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A Practical Approach to Neonatal Jaundice - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Kernicterus and neurologic sequelae caused by severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are preventable conditions. A structured and practical approach to the identification and care of infants with jaundice can facilitate prevention, thus decreasing rates of morbidity and mortality. Primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1255.html

ACC/AHA Guideline Update for the Management of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial ...

Jun 15, 2009 - The American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association, in collaboration with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, have issued an update of the 2004 guideline for the management of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The American Academy of Family ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/p1080.html

Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Adults: Part II. Treatment - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - Although most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viruses, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is a fairly common complication. Even though most patients with acute rhinosinusitis recover promptly without it, antibiotic therapy should be considered in patients with prolonged or more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1697.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Current Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Acute coronary syndrome continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Family physicians need to identify and mitigate risk factors early, as well as recognize and respond to acute coronary syndrome events quickly in any clinical setting. Diagnosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p232.html

Acute Lumbar Disk Pain: Navigating Evaluation and Treatment Choices - American Family ...

Oct 1, 2008 - Acute lumbar disk herniations are the most common cause of sciatica. After excluding emergent causes, such as cauda equina syndrome, epidural abscess, fracture, or malignancy, a six-week trial of conservative management is indicated. Patients should be advised to stay active. If ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p835.html

Ambulatory Devices for Chronic Gait Disorders in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2003 - Gait disorders in the elderly are common and in most cases cannot be treated medically or surgically. Therefore, treatment often relies on ambulatory devices such as canes, crutches, and walkers. Before selecting a device, the patient should be evaluated to define whether one or both ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0415/p1717.html

Ambulatory Management of Burns - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2000 - Burns often happen unexpectedly and have the potential to cause death, lifelong disfigurement and dysfunction. A critical part of burn management is assessing the depth and extent of injury. Burns are now commonly classified as superficial, superficial partial thickness, deep partial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1101/p2015.html

Anaphylaxis: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2011 - Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, systemic allergic reaction that is almost always unanticipated and may lead to death by airway obstruction or vascular collapse. Anaphylaxis occurs as the result of an allergen response, usually immunoglobulin E–mediated, which leads to mast ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1111.html

Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Hypertension - American Family ...

Sep 15, 1999 - The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-VI) includes recommendations for the assessment of overall cardiovascular risk and the need for active antihypertensive drug therapy. Once the decision to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1185.html

Cervical Radiculopathy: Nonoperative Management of Neck Pain and Radicular Symptoms - ...

Jan 1, 2010 - Cervical radiculopathy is a disease process marked by nerve compression from herniated disk material or arthritic bone spurs. This impingement typically produces neck and radiating arm pain or numbness, sensory deficits, or motor dysfunction in the neck and upper extremities. Magnetic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/p33.html

Chronic Nonmalignant Pain in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2008 - A systematic approach to chronic nonmalignant pain includes a comprehensive evaluation; a treatment plan determined by the diagnosis and mechanisms underlying the pain; patient education; and realistic goal setting. The main goal of treatment is to improve quality of life while ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/p1155.html

Cirrhosis and Chronic Liver Failure: Part II. Complications and Treatment - American ...

Sep 1, 2006 - Major complications of cirrhosis include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, variceal bleeding, and hepatorenal syndrome. Diagnostic studies on ascitic fluid should include a differential leukocyte count, total protein level, a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/p767.html

Cognitive Therapy for Depression - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - Cognitive therapy is a treatment process that enables patients to correct false self-beliefs that can lead to negative moods and behaviors. The fundamental assumption is that a thought precedes a mood; therefore, learning to substitute healthy thoughts for negative thoughts will improve...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p83.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillance - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2015 - Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and women. The incidence and mortality rate of the disease have been declining over the past two decades because of early detection and treatment. Screening in persons at average risk should begin at 50 years of age; the U.S. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0115/p93.html

Common Questions About Chronic Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

May 15, 2015 - More than 30% of U.S. adults report having experienced low back pain within the preceding three months. Although most low back pain is nonspecific and self-limiting, a subset of patients develop chronic low back pain, defined as persistent symptoms for longer than three months. Low back...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0515/p708.html

Common Questions About Late-Term and Postterm Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2014 - Pregnancy is considered late term from 41 weeks, 0 days’ to 41 weeks, 6 days’ gestation, and postterm at 42 weeks’ gestation. Early dating of the pregnancy is important for accurately determining when a pregnancy is late- or postterm, and first-trimester ultrasonography should be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p160.html

Complications of Adjustable Gastric Banding Surgery for Obesity - American Family ...

