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Amenorrhea: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Menstrual patterns can be an indicator of overall health and self-perception of well-being. Primary amenorrhea, defined as the lifelong absence of menses, requires evaluation if menarche has not occurred by 15 years of age or three years post-thelarche. Secondary amenorrhea is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p39.html

Hemolytic Anemia: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - Hemolytic anemia is defined by the premature destruction of red blood cells, and can be chronic or life-threatening. It should be part of the differential diagnosis for any normocytic or macrocytic anemia. Hemolysis may occur intravascularly, extravascularly in the reticuloendothelial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p354.html

Noninfectious Penile Lesions - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2018 - Noninfectious penile lesions are classified by clinical presentation as papulosquamous (e.g., psoriasis), inflammatory (e.g., lichen sclerosus, lichen nitidus, lichen planus), vascular (e.g., angiokeratomas), or neoplastic (e.g., carcinoma in situ, invasive squamous cell carcinoma). ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/p102.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an underlying and potentially reversible cause. The prevalence and potential etiologies of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p453.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

Dizziness: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Dizziness is a common yet imprecise symptom. It was traditionally divided into four categories based on the patient’s history: vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium, and light-headedness. However, the distinction between these symptoms is of limited clinical usefulness. Patients have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p154.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Acute Monoarthritis: Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2016 - Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The most common diagnoses in the primary care setting are osteoarthritis, gout, and trauma. It is important to understand the prevalence of specific etiologies and to use the appropriate diagnostic modalities....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p810.html

Clinical Evaluation of Bleeding and Bruising in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2016 - Bleeding and bruising are common symptoms in the primary care setting. The patient history can help determine whether the bruising or bleeding is abnormal. The International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis has developed a bleeding assessment tool that can be used to indicate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0215/p279.html

Dysuria: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2015 - The most common cause of acute dysuria is infection, especially cystitis. Other infectious causes include urethritis, sexually transmitted infections, and vaginitis. Noninfectious inflammatory causes include a foreign body in the urinary tract and dermatologic conditions. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p778.html

Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2015 - Short stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations below the mean for age (less than the 3rd percentile). Tall stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (greater than the 97th percentile). The initial evaluation of short ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p43.html

Recognition and Differential Diagnosis of Psychosis in Primary Care - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2015 - Psychosis is a symptom complex that may include hallucinations, delusions, disorders of thought, and disorganized speech or behavior. Acute psychosis is primary if it is symptomatic of a psychiatric disorder, or secondary if caused by a specific medical condition. Patients with primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0615/p856.html

Evaluation of Neck Masses in Adults - American Family Physician

May 15, 2015 - Neck masses are often seen in clinical practice, and the family physician should be able to determine the etiology of a mass using organized, efficient diagnostic methods. The first goal is to determine if the mass is malignant or benign; malignancies are more common in adult smokers ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0515/p698.html

Diagnosis of Acute Stroke - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Stroke can be categorized as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Awakening with or experiencing the abrupt onset of focal neurologic deficits is the hallmark of the diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The most common presenting symptoms of ischemic stroke ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p528.html

Unintentional Weight Loss in Older Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 2014 - Unintentional weight loss in persons older than 65 years is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The most common etiologies are malignancy, nonmalignant gastrointestinal disease, and psychiatric conditions. Overall, nonmalignant diseases are more common causes of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p718.html

A Stepwise Approach to the Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests - American Family...

Mar 1, 2014 - Office-based pulmonary function testing, also known as spirometry, is a powerful tool for primary care physicians to diagnose and manage respiratory problems. An obstructive defect is indicated by a low forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio, which...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p359.html

Diagnostic Approach to Patients with Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2014 - Tinnitus, a common symptom encountered in family medicine, is defined as the perception of noise in the absence of an acoustic stimulus outside of the body. Because tinnitus is a symptom and not a disease, its underlying cause must be determined to best help patients. Although tinnitus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p106.html

Evaluation and Diagnosis of Wrist Pain: A Case-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2013 - Patients with wrist pain commonly present with an acute injury or spontaneous onset of pain without a definite traumatic event. A fall onto an outstretched hand can lead to a scaphoid fracture, which is the most commonly fractured carpal bone. Conventional radiography alone can miss up ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/p568.html

Outpatient Diagnosis of Acute Chest Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2013 - Approximately 1 percent of primary care office visits are for chest pain, and 1.5 percent of these patients will have unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. The initial goal in patients presenting with chest pain is to determine if the patient needs to be referred for further ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0201/p177.html

Health Maintenance in Women - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2013 - The health maintenance examination is an opportunity to focus on disease prevention and health promotion. The patient history should include screening for tobacco use, alcohol misuse, intimate partner violence, and depression. Premenopausal women should receive preconception counseling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p30.html

Transient Ischemic Attack: Part I. Diagnosis and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2012 - Transient ischemic attack is defined as transient neurologic symptoms without evidence of acute infarction. It is a common and important risk factor for future stroke, but is greatly underreported. Common symptoms are sudden and transient, and include unilateral paresis, speech ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p521.html

Evaluation of First Nonfebrile Seizures - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2012 - Nonfebrile seizures may indicate underlying disease or epilepsy. The patient history can often distinguish epileptic seizures from nonepileptic disorders by identifying the events directly preceding the convulsion, associated conditions, and details of the seizure, including triggers, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0815/p334.html

Causes and Evaluation of Chronic Dyspnea - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2012 - Chronic dyspnea is shortness of breath that lasts more than one month. The perception of dyspnea varies based on behavioral and physiologic responses. Dyspnea that is greater than expected with the degree of exertion is a symptom of disease. Most cases of dyspnea result from asthma, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p173.html

The Adult Well Male Examination - American Family Physician

May 15, 2012 - The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0515/p964.html

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