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hypertension

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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2006 - Most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are asymptomatic, not detectable on physical examination, and silent until discovered during radiologic testing for other reasons. Tobacco use, hypertension, a family history of AAA, and male sex are clinical risk factors for the development of an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1198.html

ACC/AHA Guideline Update for the Management of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial ...

Jun 15, 2009 - The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association, in collaboration with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, have issued an update of the 2004 guideline for the management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The American Academy of Family ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/p1080.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Current Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Acute coronary syndrome continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Family physicians need to identify and mitigate risk factors early, as well as recognize and respond to acute coronary syndrome events quickly in any clinical setting. Diagnosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p232.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Acute Management of Atrial Fibrillation: Part II. Prevention of Thromboembolic ...

Jul 15, 2002 - Family physicians should be familiar with the acute management of atrial fibrillation and the initiation of chronic therapy for this common arrhythmia. Initial management should include hemodynamic stabilization, rate control, restoration of sinus rhythm, and initiation of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0715/p261.html

Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Hypertension - American Family ...

Sep 15, 1999 - The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-VI) includes recommendations for the assessment of overall cardiovascular risk and the need for active antihypertensive drug therapy. Once the decision to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1185.html

Antioxidant Vitamins and the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease - American Family ...

Sep 1, 1999 - Clinical use of antioxidant vitamin supplementation may help to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiologic studies find lower CHD morbidity and mortality in persons who consume larger quantities of antioxidants in foods or supplements. Clinical trials indicate that ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0901/p895.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Aortic stenosis affects 3% of persons older than 65 years. Although survival in asymptomatic patients is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, it decreases rapidly after symptoms appear. During the asymptomatic latent period, left ventricular hypertrophy and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p371.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2008 - Aortic stenosis is the most important cardiac valve disease in developed countries, affecting 3 percent of persons older than 65 years. Although the survival rate in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, the average ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/p717.html

Assessment and Treatment of Depression Following Myocardial Infarction - American ...

Aug 15, 2001 - Approximately 65 percent of patients with acute myocardial infarction report experiencing symptoms of depression. Major depression is present in 15 to 22 percent of these patients. Depression is an independent risk factor in the development of and mortality associated with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0815/p641.html

Attenuating Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - American ...

Dec 15, 2000 - Patients with type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-resistant diabetes) have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Once clinical cardiovascular disease develops, these patients have a poorer prognosis than normoglycemic patients. By inducing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1215/p2633.html

Automated Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Clinical Utility in the Family Practice...

Jun 1, 2003 - Although the percentage of patients who are treated for hypertension has increased, the percentage of those who demonstrate control of blood pressure has declined. As a result of this trend, clinicians may increasingly rely on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to improve the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0601/p2343.html

Cardiomyopathy: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2017 - The definition and classification of cardiomyopathy have evolved considerably in recent years. Cardiomyopathy can be separated into primary (genetic, mixed, or acquired) and secondary categories, which result in varied phenotypes including dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p640.html

Cardiomyopathy: An Overview - American Family Physician

May 1, 2009 - Cardiomyopathy is an anatomic and pathologic diagnosis associated with muscle or electrical dysfunction of the heart. Cardiomyopathies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that often lead to progressive heart failure with significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiomyopathies may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0501/p778.html

Caring for Infants with Congenital Heart Disease and Their Families - American Family ...

Apr 1, 1999 - Congenital heart defects are classified into two broad categories: acyanotic and cyanotic lesions. The most common acyanotic lesions are ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, atrioventricular canal, pulmonary stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis and coarctation...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1857.html

Common Questions About the Initial Management of Hypertension - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2015 - Hypertension is the most common chronic condition treated by family physicians. Elevated blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and death. Treatment of hypertension reduces the risk of these events. Several ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p172.html

Controlling Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2002 - Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in the United States. Patients with diabetes have a much higher rate of hypertension than would be expected in the general population. Regardless of the antihypertensive agent used, a reduction in blood pressure helps to prevent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1209.html

Coronary Artery Disease Prevention: What's Different for Women? - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2001 - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women, as well as an important cause of disability, although many women and their physicians underestimate the risk. Exercise, hypertension treatment, smoking cessation and aspirin therapy are effective measures for the primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0401/p1393.html

Current Management of Mitral Valve Prolapse - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2000 - Mitral valve prolapse is a pathologic anatomic and physiologic abnormality of the mitral valve apparatus affecting mitral leaflet motion.

