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hypertension

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Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an underlying and potentially reversible cause. The prevalence and potential etiologies of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p453.html

Diagnosis of Secondary Hypertension: An Age-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2010 - Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension with an underlying, potentially correctable cause. A secondary etiology may be suggested by symptoms (e.g., flushing and sweating suggestive of pheochromocytoma), examina- tion findings (e.g., a renal bruit suggestive of renal artery ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1215/p1471.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Assessment of Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2013 - Although routine screening for bladder cancer is not recommended, microscopic hematuria is often incidentally discovered by primary care physicians. The American Urological Association has published an updated guideline for the management of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, which is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p747.html

Ear Pain: Diagnosing Common and Uncommon Causes - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2018 - Otalgia (ear pain) is a common presentation in the primary care setting with many diverse causes. Pain that originates from the ear is called primary otalgia, and the most common causes are otitis media and otitis externa. Examination of the ear usually reveals abnormal findings in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p20.html

Dizziness: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Dizziness is a common yet imprecise symptom. It was traditionally divided into four categories based on the patient’s history: vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium, and light-headedness. However, the distinction between these symptoms is of limited clinical usefulness. Patients have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p154.html

Evaluation of Patients with Leukocytosis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - An elevated white blood cell count has many potential etiologies, including malignant and nonmalignant causes. It is important to use age- and pregnancy-specific normal ranges for the white blood cell count. A repeat complete blood count with peripheral smear may provide helpful ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p1004.html

Proteinuria in Children: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Although proteinuria is usually benign in the form of transient or orthostatic proteinuria, persistent proteinuria may be associated with more serious renal diseases. Proteinuria may be an independent risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease in children. Mechanisms of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p248.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

Hemolytic Anemia: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - Hemolytic anemia is defined by the premature destruction of red blood cells, and can be chronic or life-threatening. It should be part of the differential diagnosis for any normocytic or macrocytic anemia. Hemolysis may occur intravascularly, extravascularly in the reticuloendothelial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p354.html

A Stepwise Approach to the Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests - American Family...

Mar 1, 2014 - Office-based pulmonary function testing, also known as spirometry, is a powerful tool for primary care physicians to diagnose and manage respiratory problems. An obstructive defect is indicated by a low forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio, which...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p359.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2011 - Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1138.html

Dysuria: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2015 - The most common cause of acute dysuria is infection, especially cystitis. Other infectious causes include urethritis, sexually transmitted infections, and vaginitis. Noninfectious inflammatory causes include a foreign body in the urinary tract and dermatologic conditions. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p778.html

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - Heart failure is a common clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, and signs of volume overload, which may include peripheral edema and pulmonary rales. Heart failure has high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in older persons. Many conditions, such as coronary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1161.html

Amenorrhea: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Menstrual patterns can be an indicator of overall health and self-perception of well-being. Primary amenorrhea, defined as the lifelong absence of menses, requires evaluation if menarche has not occurred by 15 years of age or three years post-thelarche. Secondary amenorrhea is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p39.html

Anemia in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2018 - Anemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in older adults. Diagnostic cutoff values for defining anemia vary with age, sex, and possibly race. Anemia is often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on laboratory testing. Patients may present with symptoms related to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p437.html

Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2015 - Short stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations below the mean for age (less than the 3rd percentile). Tall stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (greater than the 97th percentile). The initial evaluation of short ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p43.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Recognition and Evaluation of Nontraumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Ruptured ...

