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fetal macrosomia

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Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family...

Apr 1, 2015 - Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects approximately 6% of pregnancies in the United States, and it is increasing in prevalence. Pregnant women without known diabetes mellitus should be screened for GDM after 24 weeks of gestation. Treatment of GDM results in a statistically ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p460.html

ACOG Issues Guidelines on Fetal Macrosomia - Practice Guidelines - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2001 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has issued new clinical management guidelines on fetal macrosomia. The term fetal macrosomia implies fetal growth beyond a specific weight, regardless of the fetal gestational age.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0701/p169.html

Postpartum Hemorrhage: Prevention and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2017 - Postpartum hemorrhage is common and can occur in patients without risk factors for hemorrhage. Active management of the third stage of labor should be used routinely to reduce its incidence. Use of oxytocin after delivery of the anterior shoulder is the most important and effective ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p442.html

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diagnoses made by family physicians. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to blindness, limb amputation, kidney failure, and vascular and heart disease. Screening patients before signs and symptoms develop leads to earlier diagnosis and treatment, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p103.html

Diagnosis and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2009 - Gestational diabetes occurs in 5 to 9 percent of pregnancies in the United States and is growing in prevalence. It is a controversial entity, with conflicting guidelines and treatment protocols. Recent studies show that diagnosis and management of this disorder have beneficial effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/p57.html

Common Questions About Late-Term and Postterm Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2014 - Pregnancy is considered late term from 41 weeks, 0 days’ to 41 weeks, 6 days’ gestation, and postterm at 42 weeks’ gestation. Early dating of the pregnancy is important for accurately determining when a pregnancy is late- or postterm, and first-trimester ultrasonography should be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p160.html

Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2008 - The second stage of labor is a dynamic event that may require assistance when maternal efforts fail to effect delivery or when there are nonreassuring fetal heart tones. Therefore, knowing how to perform an operative vaginal delivery with forceps or vacuum is vital for family physicians...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/p953.html

Preconception Care (Position Paper)

May 4, 2018 - Read the AAFP's position paper on preconception care. Preconception care is defined as individualized care for men and women that is focused on reducing maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

About AAFP |AAFP Policies and Recommendations : Policies

https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/preconception-care.html

Prevention and Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2007 - Postpartum hemorrhage, the loss of more than 500 mL of blood after delivery, occurs in up to 18 percent of births and is the most common maternal morbidity in developed countries. Although risk factors and preventive strategies are dearly documented, not all cases are expected or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/p875.html

Obesity in Pregnancy: Risks and Management - Editorials - American Family Physician

May 1, 2018 - As obesity becomes more common, it is important for all maternity care clinicians to understand the risks and associated management of obesity in pregnancy. Elevated prepregnancy weight increases the absolute risk of many adverse fetal and maternal outcomes.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p559.html

Respiratory Distress in the Newborn - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2007 - The most common etiology of neonatal respiratory distress is transient tachypnea of the newborn; this is triggered by excessive lung fluid, and symptoms usually resolve spontaneously. Respiratory distress syndrome can occur in premature infants as a result of surfactant deficiency and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p987.html

Shoulder Dystocia - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2004 - Shoulder dystocia can be one of the most frightening emergencies in the delivery room. Although many factors have been associated with shoulder dystocia, most cases occur with no warning. Calm and effective management of this emergency is possible with recognition of the impaction and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0401/p1707.html

Dystocia in Nulliparous Women - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2007 - Dystocia is common in nulliparous women and is responsible for more than 50 percent of primary cesarean deliveries. Because cesarean delivery rates continue to rise, physicians providing maternity care should be skilled in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of dystocia. If labor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0601/p1671.html

Newborn Respiratory Distress - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p994.html

Practice Guidelines - Apr 15, 2006 - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2006 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released an opinion statement on issues specific to pregnancy in obese women. Women who are obese are at increased risk of complications of pregnancy such as gestational hypertension and diabetes, preeclampsia, fetal ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0415/p1471.html

Update on Prenatal Care - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p199.html

The Abnormal Fontanel - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2003 - The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/p2547.html

Recommendations for Preconception Counseling and Care - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2013 - Given that nearly one-half of pregnancies are unintended, preconception care should be considered an integral part of primary care for women of reproductive age. Common issues in preconception care include family planning, achieving a healthy body weight, screening and treatment for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/p499.html

Assisted Vaginal Delivery Using the Vacuum Extractor - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2000 - Vacuum extractors have replaced forceps for many situations in which assistance is required to achieve vaginal delivery. Compared with metal-cup vacuum extractors, soft-cup devices are easier to use and cause fewer neonatal scalp injuries; however, they detach more frequently. Vacuum ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0915/p1316.html

Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive...