May 15, 2014 - Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedures have a favorable risk-benefit profile and are increasingly important as part of the overall management of obesity. These procedures are effective at inducing weight loss and improving comorbid conditions, including diabetes mellitus, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0515/p813.html

Controlling Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2002 - Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in the United States. Patients with diabetes have a much higher rate of hypertension than would be expected in the general population. Regardless of the antihypertensive agent used, a reduction in blood pressure helps to prevent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1209.html

COPD: Management of Acute Exacerbations and Chronic Stable Disease - American Family ...

Aug 15, 2001 - Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are treated with oxygen (in hypoxemic patients), inhaled beta2 agonists, inhaled anticholinergics, antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids. Methylxanthine therapy may be considered in patients who do not respond to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0815/p603.html

Diabetes Mellitus: Management of Gastrointestinal Complications - American Family ...

Dec 15, 2016 - Gastrointestinal disorders are common complications of diabetes mellitus and include gastroparesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and chronic diarrhea. Symptoms of gastroparesis include early satiety, postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p980.html

Diabetic Foot Infection - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2008 - Foot infections are common in patients with diabetes and are associated with high morbidity and risk of lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0701/p71.html

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - American Family Physician

May 1, 2005 - A diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis requires the patient's plasma glucose concentration to be above 250 mg per dL (although it usually is much higher), the pH level to be less than 7.30, and the bicarbonate level to be 18 mEq per L or less. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a better measurement ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0501/p1705.html

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2013 - Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by a serum glucose level greater than 250 mg per dL, a pH less than 7.3, a serum bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq per L, an elevated serum ketone level, and dehydration. Insulin deficiency is the main precipitating factor. Diabetic ketoacidosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p337.html

Diagnosis and Initial Management of Acute HIV Infection - American Family Physician

May 15, 2010 - Recognition and diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the primary care setting presents an opportunity for patient education and health promotion. Symptoms of acute HIV infection are nonspecific (e.g., fever, malaise, myalgias, rash), making misdiagnosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/p1239.html

Diagnosis and Management of Preeclampsia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2004 - Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder of unknown etiology. The disorder affects approximately 5 to 7 percent of pregnancies and is a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia is defined by the new onset of elevated blood pressure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1215/p2317.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2011 - Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections in women. Most urinary tract infections are acute uncomplicated cystitis. Identifiers of acute uncomplicated cystitis are frequency and dysuria in an immunocompetent woman of childbearing age who has no comorbidities or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p771.html

Digoxin Therapy for Heart Failure: An Update - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2006 - Digoxin therapy has long been used to treat heart failure; however, its effectiveness was not completely known until recently. Results of the Digitalis Investigation Group trial showed that adding digoxin to standard heart failure therapy had no effect on mortality. However, adding ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0815/p613.html

Diverticular Bleeding - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2009 - Diverticular bleeding is a common cause of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Patients typically present with massive and painless rectal hemorrhage. If bleeding is severe, initial resuscitative measures should include airway maintenance and oxygen supplementation, followed by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1101/p977.html

Epilepsy: Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2017 - The occurrence of a single seizure does not always require initiation of antiepileptic drugs. Risk of recurrent seizures should guide their use. In adults, key risk factors for recurrence are two unprovoked seizures occurring more than 24 hours apart, epileptiform abnormalities on ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0715/p87.html

Evaluation and Management of the Patient with Difficult-to-Control or Resistant ...

