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hypertension

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Antihypertensive Drug Therapy for Mild to Moderate Hypertension During Pregnancy - ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Compared with placebo, antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension (defined by the authors as a blood pressure of 140 to 169 mm Hg systolic or 90 to 109 mm Hg diastolic) caused by chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia during pregnancy does ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p403.html

Effectiveness and Safety of Factor Xa Inhibitors in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation -...

Oct 1, 2019 - Treatment of AFib with a factor Xa inhibitor results in a decrease in the combined end point of stroke and embolic events (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97), as well as a decrease in intracranial hemorrhage (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.59) and all-cause mortality (OR = ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p405.html

Treatment of Threatened Miscarriage with Progestogens - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2019 - Progestogens reduce the risk of miscarriage when compared with placebo in patients with threatened miscarriage (number needed to treat [NNT] = 10.) Use of progestogens poses no significant risks to mother or baby.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p279.html

Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori Infection - Cochrane for ...

Jul 1, 2019 - When compared with serology or stool antigen tests, the urea breath test has the highest diagnostic accuracy to identify H. pylori infection in patients without a history of gastrectomy or recent use of antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p16.html

Saline Irrigation for Allergic Rhinitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

May 1, 2019 - asal saline irrigation reduces the severity of allergy symptoms for up to eight weeks vs. no treatment. It is uncertain if adding nasal saline to pharmacologic treatment further improves symptoms over pharmacologic treatment alone.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p544.html

Different Durations of Corticosteroid Therapy for COPD Exacerbations - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2019 - Treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD with a shorter course of systemic corticosteroids (seven or fewer days) is likely to be as effective and safe as treating with longer courses (more than seven days).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p295.html

Pharmacologic Interventions for Apathy in Patients with Alzheimer Disease - Cochrane ...

Jan 1, 2019 - Methylphenidate may improve apathy in select patients with AD (mean difference [MD] = –4.99 on the apathy evaluation scale; 95% confidence interval [CI], –9.55 to –0.43), although the clinical significance associated with these findings remains unclear and the evidence is considered low...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p14.html

Blood Pressure Targets for Patients with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease - ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Achieving a target BP of 135/85 mm Hg or less does not decrease the risk of total cardiovascular events vs. treating to a target of 140 to 160/90 to 100 mm Hg. Further, treating to the lower BP target does not improve total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p276.html

Feed Thickener for Newborn Infants with Gastroesophageal Reflux - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Feed thickeners decrease the number of reflux episodes in full-term formula-fed infants. Additionally, full-term formula-fed infants with GER who are given thickeners are more than twice as likely to be asymptomatic compared with infants not receiving thickeners at one to eight weeks of...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p275.html

Beta2 Agonists for Acute Cough or a Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Bronchitis - Cochrane ...

May 1, 2017 - There is insufficient evidence to determine whether beta2 agonists can improve symptoms for children with acute cough or bronchitis with wheeze. Beta2 agonists are not likely to benefit and may cause adverse effects in adults who do not have evidence of airflow restriction (number ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p551.html

Effects of Altered Dietary Salt Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease - ...

Apr 1, 2017 - Reducing salt intake lowers blood pressure and reduces proteinuria in patients with CKD, but there is no evidence to determine whether lowering salt consumption leads to clinically significant reductions in end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events, or all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p423.html

Influenza Vaccination for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Influenza vaccination may reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with established cardiovascular disease. The effect of vaccination is unclear among patients in the general population without known cardiovascular disease.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p357.html

Calcium Supplementation for Preventing Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy - Cochrane ...

Oct 1, 2015 - High-dose calcium supplementation (i.e., at least 1,000 mg per day) during pregnancy reduces the risk of developing hypertension and preeclampsia. The most significant risk reduction occurs in women at risk of hypertensive disorders and those with low-calcium diets.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p570.html

ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Primary Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Apr 15, 2015 - ACE inhibitors and ARBs have similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in head-to-head trials. However, slightly more adverse effects were noted in patients assigned to ACE inhibitor therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p522.html

Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals - Cochrane for Clinicians -...

