for the Treatment of Hypertension - STEPS - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2007 - Aliskiren provides a new pharmacologic approach to treating hypertension; however, short-term studies have not identified a unique role. It is more expensive than commonly used first-line diuretics, and long-term safety has not been demonstrated.

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1203.html

Are Beta Blockers Effective First-line Treatments for Hypertension? - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2007 - Current evidence does not support the use of beta blockers as initial therapy for hypertension.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/p1306.html

ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Primary Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Apr 15, 2015 - ACE inhibitors and ARBs have similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in head-to-head trials. However, slightly more adverse effects were noted in patients assigned to ACE inhibitor therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p522.html

Peripheral Vascular Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2006 - Peripheral vascular disease is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that leads to significant narrowing of arteries distal to the arch of the aorta. The most common symptom of peripheral vascular disease is intermittent claudication. At other times, peripheral vascular disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1971.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Ulcers - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2010 - Venous ulcer, also known as stasis ulcer, is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration, affecting approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population. Possible causes of venous ulcers include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/p989.html

Myocardial Infarction: Management of the Subacute Period - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2013 - Optimal management of myocardial infarction in the subacute period focuses on improving the discharge planning process, implementing therapies early to prevent recurrent myocardial infarction, and avoiding hospital readmission. Evidence-based guidelines for the care of patients with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1101/p581.html

Evaluating Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents - ...

Nov 1, 2008 - Obesity continues to be a growing public health problem. According to the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 17 percent of persons two to 19 years of age are overweight. The number of obese children and adolescents has tripled in the past 20 years. Obesity in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/p1052.html

Screening for Cardiovascular Disease Risk with Electrocardiography - Putting Prevention...

Sep 15, 2018 - A 55-year-old man presents for an annual visit. He has no history of hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), or diabetes mellitus; has never smoked; and has no family history of CVD. His lipid panel results from one year ago were normal, and he has no current symptoms of CVD.

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p375.html

Cardiac Rehabilitation: Improving Function and Reducing Risk - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive multidisciplinary program individually tailored to the needs of patients with cardiovascular disease. The overall goals focus on improving daily function and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiac rehabilitation includes interventions ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p37.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2013 - Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is atherosclerosis leading to narrowing of the major arteries distal to the aortic arch. The most common presenting symptom is claudication; however, only 10% of patients have classic claudication. Approximately 8 to 12 million Americans have PAD, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0901/p306.html

Screening and Management of High BP in Children and Adolescents: An Updated Guideline ...

Apr 15, 2018 - The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) previously published guidance on screening for and managing high blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents in 2004. An updated guideline was released by the AAP to address increased interest in childhood hypertension (HTN) and an updated ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/p543.html

Prevention of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2007 - Recurrent ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack are common problems in primary care, with stroke survivors averaging 10 outpatient visits per year. Risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia should be evaluated during each office visit. Attention ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/p382.html

Combination Antihypertensive Drugs: Recommendations for Use - American Family Physician

May 15, 2000 - The recommendation for first-line therapy for hypertension remains a beta blocker or diuretic given in a low dosage. A target blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg is achieved in about 50 percent of patients treated with monotherapy; two or more agents from different pharmacologic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0515/p3049.html

Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for ...

Nov 15, 2017 - The USPSTF recommends that primary care professionals individualize the decision to offer or refer adults without obesity who do not have hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal blood glucose levels, or diabetes to behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/od2.html

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2006 - Most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are asymptomatic, not detectable on physical examination, and silent until discovered during radiologic testing for other reasons. Tobacco use, hypertension, a family history of AAA, and male sex are clinical risk factors for the development of an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1198.html

Home Monitoring of Glucose and Blood Pressure - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2007 - Home monitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure levels can provide patients and physicians with valuable information in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Home monitoring allows patients to play an active role in their care and may improve treatment adherence and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/p255.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Syncope is a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness with complete return to preexisting neurologic function. It is classified as neurally mediated (i.e., carotid sinus hypersensitivity, situational, or vasovagal), cardiac, orthostatic, or neurogenic. Older adults are more likely to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p640.html

Update on Exercise Stress Testing - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2006 - Exercise stress testing is an important diagnostic tool for the evaluation of suspected or known cardiac disease. In 2002, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) revised their guidelines for exercise testing. Ten categories from the ACC/ AHA ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1115/p1749.html

Using ACE Inhibitors Appropriately - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2002 - When first introduced in 1981, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were indicated only for treatment of refractory hypertension. Since then, they have been shown to reduce morbidity or mortality in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0801/p461.html

The Role of BNP Testing in Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2006 - Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are simple and objective measures of cardiac function. These measurements can be used to diagnose heart failure, including diastolic dysfunction, and using them has been shown to save money in the emergency department setting. The high negative ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1893.html

Antiplatelet Therapy and Anticoagulation in Patients with Hypertension - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2005 - Antiplatelet agents should not be used in patients with hypertension and no previous history of heart attack or stroke. However, these agents are recommended for use in hypertensive patients who already have vascular disease. Anticoagulants should not be used for prevention of vascular ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p897.html

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