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0601/p3343.html

Diagnosing Secondary Hypertension - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2003 - Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure that results from an underlying, identifiable, often correctable cause. Only about 5 to 10 percent of hypertension cases are thought to result from secondary causes. The ABCDE mnemonic can be used to help determine a secondary cause of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0101/p67.html

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - Heart failure is a common clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, and signs of volume overload, which may include peripheral edema and pulmonary rales. Heart failure has high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in older persons. Many conditions, such as coronary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1161.html

Diagnosis and Management of Diastolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2006 - Diastolic heart failure occurs when signs and symptoms of heart failure are present but left ventricular systolic function is preserved (i.e., ejection fraction greater than 45 percent). The incidence of diastolic heart failure increases with age; therefore, 50 percent of older patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0301/p841.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Atrial fibrillation is a supraventricular arrhythmia that adversely affects cardiac function and increases the risk of stroke. It is the most common arrhythmia and a major source of morbidity and mortality; its prevalence increases with age. Pulse rate is sensitive, but not specific, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p442.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Ulcers - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2010 - Venous ulcer, also known as stasis ulcer, is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration, affecting approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population. Possible causes of venous ulcers include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/p989.html

Diagnosis of Secondary Hypertension: An Age-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2010 - Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension with an underlying, potentially correctable cause. A secondary etiology may be suggested by symptoms (e.g., flushing and sweating suggestive of pheochromocytoma), examina- tion findings (e.g., a renal bruit suggestive of renal artery ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1215/p1471.html

Dietary Therapy for Children with Hypercholesterolemia - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2000 - Accumulating evidence clearly shows that atherosclerosis begins in youth. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has recommended that children at high risk of developing coronary artery disease as adults be screened so that those with elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0201/p675.html

Dietary Therapy for Preventing and Treating Coronary Artery Disease - American Family ...

Mar 15, 1998 - Nearly one half of Americans die of cardiovascular disease. The morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease is strongly related to abnormal lipid levels, oxidation of lipids and intra-arterial clot formation. Nutrition powerfully influences each of these factors. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0315/p1299.html

Diets for Health: Goals and Guidelines - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2018 - Diet is the single most significant risk factor for disability and premature death. Patients and physicians often have difficulty staying abreast of diet trends, many of which focus primarily on weight loss rather than nutrition and health. Recommending an eating style can help patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p721.html

Digoxin Therapy for Heart Failure: An Update - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2006 - Digoxin therapy has long been used to treat heart failure; however, its effectiveness was not completely known until recently. Results of the Digitalis Investigation Group trial showed that adding digoxin to standard heart failure therapy had no effect on mortality. However, adding ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0815/p613.html

Drugs for Conversion of Atrial Fibrillation - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1998 - Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in patients visiting a primary care practice. Although many patients with atrial fibrillation experience relief of symptoms with control of the heart rate, some patients require restoration of sinus rhythm. External direct current (DC) ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0801/p471.html

Edema: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2013 - Edema is an accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space that occurs as the capillary filtration exceeds the limits of lymphatic drainage, producing noticeable clinical signs and symptoms. The rapid development of generalized pitting edema associated with systemic disease requires ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0715/p102.html

Effective Use of Statins to Prevent Coronary Heart Disease - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Primary and secondary prevention trials have shown that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (also known as statins) to lower an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level can substantially reduce coronary events and death from coronary heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p309.html

Essentials of the Diagnosis of Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2000 - Although heart failure is a common clinical syndrome, especially in the elderly, its diagnosis is often missed. A detailed clinical history is crucial and should address not only current signs and symptoms of heart failure but also signs and symptoms that point to a specific cause of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1319.html

Evaluating Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents - ...