Apr 15, 2015 - Low-quality evidence suggests that training health care professionals in patient-centered communication improves the engagement of patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in their health care. Interventions that were primarily educational appeared to be ineffective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p523.html

General Health Checks for Reducing Morbidity and Mortality - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2013 - Although general health checks increase the number of new diagnoses, they do not decrease total, cardiovascular-related, or cancer-related morbidity or mortality. The studies in this Cochrane review have limited applicability to the current recommended practice of providing selective, ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/p432.html

Pharmacotherapy for Mild Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2013 - Pharmacologic treatment of mild hypertension for up to five years does not reduce coronary events, stroke, or mortality compared with placebo.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p21.html

Text Message Appointment Reminders - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2013 - Text message reminders increase attendance at health care appointments compared with no reminders or postal reminders. They are as effective as telephone call reminders but are less expensive.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p20.html

Effect of Cocoa on Blood Pressure - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2013 - Consuming 50 g of cocoa daily will lower blood pressure 2 to 3 mm Hg on average in adults with hypertension. Evidence of improved patient-oriented outcomes does not exist.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0401/p484.html

Weight Loss for Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2012 - There are insufficient high-quality studies to determine patient-oriented outcomes of weight loss for the treatment of fatty liver disease. Nonetheless, weight loss remains a reasonable goal because it may reduce liver inflammation and improve comorbidities. In two of the studies ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0901/p415.html

Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2012 - Overall, children up to 12 years of age benefited from school-based obesity prevention interventions; this effect was not demonstrated among adolescents 13 years and older. Although the overall effect size was small, interventions that promoted physical activity, alone or in combination...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0701/p30.html

Statins for Primary Cardiovascular Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Oct 1, 2011 - Trials to date have found that statins reduce all-cause mortality, composite cardiovascular outcomes, and revascularization. However, most trials included large numbers of persons with known CVD. Clear evidence of the effectiveness of statins to prevent a first cardiovascular event is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p767.html

Effectiveness of Bronchodilators for Bronchiolitis Treatment - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

May 1, 2011 - Bronchodilators may transiently improve the clinical status of infants with bronchiolitis and no prior history of wheezing. However, moderately strong evidence shows that key outcomes such as oxygen saturation, need for hospitalization, length of hospitalization, and duration of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1045.html

Effectiveness of Acamprosate in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2011 - When used in conjunction with detoxification and psychosocial interventions for treating alcohol dependence, acamprosate can reduce the risk of any return to drinking and improve cumulative abstinence rates.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0301/p522.html

First-Line Treatment for Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2010 - In comparing the effects of thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) with placebo, thiazide diuretics lowered mortality and morbidity from stroke, heart attack, and heart failure more than beta blockers.1 ACE ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1333.html

Aripiprazole vs. Other Atypical Antipsychotics for Schizophrenia - Cochrane for ...

Jun 1, 2010 - Aripiprazole is less effective in treating schizophrenia than olanzapine (Zyprexa), but has fewer metabolic and sedative adverse effects. There is no difference in effectiveness between aripiprazole and risperidone (Risperdal); however, aripiprazole may be associated with less dystonia,...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1335.html

Blood Pressure Treatment Targets for Uncomplicated Hypertension - Cochrane for ...

Apr 1, 2010 - To date, there is no evidence to support treating patients with uncomplicated hypertension to blood pressure goals lower than the standard blood pressure target of less than or equal to 140 to 160/90 to 100 mm Hg. In randomized controlled trials, patients treated to lower blood pressure...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p848.html

Effectiveness of B-Complex Vitamins for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events - Cochrane ...