Dec 1, 2014 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in asymptomatic pregnant women after 24 weeks of gestation.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/od1.html

Evidence-Based Prenatal Care: Part I. General Prenatal Care and Counseling Issues - ...

Apr 1, 2005 - Effective prenatal care should integrate the best available evidence into a model of shared decision making. Pregnant women should be counseled about the risks of smoking and alcohol and drug use. Structured educational programs to promote breastfeeding are effective. Routine fetal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0401/p1307.html

Cesarean Delivery in Family Medicine (Position Paper)

Jan 4, 2018 - Read the AAFP's position on the role of family physicians in delivering maternity care including cesarean delivery.

About AAFP |AAFP Policies and Recommendations : Policies

https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/cesarean-delivery.html

Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Children and adolescents whose heights and growth velocities deviate from the normal percentiles on standard growth charts present a special challenge to physicians. Height that is less than the 3rd percentile or greater than the 97th percentile is deemed short or tall stature, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p597.html

Metformin for Improving Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Pregnant Women Who Are Obese - ...

Mar 1, 2019 - This meta-analysis showed no clear benefit for metformin in reducing the risk of large for gestational age infants. Additionally, there was no difference in important secondary outcomes such as gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, shoulder dystocia, advanced perineal...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/od1.html

ACOG Releases Guideline on Gestational Diabetes - Practice Guidelines - American Family...

Sep 15, 2014 - Gestational diabetes increases the risk of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and developing diabetes later in life. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released a guideline that provides recommendations based on good-quality ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0915/p416.html

Rationale for a 39-Week Elective Delivery Policy - Editorials - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2011 - Several organizations have called for obstetric care professionals to decrease the number of elective (non-medically indicated) deliveries before an estimated gestational age of 39 weeks to prevent iatrogenic neonatal harm. Approximately one out of every three births in the United ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1215/p1335.html

Induction of Labor at or Beyond Term - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Fetal or neonatal deaths in women who delivered after their due date and before 42 weeks occur at a rate of less than 0.5 percent, regardless of whether labor is induced or spontaneous. Compared with awaiting spontaneous labor, inducing labor between 41 and 42 weeks is associated with ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p581.html

Predicting the Likelihood of Successful Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery - ...

Oct 15, 2007 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend that pregnant women with a single previous cesarean delivery and a low-transverse incision be offered a trial of labor.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1192.html

February 15, 2003 - American Family Physician

...What Is the Best Management of Fetal Macrosomia? Is IV Albuterol Effective for Acute Asthma Management? Obesity Surgery May Cure Diabetes in Nonobese Patients Central Venous Catheter Colonization in Children Recurrent Fevers in Children: Differential Diagnosis...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0215/

July 1, 2001 - American Family Physician

...ACOG Issues Guidelines on Fetal Macrosomia Joanne E. Chatfield Quantum Sufficit Quantum Sufficit Sarah Morgan; Lori Parry Resident and Student Voice Women in Medicine S R. Brian Letters to the Editor Management of MVP with Antibiotic Prophylaxis Barry D....

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0701/

January 15, 2001 - American Family Physician

...Management of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia Mark A. Zamorski; Wendy S. Biggs Effective Use of Statins to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease Michael A. Crouch Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Infections: Etiology, Diagnosis and Therapy Ellis H. Tobin; William W. Jih...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/

Evidence-Based Prenatal Care: Part II. Third-Trimester Care and Prevention of ...

Apr 15, 2005 - All pregnant women should be offered screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria, syphilis, rubella, and hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infection early in pregnancy. Women at increased risk should be tested for hepatitis C infection, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. All women should ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0415/p1555.html

chapter-q.pdf

...Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery Noted by ACOG and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM), the rapid increase in cesarean birth rates from 1996 to 2011 without clear evidence of a concomitant decrease in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality raises...

https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/also-content/chapter-q.pdf

Maternity Care Update - FP Essentials

...Summarize updates in aneuploidy screening including appropriate use of cell-free fetal DNA testing. Define, diagnose, and manage common conditions affecting pregnant patients including hypertension, diabetes, hypothyroidism, depression, and obesity. Summarize changes in...