May 15, 2009 - High blood pressure is often difficult to control. Resistant hypertension is blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three antihypertensive medications of different classes, optimally dosed and usually including a diuretic. The approach to blood pressure...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/p863.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Hematospermia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2009 - Hematospermia can be a distressing symptom for patients, but most cases are effectively managed by a primary care physician. Although the condition is usually benign, significant underlying pathology must be excluded by history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and, in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1421.html

Glucose Management in Hospitalized Patients - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2017 - Glucose management in hospitalized patients poses challenges to physicians, including identifying blood glucose targets, judicious use of oral diabetes mellitus medications, and implementing appropriate insulin regimens. Uncontrolled blood glucose levels can lead to deleterious effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p648.html

Gynecomastia - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2012 - Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of glandular breast tissue in men. Physiologic gynecomastia is common in newborns, adolescents, and older men. It is self-limited, but can be treated to minimize emotional distress and physical discomfort. Nonphysiologic gynecomastia may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p716.html

Hyperkalemia - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2006 - Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors. Acute episodes of hyperkalemia commonly are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p283.html

Hyperlipidemia: Drugs for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Adults - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2017 - Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the U.K. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) indicate that lipid-lowering drugs have benefit for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p78.html

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2017 - Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose and hyperosmolarity with little or no ketosis. Although there are multiple precipitating causes, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p729.html

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State - American Family Physician

May 1, 2005 - Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose, hyperosmolarity, and little or no ketosis. With the dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the aging population, this condition may be encountered more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0501/p1723.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2008 - The National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy has defined four categories of hypertension in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. A maternal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0701/p93.html

Identification and Management of Latent Tuberculosis Infection - American Family Physician

May 15, 2009 - Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a condition in which a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but does not currently have active tuberculosis disease. An estimated 10 to 15 million persons in the United States have LTBI. Because 5 to 10 percent of persons with LTBI ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0515/p879.html

Initiating Hormonal Contraception - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - Most women can safely begin taking hormonal birth control products immediately after an office visit, at any point in the menstrual cycle. Because hormonal contraceptives do not accelerate cervical neoplasia or interfere with cervical cytology, women who have not had a recent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p105.html

Insomnia: Pharmacologic Therapy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - Insomnia accounts for more than 5.5 million visits to family physicians each year. Although behavioral interventions are the mainstay of treatment, pharmacologic therapy may be necessary for some patients. Understanding the risks and benefits of insomnia medications is critical. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p29.html

Insulin Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: Rescue, Augmentation, and Replacement of Beta-Cell...

Aug 1, 2004 - Type 2 diabetes is characterized by progressive beta-cell failure. Indications for exogenous insulin therapy in patients with this condition include acute illness or surgery, pregnancy, glucose toxicity, contraindications to or failure to achieve goals with oral antidiabetic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0801/p489.html

Interventions to Facilitate Smoking Cessation - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2006 - Tobacco use, primarily cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and nearly one third of those who try a cigarette become addicted to nicotine. Family physicians, who see most of these patients in their offices every year, have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0715/p262.html

Kidney Stones: Treatment and Prevention - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Kidney stones are a common disorder, with an annual incidence of eight cases per 1,000 adults. During an episode of renal colic, the first priority is to rule out conditions requiring immediate referral to an emergency department, then to alleviate pain, preferably with a nonsteroidal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p490.html

Laceration Repair: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

May 15, 2017 - The goals of laceration repair are to achieve hemostasis and optimal cosmetic results without increasing the risk of infection. Many aspects of laceration repair have not changed over the years, but there is evidence to support some updates to standard management. Studies have been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p628.html

Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - In the United States, prostate cancer will be diagnosed in one out of seven men in his lifetime. Most cases are localized, and only one in 39 men will die from the disease. Prostate cancer is most often detected using serum prostate-specific antigen testing. The National Comprehensive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p798.html

Low-Molecular Weight Heparin in Preventing and Treating DVT - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1999 - Low-molecular-weight heparin is a relatively recent addition to the list of therapies for prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). As a prophylactic, low-molecular-weight heparin is as effective as standard heparin or warfarin and does not require monitoring of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0315/p1607.html

Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin in Treatment of DVT - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 1999 - Patients with a diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombosis have traditionally been hospitalized and treated with unfractionated heparin followed by oral anticoagulation therapy. Several clinical trials have shown that low-molecular-weight heparin is at least as safe and effective as ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0215/p945.html