Oct 1, 2013 - Swift diagnosis and treatment are critical for good outcomes in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is usually caused by a ruptured aneurysm. This type of stroke often results in death or disability. Rates of misdiagnosis and treatment delays for subarachnoid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/p451.html

Clinical Evaluation of Bleeding and Bruising in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2016 - Bleeding and bruising are common symptoms in the primary care setting. The patient history can help determine whether the bruising or bleeding is abnormal. The International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis has developed a bleeding assessment tool that can be used to indicate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0215/p279.html

Diagnosing Secondary Hypertension - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2003 - Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure that results from an underlying, identifiable, often correctable cause. Only about 5 to 10 percent of hypertension cases are thought to result from secondary causes. The ABCDE mnemonic can be used to help determine a secondary cause of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0101/p67.html

Evaluation of Anemia in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2010 - Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin level of less than the 5th percentile for age. Causes vary by age. Most children with anemia are asymptomatic, and the condition is detected on screening laboratory evaluation. Screening is recommended only for high-risk children. Anemia is classified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0615/p1462.html

Acute Monoarthritis: Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2016 - Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The most common diagnoses in the primary care setting are osteoarthritis, gout, and trauma. It is important to understand the prevalence of specific etiologies and to use the appropriate diagnostic modalities....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p810.html

Dizziness: A Diagnostic Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2010 - Dizziness accounts for an estimated 5 percent of primary care clinic visits. The patient history can generally classify dizziness into one of four categories: vertigo, disequilibrium, presyncope, or lightheadedness. The main causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p361.html

Diagnosis of Acute Stroke - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Stroke can be categorized as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Awakening with or experiencing the abrupt onset of focal neurologic deficits is the hallmark of the diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The most common presenting symptoms of ischemic stroke ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p528.html

Diagnostic Approach to Patients with Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2014 - Tinnitus, a common symptom encountered in family medicine, is defined as the perception of noise in the absence of an acoustic stimulus outside of the body. Because tinnitus is a symptom and not a disease, its underlying cause must be determined to best help patients. Although tinnitus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p106.html

Cirrhosis and Chronic Liver Failure: Part I. Diagnosis and Evaluation - American Family...

Sep 1, 2006 - Cirrhosis and chronic liver failure are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with the majority of preventable cases attributed to excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Cirrhosis often is an indolent disease; most ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/p756.html

Diagnostic Approach to Chronic Constipation in Adults - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2011 - Constipation is traditionally defined as three or fewer bowel movements per week. Risk factors for constipation include female sex, older age, inactivity, low caloric intake, low-fiber diet, low income, low educational level, and taking a large number of medications. Chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0801/p299.html

Diagnosis of Ear Pain - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2008 - Many patients in primary care present with ear pain (otalgia). When the ear is the source of the pain (primary otalgia), the ear examination is usually abnormal. When the ear is not the source of the pain (secondary otalgia), the ear examination is typically normal. The cause of primary...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p621.html

Revised AAP Guideline on UTI in Febrile Infants and Young Children - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2012 - In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics released a revision of its 1999 clinical practice guideline on urinary tract infections in febrile infants and young children two to 24 months of age. The new clinical practice guideline has several important updates based on evidence ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1115/p940.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Syncope is a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness with complete return to preexisting neurologic function. It is classified as neurally mediated (i.e., carotid sinus hypersensitivity, situational, or vasovagal), cardiac, orthostatic, or neurogenic. Older adults are more likely to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p640.html

Evaluating Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents - ...

Nov 1, 2008 - Obesity continues to be a growing public health problem. According to the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 17 percent of persons two to 19 years of age are overweight. The number of obese children and adolescents has tripled in the past 20 years. Obesity in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/p1052.html

Diagnosis of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2012 - Venous thromboembolism manifests as deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism, and has a mortality rate of 6 to 12 percent. Well-validated clinical prediction rules are available to determine the pretest probability of DVT and pulmonary embolism. When the likelihood of DVT is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1115/p913.html

Understanding and Interpreting the Serum Protein Electrophoresis - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2005 - Serum protein electrophoresis is used to identify patients with multiple myeloma and other serum protein disorders. Electrophoresis separates proteins based on their physical properties, and the subsets of these proteins are used in interpreting the results. Plasma protein levels ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p105.html

Outpatient Approach to Palpitations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - Palpitations are a common problem seen in family medicine; most are of cardiac origin, although an underlying psychiatric disorder, such as anxiety, is also common. Even if a psychiatric comorbidity does exist, it should not be assumed that palpitations are of a noncardiac etiology. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p63.html

