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hypertension

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Severe Asymptomatic Hypertension: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Hypertension affects one-third of Americans and is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal disease, and death. Severe asymptomatic hypertension is defined as severely elevated blood pressure (180 mm Hg or more systolic, or 110 mm Hg or more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p492.html

Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Pulmonary hypertension is a common, complex group of disorders that result from different pathophysiologic mechanisms but are all defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater. Patients often initially present to family physicians; however, because the symptoms ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p463.html

Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Diagnosis and Management - American ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, also referred to as diastolic heart failure, causes almost one-half of the 5 million cases of heart failure in the United States. It is more common among older patients and women, and results from abnormalities of active ventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p582.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Stable coronary artery disease refers to a reversible supply/demand mismatch related to ischemia, a history of myocardial infarction, or the presence of plaque documented by catheterization or computed tomography angiography. Patients are considered stable if they are asymptomatic or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p376.html

Assessment of Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2013 - Although routine screening for bladder cancer is not recommended, microscopic hematuria is often incidentally discovered by primary care physicians. The American Urological Association has published an updated guideline for the management of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, which is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p747.html

Erectile Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2016 - Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It is common, affecting at least 12 million U.S. men. The five-question International Index of Erectile Function allows rapid clinical assessment of ED. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p820.html

Dizziness: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Dizziness is a common yet imprecise symptom. It was traditionally divided into four categories based on the patient’s history: vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium, and light-headedness. However, the distinction between these symptoms is of limited clinical usefulness. Patients have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p154.html

Migraine Headache Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Migraines impose significant health and financial burdens. Approximately 38% of patients with episodic migraines would benefit from preventive therapy, but less than 13% take prophylactic medications. Preventive medication therapy reduces migraine frequency, severity, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p17.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

Diagnosis and Management of Sodium Disorders: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia - American...

Mar 1, 2015 - Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are common findings in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Sodium disorders are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Plasma osmolality plays a critical role in the pathophysiology and treatment of sodium disorders. Hyponatremia ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p299.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Current Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Acute coronary syndrome continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Family physicians need to identify and mitigate risk factors early, as well as recognize and respond to acute coronary syndrome events quickly in any clinical setting. Diagnosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p232.html

Kidney Stones: Treatment and Prevention - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Kidney stones are a common disorder, with an annual incidence of eight cases per 1,000 adults. During an episode of renal colic, the first priority is to rule out conditions requiring immediate referral to an emergency department, then to alleviate pain, preferably with a nonsteroidal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p490.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Aortic stenosis affects 3% of persons older than 65 years. Although survival in asymptomatic patients is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, it decreases rapidly after symptoms appear. During the asymptomatic latent period, left ventricular hypertrophy and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p371.html

Dysuria: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2015 - The most common cause of acute dysuria is infection, especially cystitis. Other infectious causes include urethritis, sexually transmitted infections, and vaginitis. Noninfectious inflammatory causes include a foreign body in the urinary tract and dermatologic conditions. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p778.html

Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Testosterone therapy is increasingly common in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are written by primary care physicians. There is conflicting evidence on the benefit of male testosterone therapy for age-related declines in testosterone. Physicians should not measure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p441.html

Diagnosis and Management of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2016 - Nephrotic syndrome (NS) consists of peripheral edema, heavy proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia, often with hyperlipidemia. Patients typically present with edema and fatigue, without evidence of heart failure or severe liver disease. The diagnosis of NS is based on typical clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0315/p479.html

Chronic Dyspnea: Diagnosis and Evaluation - American Family Physician

May 1, 2020 - Dyspnea is a symptom arising from a complex interplay of diseases and physiologic states and is commonly encountered in primary care. It is considered chronic if present for more than one month. As a symptom, dyspnea is a predictor for all-cause mortality. The likeliest causes of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/p542.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Atrial fibrillation is a supraventricular arrhythmia that adversely affects cardiac function and increases the risk of stroke. It is the most common arrhythmia and a major source of morbidity and mortality; its prevalence increases with age. Pulse rate is sensitive, but not specific, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p442.html

Surgical and Nonsurgical Management of Gallstones - American Family Physician

May 15, 2014 - Cholelithiasis, or gallstones, is one of the most common and costly of all the gastrointestinal diseases. The incidence of gallstones increases with age. At-risk populations include persons with diabetes mellitus, persons who are obese, women, rapid weight cyclers, and patients on ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0515/p795.html

Diagnosis and Management of Sarcoidosis - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in any organ, most commonly the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes. A diagnosis of sarcoidosis should be suspected in any young or middle-aged adult presenting with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p840.html

Hyperlipidemia: Drugs for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Adults - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2017 - Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the U.K. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) indicate that lipid-lowering drugs have benefit for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p78.html

Anemia in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2018 - Anemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in older adults. Diagnostic cutoff values for defining anemia vary with age, sex, and possibly race. Anemia is often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on laboratory testing. Patients may present with symptoms related to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p437.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Hirsutism in Women - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Hirsutism is the excessive growth of terminal hair in a typical male pattern in a female. It is often a sign of excessive androgen levels. Although many conditions can lead to hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hyperandrogenism account for more than 85% of cases. Less ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p168.html

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