CME | FP Essentials : Subscriptions

https://www.aafp.org/fpe/2018/0400/467.html

ACOG Updates Recommendations on Vaginal Birth After Previous Cesarean Delivery - ...

Jan 15, 2011 - The rate of cesarean delivery has increased dramatically in the United States over the past four decades, perpetuated somewhat by the dictum once a cesarean, always a cesarean. However, evidence has shown that many women who have had a cesarean delivery can safely deliver vaginally in ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0115/p214.html

Shoulder Dystocia - American Family Physician

...the fetal anterior shoulder impacts against the maternal symphysis following delivery of the vertex. Less commonly, shoulder dys- tocia results from impaction of the posterior shoulder on the sacral promontory.1 The overall incidence of shoulder dystocia varies based on fetal...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0401/p1707.pdf

Management of Postterm Pregnancy - Practice Guidelines - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - The Committee on Practice Bulletins—Obstetrics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released a new guideline entitled, Management of Postterm Pregnancy.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1808.html

Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - U.S. Preventive Services Task Force - ...

Jul 15, 2003 - This statement summarizes the current U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for gestational diabetes and the supporting scientific evidence.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0715/p331.html

chapter-o.pdf

...fetal demise; determining fetal number, presentation, and position; assessing amniotic fluid status; and evaluat- ing placental location. Practice is essential before using ultrasound for patient care. With additional training and practice, basic biometry can be learned to determine...

https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/also-content/chapter-o.pdf

Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Date xx, xxxx Scientific

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p460.pdf

Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2010 - ...screening pregnant women for gestational diabetes mellitus. Treating substantially elevated fasting glucose levels reduces the risk of fetal macrosomia and perinatal complications, but it is unclear whether treating mild gestational diabetes (e.g., a normal fasting glucose level,...

American Family Physician : Tip

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0215/p539.html

Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - Putting Prevention into Practice - ...

Mar 1, 2004 - Case study: MT is a 23-year-old woman visiting your office for her initial prenatal checkup. She has a family history of diabetes and is obese. MT developed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during her previous pregnancy, and because she is concerned about having GDM, she asks if she ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1187.html

Clinical Briefs - Feb 15, 2003 - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2003 - ...Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes increase the risk of shoulder dystocia, a substantial number of cases occur in women who do not have diabetes and among infants weighing less than 8.8 lb (4,000 g). In one study, the presence of both diabetes and macrosomia predicted...

American Family Physician : Clinical Briefs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0215/p887.html

Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive...

Jul 15, 2009 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus, before or after 24 weeks' gestation.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0715/p173.html

ACOG Releases Guidelines on Management of Post-term Pregnancy - Practice Guidelines - ...

Dec 1, 2004 - Post-term pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that has extended to or beyond 42 weeks of gestation. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently issued guidelines for the clinical management of post-term pregnancy.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2221.html

chapter-f.pdf

...remains high at more than 32% (Figure 1),5 and thus attention is focusing on the two main drivers of the primary cesarean rate-dys- tocia and fetal heart rate (FHR) tracing interpretation.3,6 The wide variation in cesarean delivery rates for labor dystocia suggests a need for more...

https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/also-content/chapter-f.pdf

od1.pdf

December 1, 2014 USPSTF

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/od1.pdf

p57.pdf

...relative, history of glucose intolerance (including pre- vious gestational diabetes), marked obesity, and a previous infant with macrosomia.9 Screening Expert consensus has put forth a sequential model of testing using a 50-g nonfasting one- hour glucose challenge test between 24...

American Family Physician

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/p57.pdf

Microsoft PowerPoint - Chapter F SYLL FINAL.pptx

...to labor and delivery (LandD) • On LandD at 04:00:  Vital signs are stable  Ferning/pooling/Nitrazine negative  Fetus active  Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM); Category I tracing  Sterile vaginal exam (SVE) indicates her cervix is 4 cm dilated, 70% effaced, ‐3 station,...

https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/also-content/chapter-f-slideset.pdf

COD Transactions 2016

...of Family Medicine Residency Directors requires family medicine residencies to teach basic POCUS including prenatal (amniotic fluid index, fetal presentation, placental localization) and guidance for central vascular access, paracentesis, thoracentesis, MSK injections), and WHEREAS,...

About AAFP

https://www.aafp.org/content/dam/AAFP/documents/about_us/congress/restricted/2016/CODTransactions2016.pdf

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