Apr 1, 2010 - Eight randomized clinical trials that included 24,210 patients did not show a reduction in MI, stroke, or all-cause mortality with B-complex vitamin therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p850.html

Statins for Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jan 1, 2010 - When taken over a five-year period, statins significantly reduce all-cause mortality (number needed to treat [NNT] = 56), cardiovascular mortality (NNT = 86), and nonfatal cardiovascular events (NNT = 25).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/p27.html

Antioxidant Supplements Do Not Improve Mortality and May Cause Harm - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2008 - In randomized controlled trials of primary and secondary prevention, vitamins A and E, and beta-carotene supplementation increased mortality. Vitamin C and selenium supplementation had no significant effect on mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/p1079.html

Low Glycemic Diets for Obesity Treatment - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2008 - Compared with high glycemic index diets or conventional energy-restricted weight loss diets, low glycemic index diets better reduce body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The weighted mean difference showed that patients lost an additional 1 to 2 BMI units ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/p1534.html

Oral Anticoagulants vs. Antiplatelet Therapy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

May 1, 2008 - Compared with antiplatelet therapy, oral anticoagulation significantly reduces stroke at an average follow-up of one to three years, but does not reduce mortality. Intracranial or extracranial hemorrhage is more common with anticoagulation and must be weighed against its therapeutic ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1250.html

Subclinical Hypothyroidism - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2008 - Although there is evidence that thyroid hormone therapy in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism may improve lipid profiles, cognitive function, and echographic left ventricular function, there is no evidence that this will decrease morbidity or mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p953.html

Are Beta Blockers Effective First-line Treatments for Hypertension? - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2007 - Current evidence does not support the use of beta blockers as initial therapy for hypertension.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/p1306.html

Effectiveness of Insulin Sensitizing Drugs for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Cochrane for...

Nov 1, 2007 - Insulin sensitizing drugs are more effective than oral contraceptives alone at improving fasting insulin levels in patients with PCOS. Compared with metformin (Glucophage) alone, oral contraceptives alone better control irregular menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels. There is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/p1308.html

Interventions to Improve Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Hypertension - ...

Aug 1, 2007 - One large study of adults with hypertension showed that a rigorous, systematic program including regular patient review and aggressive antihypertensive drug therapy improved systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reduced all-cause mortality (7.8 to 6.4 percent at five years; number ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/p373.html

Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors May Reduce the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes - Cochrane for ...

Aug 1, 2007 - The literature shows that acarbose can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unclear whether the drug stops or delays the development of the disease or masks the diagnosis. There is no evidence that ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/p374.html

ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease - Cochrane for ...

Jul 1, 2007 - Studies comparing ACE inhibitors or ARBs with placebo found no mortality benefit in patients with diabetic kidney disease. A subgroup analysis of five studies (2,034 total patients) found that, when given at full or maximally tolerated doses, ACE inhibitors reduce all-cause mortality ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0701/p68.html

Exercise is an Effective Intervention in Overweight and Obese Patients - Cochrane for ...

May 1, 2007 - Exercise leads to a weight loss of 1 lb, 2 oz to 16 lb, 12 oz (0.5 to 7.6 kg), compared with a 3-oz (0.1-kg) weight loss to a weight gain of 1 lb, 9 oz (0.7 kg) with no treatment. Patients participating in higher-intensity exercise lose 3 lb, 5 oz (1.5 kg) more than those participating ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1333.html

Beta-Blocker Use in Patients with COPD - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2006 - In 20 studies of cardioselective beta blockers in patients with COPD, participants had no adverse pulmonary or respiratory effects. Because of their salutary cardiovascular effects, cardioselective beta blockers should not be withheld from patients with COPD.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1858.html

Antihypertensive Agents for Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy - Cochrane for ...

Jul 1, 2006 - Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are the only antihypertensive agents with proven effectiveness for the primary prevention of diabetic nephropathy (defined as an albumin excretion of less than 30 mg per day on three serial measurements) caused by type 1 or type 2 diabetes....

