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Primary Care for Persons Who Inject Drugs - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - More than 750,000 persons in the United States inject opioids, methamphetamine, cocaine, or ketamine, and that number is increasing because of the current opioid epidemic. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at higher risk of infectious and noninfectious skin, pulmonary, cardiac, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p109.html

Poststreptococcal Illness: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2018 - Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus can cause several postinfectious, nonsuppurative immune- mediated diseases including acute rheumatic fever, poststreptococcal reactive arthritis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders, and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Except for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0415/p517.html

Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention - American ...

Sep 1, 2017 - The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p314.html

HIV-Associated Complications: A Systems-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2017 - Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop complications related directly to the infection, as well as to treatment. Aging, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities increase the risk of developing chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p161.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a hot ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p501.html

Initial Management of Patients with HIV Infection - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2016 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a treatable chronic disease with near-normal life expectancy when patients receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Family physicians and other primary care clinicians commonly provide long-term comprehensive care for persons with HIV...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p708.html

The Pretravel Consultation - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2016 - Key components of the pretravel consultation include intake questions regarding the traveler’s anticipated itinerary and medical history; immunizations; malaria prophylaxis; and personal protection measures against arthropod bites, traveler’s diarrhea, and injury. Most vaccinations that...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1015/p620.html

Current Concepts in Adult Acute Rhinosinusitis - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions that physicians treat in ambulatory care. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viral upper respiratory infections. A meta-analysis based on individual patient data found that common clinical signs and symptoms were ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p97.html

Primary Care of the Solid Organ Transplant Recipient - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2016 - The advancing science of transplantation has led to more transplants and longer survival. As a result, primary care physicians are more involved in the care of transplant recipients. Immunosuppressive therapy has significantly decreased rates of transplant rejection but accounts for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p203.html

Evaluation of Patients with Leukocytosis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - An elevated white blood cell count has many potential etiologies, including malignant and nonmalignant causes. It is important to use age- and pregnancy-specific normal ranges for the white blood cell count. A repeat complete blood count with peripheral smear may provide helpful ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p1004.html

Neglected Parasitic Infections: What Every Family Physician Needs to Know - American ...

May 15, 2014 - Neglected parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, and toxoplasmosis, affect millions of persons in the United States. Relatively few resources have been devoted to surveillance, prevention, and treatment of these diseases. Chagas disease primarily ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0515/p803.html

Arthropod Bites - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2013 - The phylum Arthropoda includes arachnids and insects. Although their bites typically cause only local reactions, some species are venomous or transmit disease. The two medically important spiders in the United States are widow spiders (Latrodectus), the bite of which causes intense ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/p841.html

Pertussis: A Reemerging Infection - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2013 - Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory tract infection that has increased in incidence in recent years. The initial catarrhal stage presents with nonspecific symptoms of malaise, rhinorrhea, sneezing, lacrimation, and mild cough. During the paroxysmal stage, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/p507.html

Early Recognition and Management of Sepsis in Adults: The First Six Hours - American ...

Jul 1, 2013 - Sepsis is a complication of severe infection characterized by a systemic inflammatory response. Mortality rates from sepsis range between 25% to 30% for severe sepsis and 40% to 70% for septic shock. The clinical presentation of sepsis is highly variable depending on the etiology. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p44.html

Postexposure Prophylaxis for Common Infectious Diseases - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2013 - Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing illness after potential or documented exposure to a variety of microbial pathogens and in reducing the risk of secondary spread of infection. Guidelines have been published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0701/p25.html

Revised AAP Guideline on UTI in Febrile Infants and Young Children - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2012 - In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics released a revision of its 1999 clinical practice guideline on urinary tract infections in febrile infants and young children two to 24 months of age. The new clinical practice guideline has several important updates based on evidence ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1115/p940.html

Common Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Disease - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2011 - Family physicians are treating patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in their practices more often. Long-term complications of this disease are multifactorial and can be related to the virus itself or to adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Each drug class has side ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/p1443.html

Croup: An Overview - American Family Physician

May 1, 2011 - Croup is a common illness responsible for up to 15 percent of emergency department visits due to respiratory disease in children in the United States. Croup symptoms usually start like an upper respiratory tract infection, with low-grade fever and coryza followed by a barking cough and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1067.html

Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 2011 - Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions for which patients seek medical care. Subtypes of rhinosinusitis include acute, subacute, recurrent acute, and chronic. Acute rhinosinusitis is further specified as bacterial or viral. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1057.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Children - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2011 - Acute urinary tract infections are relatively common in children, with 8 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys having at least one episode by seven years of age. The most common pathogen is Escherichia coli, accounting for approximately 85 percent of urinary tract infections in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0215/p409.html

Complications of HIV Infection: A Systems-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2011 - Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop multiple complications and comorbidities. Opportunistic infections should always be considered in the evaluation of symptomatic patients with advanced HIV/AIDS, although the overall incidence of these infections ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0215/p395.html

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2011 - Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an RNA virus that causes respiratory tract infections in children. In the North- ern Hemisphere, the peak infection season is November through April. By two years of age, most children will have had an RSV infection. Bronchiolitis, a lower ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/p141.html

Hepatitis C: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2010 - Hepatitis C, a common chronic bloodborne infection, is found in approximately 2 percent of adults in the United States. Chronic infection is associated with serious morbidity and mortality (e.g., cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma). Testing for hepatitis C is recommended for at-risk ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1351.html

Hepatitis B: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2010 - Although an estimated 1 million persons in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus, the prevalence of hepatitis B has declined since the implementation of a national vaccination program. Hepatitis B virus is transmitted in blood and secretions. Acute infection ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/p965.html

Vibrio vulnificus Infection: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2007 - Vibrio vulnificus infection is the leading cause of death related to seafood consumption in the United States. This virulent, gram-negative bacterium causes two distinct syndromes. The first is an overwhelming primary septicemia caused by consuming raw or undercooked seafood, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0815/p539.html

Common Spider Bites - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2007 - There are more than 30,000 species of spiders, most of which cannot inflict serious bites to humans because of their delicate mouthparts and impotent or prey-specific venoms. However, some spiders produce toxic venoms that can cause skin lesions, systemic illnesses, and neurotoxicity. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/p869.html

Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2007 - The common cold is a viral illness that affects persons of all ages, prompting frequent use of over-the-counter and prescription medications and alternative remedies. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms (e.g., cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea). Dextromethorphan may be beneficial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p515.html

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2006 - A common dilemma in clinical medicine is whether to treat asymptomatic patients who present with bacteria in their urine. There are few scenarios in which antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteruria has been shown to improve patient outcomes. Because of increasing antimicrobial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/p985.html

Pertussis: A Disease Affecting All Ages - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2006 - Bordetella pertussis is a highly contagious bacterium known to cause pertussis (whooping cough) and is transmitted via airborne droplets. Although childhood vaccination has dramatically reduced reported pertussis cases, the incidence of the disease has increased over the past 20 years, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/p420.html

Preventive Counseling, Screening, and Therapy for the Patient with Newly Diagnosed HIV ...

Jan 15, 2006 - The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues, and the infection is converting into a treatable chronic disease; therefore, it is increasingly important for family physicians to be current with and comfortable in providing basic care to patients infected with HIV. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p271.html

Urinary Tract Infection in Children - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2005 - Up to 7 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys will have a symptomatic, culture-confirmed urinary tract infection by six years of age. Urinary tract infection may be suspected because of urinary symptoms in older children or because of fever, nonspecific symptoms, or failure to thrive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1215/p2483.html

Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2005 - Tick-borne relapsing fever is characterized by recurring fevers separated by afebrile periods and is accompanied by nonspecific constitutional symptoms. It occurs after a patient has been bitten by a tick infected with a Borrelia spirochete. The diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1115/p2039.html

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - In the 1980s, after a steady decline during preceding decades, there was a resurgence in the rate of tuberculosis in the United States that coincided with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. Disease patterns since have changed, with a higher incidence of disseminated and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1761.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2005 - The recognizable appearance and the dermatomal distribution of herpes zoster lesions usually enable a clinical diagnosis to be made easily. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia occur mainly in older patients. The role of the varicella vaccine in preventing herpes zoster is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0915/p1075.html

Evaluation of Poststreptococcal Illness - American Family Physician

May 15, 2005 - Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, scarlet fever, and rarely asymptomatic carrier states are associated with a number of poststreptococcal suppurative and nonsuppurative complications. As in streptococcal pharyngitis, acute rheumatic fever, pediatric autoimmune ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1949.html

Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pyelonephritis in Adults - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - There are approximately 250,000 cases of acute pyelonephritis each year, resulting in more than 100,000 hospitalizations. The most common etiologic cause is infection with Escherichia coli. The combination of the leukocyte esterase test and the nitrite test (with either test proving ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p933.html

Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Adults: Part II. Treatment - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - Although most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viruses, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is a fairly common complication. Even though most patients with acute rhinosinusitis recover promptly without it, antibiotic therapy should be considered in patients with prolonged or more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1697.html

Management of Hepatitis C: Evaluating Suitability for Drug Therapy - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2004 - Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a common and serious disease. Although an estimated 2.7 million persons in the United States have this disease, most have not yet been diagnosed. Recent advances in treatment provide successful cure in 50 to 80 percent of cases. Current drug ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1429.html

Viral Croup - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Viral croup is the most common form of airway obstruction in children six months to six years of age. The frightening nature of croup often prompts parents and caregivers to seek physician consultation. For children with mild croup, symptomatic care and mist therapy may be all that is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p535.html

Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2003 - Lumbar puncture is frequently performed in primary care. Properly interpreted tests can make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) a key tool in the diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Proper evaluation of CSF depends on knowing which tests to order, normal ranges for the patient's age, and the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1103.html

Smallpox Vaccine: Contraindications, Administration, and Adverse Reactions - American ...

Sep 1, 2003 - Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax exposures in the following weeks, concern that smallpox could be used as a biologic weapon has increased. Public health departments and the U.S. military have begun the process of vaccinating soldiers and civilian ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p889.html

West Nile Virus in the United States: An Update on an Emerging Infectious Disease - ...

Aug 15, 2003 - West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and human neuropathogen. Since the virus was recognized in New York City in 1999, it has spread rapidly across the United States, with human disease documented in 39 states and the District of Columbia. West Nile virus can cause a broad ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0815/p653.html

Common Bacterial Skin Infections - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2002 - Family physicians frequently treat bacterial skin infections in the office and in the hospital. Common skin infections include cellulitis, erysipelas, impetigo, folliculitis, and furuncles and carbuncles. Cellulitis is an infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue that has poorly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0701/p119.html

Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Diagnostic Challenge - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2002 - Epidural abscess of the spinal column is a rare condition that can be fatal if left untreated. Risk factors for epidural abscess include immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, cancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as spinal procedures including...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0401/p1341.html

Detection, Education and Management of the Asplenic or Hyposplenic Patient - American ...

Feb 1, 2001 - Fulminant, potentially life-threatening infection is a major long-term risk after splenectomy or in persons who are functionally hyposplenic as a result of various systemic conditions. Most of these infections are caused by encapsulated organisms such as pneumococci, Haemophilus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0201/p499.html

The AAP Practice Parameter on Urinary Tract Infections in Febrile Infants and Young ...

Oct 15, 2000 - The Committee on Quality Improvement of the American Academy of Pediatrics developed an evidence-based practice parameter on the diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children, two months to two years of age. The practice...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1015/p1815.html

Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2000 - Urinary tract infections are common during pregnancy, and the most common causative organism is Escherichia coli. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to the development of cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria and subsequently treated with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0201/p713.html

Acute Sinusitis: A Cost Effective Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family...

Nov 15, 1998 - Acute bacterial sinusitis usually occurs following an upper respiratory infection that results in obstruction of the osteomeatal complex, impaired mucociliary clearance and overproduction of secretions. The diagnosis is based on the patient's history of a biphasic illness (

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1115/p1795.html

Appropriate Use of Antibiotics for URIs in Children: Part II. Cough, Pharyngitis and ...

Oct 15, 1998 - This article summarizes the principles of judicious antimicrobial therapy for three of the five conditions--cough, pharyngitis, the common cold--that account for most of the outpatient use of these drugs in the United States. The principles governing the other two conditions, otitis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1335.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Children - American Family ...

Apr 1, 1998 - Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections encountered by primary care physicians. Although UTIs do not occur with as great a frequency in children as in adults, they can be a source of significant morbidity in children. For reasons that are not yet ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1573.html

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