Nov 1, 2008 - Obesity continues to be a growing public health problem. According to the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 17 percent of persons two to 19 years of age are overweight. The number of obese children and adolescents has tripled in the past 20 years. Obesity in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/p1052.html

Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2011 - Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing when compared with blood pressure from the sitting or supine position. It results from an inadequate physiologic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p527.html

Evaluation and Management of the Patient with Difficult-to-Control or Resistant ...

May 15, 2009 - High blood pressure is often difficult to control. Resistant hypertension is blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three antihypertensive medications of different classes, optimally dosed and usually including a diuretic. The approach to blood pressure...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/p863.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Syncope is a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness with complete return to preexisting neurologic function. It is classified as neurally mediated (i.e., carotid sinus hypersensitivity, situational, or vasovagal), cardiac, orthostatic, or neurogenic. Older adults are more likely to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p640.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2005 - Though relatively common, syncope is a complex presenting symptom defined by a transient loss of consciousness, usually accompanied by falling, and with spontaneous recovery. Syncope must be carefully differentiated from other conditions that may cause a loss of consciousness or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1015/p1492.html

Exercise-Related Syncope in the Young Athlete: Reassurance, Restriction or Referral? - ...

Nov 1, 1999 - A common event in young adults, syncope is usually benign and only rarely requires more than simple reassurance. However, exercise-related syncope always requires investigation because it may be the only symptom that precedes a sudden cardiac death. Syncope that occurs during exercise ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1101/p2001.html

Global Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Assessment and Application - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2010 - Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in the United States. The conventional risk factor approach to primary prevention excludes many patients who could benefit from preventive therapies. A global risk approach allows more accurate estimates of risk to guide clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0801/p265.html

Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Diagnosis and Management - American ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, also referred to as diastolic heart failure, causes almost one-half of the 5 million cases of heart failure in the United States. It is more common among older patients and women, and results from abnormalities of active ventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p582.html

Heart Murmurs in Pediatric Patients: When Do You Refer? - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1999 - Many normal children have heart murmurs, but most children do not have heart disease. An appropriate history and a properly conducted physical examination can identify children at increased risk for significant heart disease. Pathologic causes of systolic murmurs include atrial and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0801/p558.html

High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked. Children should be screened for elevated blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age or at every visit if risk factors are present. In children younger than 13 years, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/p486.html

High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2012 - High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p693.html

Home Monitoring of Glucose and Blood Pressure - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2007 - Home monitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure levels can provide patients and physicians with valuable information in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Home monitoring allows patients to play an active role in their care and may improve treatment adherence and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/p255.html

Hyperlipidemia: Drugs for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Adults - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2017 - Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the U.K. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) indicate that lipid-lowering drugs have benefit for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p78.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

Management of Dyslipidemia in Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 1998 - The importance of treating dyslipidemias based on cardiovascular risk factors is highlighted by the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. The first step in evaluation is to exclude secondary causes of hyperlipidemia. Assessment of the patient's risk for coronary heart ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0501/p2192.html

Management of Peripheral Aterial Disease - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Peripheral arterial disease is common, but the diagnosis frequently is overlooked because of subtle physical findings and lack of classic symptoms. Screening based on the ankle brachial index using Doppler ultrasonography may be more useful than physical examination alone. Noninvasive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p525.html

Managing Hypertension in Athletes and Physically Active Patients - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2002 - Athletes and other physically active patients should be screened for hypertension and given appropriate therapy if needed. Mild hypertension should be treated with non-pharmacologic measures for six months. If blood pressure control is adequate, lifestyle modifications are continued. If...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0801/p445.html

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