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p77.html

Dietary Advice to Lower Cardiovascular Risk - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

May 1, 2006 - Dietary advice to lower fat and salt intake and increase intake of fruits, vegetables, and fiber produces modest improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. More intensive counseling yields greater effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/p1551.html

Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Mar 1, 2006 - Although oral appliances provide improved subjective sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is more effective. Oral appliances should not be used as a first-line treatment but rather should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate CPAP ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0301/p801.html

Pharmacologic Cardioversion for Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2005 - There is no evidence that rhythm control in older patients with atrial fibrillation is more effective than rate control for improving patient-oriented outcomes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2217.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Oct 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - Although no difference in effectiveness has been demonstrated in existing trials, too few patients have been studied to detect small but clinically important differences in pregnancy rates. Low-dose estrogen pills have higher rates of discontinuation and bleeding disturbances.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1224a.html

Improving Adherence to Treatment for Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jun 1, 2005 - The most effective strategy to improve patient compliance with antihypertensive medication is to simplify the dosing regimen. There is more limited evidence to support a variety of motivational strategies. Patient education alone is ineffective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2089.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Jun 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Thickened feeds and metoclopramide reduce symptoms of GER in normally developing infants. However, elevating the head of the crib appears to have no effect.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2091.html

Antiplatelet Therapy and Anticoagulation in Patients with Hypertension - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2005 - Antiplatelet agents should not be used in patients with hypertension and no previous history of heart attack or stroke. However, these agents are recommended for use in hypertensive patients who already have vascular disease. Anticoagulants should not be used for prevention of vascular ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p897.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Mar 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - NPH insulin and metformin taken at bedtime appears to be the most favorable combination studied, but this conclusion is based on poor-quality, inconsistent studies that measure disease-oriented outcomes. There are no data on the effect of these drug combinations on patient-oriented ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p899.html

Delaying Antibiotics for Respiratory Infections - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Feb 1, 2005 - Delayed prescribing appears to be a reasonable and safe option in patients with cough and in those who do not appear very ill, but it cannot be recommended for children with sore throat unless streptococcal pharyngitis has been ruled out. Delayed prescribing of antibiotics results in a ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0201/p466.html

Exercise-Based Rehabilitation for Coronary Heart Disease - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Aug 1, 2004 - Cardiac rehabilitation based on exercise alone and comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation reduce all-cause mortality by about one third. It is unclear which type of rehabilitation is more beneficial.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0801/p485.html

Is Leflunomide as Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis as Other ...

Sep 1, 2003 - Compared with placebo, leflunomide improves clinical outcomes and delays radiologic progression of rheumatoid arthritis. After two years of treatment, leflunomide is as safe as sulfasalazine and more effective. Leflunomide's efficacy and adverse events are similar to those of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p849.html

Should Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor Be Routine? - Cochrane for ...

May 15, 2003 - Active management of the third stage of labor (i.e., administration of a uterotonic medication before the placenta is delivered, early clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord, and application of controlled traction to the cord) is associated with reduced maternal blood loss, fewer ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0515/p2119.html

Are Metered-Dose Inhalers with Holding Chambers Better Than Nebulizers for Treating ...

Jan 1, 2003 - In the emergency room, MDIs with holding chambers are as effective as nebulizers for delivering beta2 agonists to treat acute asthma in adults and children older than age two. There might be slightly less beta2 agonist–induced tachycardia in children when MDIs with holding chambers are ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0101/p62.html

Caregiver Support for Women During Childbirth: Does the Presence of a Labor-Support ...

Oct 1, 2002 - This review indicates that continuous caregiver support during childbirth has a number of benefits with minimal to no risks. It was less likely that women would need pain medications or have an operative vaginal delivery, a cesarean section, or a five-minute Apgar score of less than 7 ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1205.html

Should We Use Multiple Risk Factor Interventions for the Primary Prevention of Coronary...

Jul 15, 2002 - In hypertensive patients at high risk for coronary artery disease, multiple risk factor reduction interventions reduce risk factors and mortality. In other patients, multiple risk factor reduction interventions reduce total cholesterol levels, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0715/p245.html

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