Cushing's Disease: Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2000 - The most common endogenous cause of Cushing's syndrome is Cushing's disease. Frequent clinical findings include weight gain, truncal obesity, striae, hypertension, glucose intolerance and infections. Cranial nerve II may be affected by enlarging pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease; ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0901/p1119.html

Initial Evaluation of Vertigo - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2006 - Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, acute vestibular neuronitis, and Meniere's disease cause most cases of vertigo; however, family physicians must consider other causes including cerebrovascular disease, migraine, psychological disease, perilymphatic fistulas, multiple sclerosis, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p244.html

An Approach to Interpreting Spirometry - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2004 - Spirometry is a powerful tool that can be used to detect, follow, and manage patients with lung disorders. Technology advancements have made spirometry much more reliable and relatively simple to incorporate into a routine office visit. However, interpreting spirometry results can be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1107.html

Assessment of Microscopic Hematuria in Adults - American Family Physician

May 15, 2006 - Microscopic hematuria, a common finding on routine urinalysis of adults, is clinically significant when three to five red blood cells per high-power field are visible. Etiologies of microscopic hematuria range from incidental causes to life-threatening urinary tract neoplasm. The lack ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0515/p1748.html

Detection and Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 19 million adult Americans, and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes and hypertension are the underlying causes in most cases of chronic kidney disease. Evidence suggests that progression to kidney failure can be delayed or prevented...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1723.html

Acute Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2003 - Acute abdominal pain in children presents a diagnostic dilemma. Although many cases of acute abdominal pain are benign, some require rapid diagnosis and treatment to minimize morbidity. Numerous disorders can cause abdominal pain. The most common medical cause is gastroenteritis, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0601/p2321.html

Diagnosis of Acute Abdominal Pain in Older Patients - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2006 - Acute abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint in older patients. Presentation may differ from that of the younger patient and is often complicated by coexistent disease, delays in presentation, and physical and social barriers. The physical examination can be misleadingly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1537.html

Lymphadenopathy: Differential Diagnosis and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 1998 - Although the finding of lymphadenopathy sometimes raises fears about serious illness, it is, in patients seen in primary care settings, usually a result of benign infectious causes. Most patients can be diagnosed on the basis of a careful history and physical examination. Localized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1313.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2005 - Though relatively common, syncope is a complex presenting symptom defined by a transient loss of consciousness, usually accompanied by falling, and with spontaneous recovery. Syncope must be carefully differentiated from other conditions that may cause a loss of consciousness or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1015/p1492.html

Essentials of the Diagnosis of Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2000 - Although heart failure is a common clinical syndrome, especially in the elderly, its diagnosis is often missed. A detailed clinical history is crucial and should address not only current signs and symptoms of heart failure but also signs and symptoms that point to a specific cause of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1319.html

Diagnostic Approach to Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2004 - Tinnitus is a common disorder with many possible causes. Most cases of tinnitus are subjective, but occasionally the tinnitus can be heard by an examiner. Otologic problems, especially hearing loss, are the most common causes of subjective tinnitus. Common causes of conductive hearing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0101/p120.html

Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Noninvasive cardiac imaging can be used for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. It is central to the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, or acute coronary syndromes with or without ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1219.html

Preparation of the Cardiac Patient for Noncardiac Surgery - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2007 - Approximately 20 to 40 percent of patients at high risk of cardiac-related morbidity develop myocardial ischemia perioperatively. The preferred approach to diagnostic evaluation depends on the interactions of patient-specific risk factors, surgery-specific risk factors, and exercise ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p656.html

Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematossus - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2003 - Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem inflammatory disease that is often difficult to diagnose. Before the diagnosis can be established, four of 11 clinical and laboratory criteria must be met. Antinuclear antibody titer is the primary laboratory test used to diagnose systemic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1201/p2179.html

Evaluation of Chronic Dyspnea - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2005 - Chronic dyspnea is defined as dyspnea lasting more than one month. In approximately two thirds of patients presenting with dyspnea, the underlying cause is cardiopulmonary disease. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is essential because treatment differs depending on the underlying ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0415/p1529.html

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