Management of Active Tuberculosis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2005 - Although the overall incidence of tuberculosis has been declining in the United States, it remains an important public health concern, particularly among immigrants, homeless persons, and persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Patients who present with symptoms of active ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2225.html

Management of Acute Asthma Exacerbations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - Asthma exacerbations can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, or life threatening. Criteria for exacerbation severity are based on symptoms and physical examination parameters, as well as lung function and oxygen saturation. In patients with a peak expiratory flow of 50 to 79 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p40.html

Management of Acute Renal Failure - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - Acute renal failure is present in 1 to 5 percent of patients at hospital admission and affects up to 20 percent of patients in intensive care units. The condition has prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes, with prerenal conditions accounting for 60 to 70 percent of cases. The cause...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1739.html

Management of Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2009 - Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus focus on three areas: intensive lifestyle intervention that includes at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity, weight loss with an initial goal of 7 percent of baseline weight, and a low-fat, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0101/p29.html

Management of Blood Glucose with Noninsulin Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes - American ...

Jul 1, 2015 - A comprehensive, collaborative approach is necessary for optimal treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment guidelines focus on nutrition, exercise, and pharmacologic therapies to prevent and manage complications. Patients with prediabetes or new-onset diabetes ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p27.html

Management of Constipation in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Chronic constipation is common in adults older than 60 years, and symptoms occur in up to 50% of nursing home residents. Primary constipation is also referred to as functional constipation. Secondary constipation is associated with chronic disease processes, medication use, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p500.html

Management of Crohn's Disease--A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2003 - Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that affects up to 480,000 persons in the United States. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, malaise, and arthralgias, and cause considerable morbidity. Speculation about genetic, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0815/p707.html

Management of Erectile Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2010 - Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual problem in men. The incidence increases with age and affects up to one third of men throughout their lives. It causes a substantial negative impact on intimate relationships, quality of life, and self-esteem. History and physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0201/p305.html

Management of Falls in Older Persons: A Prescription for Prevention - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2011 - Although falls are a common cause of injury in older persons, they are not just a normal part of the aging process. The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1267.html

Management of Genital Warts - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2004 - Genital warts caused by human papillomavirus infection are encountered commonly in primary care. Evidence guiding treatment selection is limited, but treatment guidelines recently have changed. Biopsy, viral typing, acetowhite staining, and other diagnostic measures are not routinely ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1215/p2335.html

Management of Heatstroke and Heat Exhaustion - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Heat exhaustion and heatstroke are part of a continuum of heat-related illness. Both are common and preventable conditions affecting diverse patients. Recent research has identified a cascade of inflammatory pathologic events that begins with mild heat exhaustion and, if uninterrupted, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2133.html

Management of Hepatitis C: Evaluating Suitability for Drug Therapy - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2004 - Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a common and serious disease. Although an estimated 2.7 million persons in the United States have this disease, most have not yet been diagnosed. Recent advances in treatment provide successful cure in 50 to 80 percent of cases. Current drug ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1429.html

Management of Hip Fracture: The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2006 - The incidence of hip fracture is expected to increase as the population ages. One in five persons dies in the first year after sustaining a hip fracture, and those who survive past one year may have significant functional limitation. Although surgery is the main treatment for hip ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2195.html

Management of Histologic Abnormalities of the Cervix - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology sponsored a consensus conference in 2001 to develop evidence-based guidelines for women with histologic abnormalities of the cervix. The options for management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, 2, and 3 are ranked ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p105.html

Management of Hospitalized Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - American Family ...

Mar 1, 1998 - Subopitmal glycemic control in hospitalized patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus can have adverse consequences, including increased neurologic ischemia, delayed wound healing and an increased infection rate. Poor glycemic control can also affect the outcome of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0301/p1079.html

Management of Hypertriglyceridemia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and acute pancreatitis. Along with lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lowering triglyceride levels in high-risk patients (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1365.html

Management of Peripheral Aterial Disease - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Peripheral arterial disease is common, but the diagnosis frequently is overlooked because of subtle physical findings and lack of classic symptoms. Screening based on the ankle brachial index using Doppler ultrasonography may be more useful than physical examination alone. Noninvasive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p525.html

Management of Sickle Cell Disease: Recommendations from the 2014 Expert Panel Report - ...

Dec 15, 2015 - Family physicians are the primary and sometimes only health care resource for families affected by sickle cell disease. Recently published guidelines provide important recommendations for health maintenance, acute care, and monitoring of disease-modifying therapy in persons with this ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1069.html

Management of Spontaneous Abortion - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - Spontaneous abortion, which is the loss of a pregnancy without outside intervention before 20 weeks' gestation, affects up to 20 percent of recognized pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion can be subdivided into threatened abortion, inevitable abortion, incomplete abortion, missed abortion,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1243.html

Management of Staphylococcus aureus Infections - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2005 - Because of high incidence, morbidity, and antimicrobial resistance, Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing concern for family physicians. Strains of S. aureus that are resistant to vancomycin are now recognized. Increasing incidence of unrecognized community-acquired ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1215/p2474.html

Management of the Ingrown Toenail - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2009 - Ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, most commonly affects the great toenail. Many anatomic and behavioral factors are thought to contribute to ingrown toenails, such as improper trimming, repetitive or inadvertent trauma, genetic predisposition, hyperhidrosis, and poor foot hygiene. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0215/p303.html

Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Combination therapy of hypertension with separate agents or a fixed-dose combination pill offers the potential to lower blood pressure more quickly, obtain target blood pressure, and decrease adverse effects. Antihypertensive agents from different classes may offset adverse reactions ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1279.html

Medical Management of Common Urinary Calculi - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - Nephrolithiasis is a common condition affecting nearly 5 percent of U.S. men and women during their lifetimes. Recurrent calculi can be prevented in most patients by the use of a simplified evaluation, reasonable dietary and fluid recommendations, and directed pharmacologic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p86.html

Medical Management of Obesity - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2000 - Obesity is one of the most common medical problems in the United States and a risk factor for illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes, degenerative arthritis and myocardial infarction. It is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality and generates great social and financial costs. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0715/p419.html

Medications for Migraine Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - Sufficient evidence and consensus exist to recommend propranolol, timolol, amitriptyline, divalproex, sodium valproate, and topiramate as first-line agents for migraine prevention. There is fair evidence of effectiveness with gabapentin and naproxen sodium. Botulinum toxin also has ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p72.html

Migraine Headache Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Migraines impose significant health and financial burdens. Approximately 38% of patients with episodic migraines would benefit from preventive therapy, but less than 13% take prophylactic medications. Preventive medication therapy reduces migraine frequency, severity, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p17.html

Myocardial Infarction: Management of the Subacute Period - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2013 - Optimal management of myocardial infarction in the subacute period focuses on improving the discharge planning process, implementing therapies early to prevent recurrent myocardial infarction, and avoiding hospital readmission. Evidence-based guidelines for the care of patients with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1101/p581.html

Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2003 - Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, commonly known as 'morning sickness,' affects approximately 80 percent of pregnant women. Although several theories have been proposed, the exact cause remains unclear. Recent research has implicated Helicobacter pylori as one possible cause. Nausea and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0701/p121.html

Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2014 - Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects nearly 75% of pregnant women. The exact cause is unknown. In most cases, it is a mild, self-limited condition that can be controlled with conservative measures and has no adverse fetal sequelae. About 1% of women develop hyperemesis gravidarum, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p965.html

Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p746.html

Nonpharmacologic Management of Chronic Insomnia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - Insomnia affects 10% to 30% of the population with a total cost of $92.5 to $107.5 billion annually. Short-term, chronic, and other types of insomnia are the three major categories according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd ed. The criteria for diagnosis are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1058.html

Nonsurgical Management of Knee Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - The role of the family physician in managing knee pain is expanding as recent literature supports nonsurgical management for many patients. Effective treatment depends on the etiology of knee pain. Oral analgesics—most commonly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen—are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p875.html

Office Management of Early Pregnancy Loss - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - The management of early pregnancy loss used to be based largely in the hospital setting, but it has shifted to the outpatient setting, allowing women to remain under the care of their family physician throughout the miscarriage process. Up to 15 percent of recognized pregnancies end in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p75.html

Oral Analgesics for Acute Nonspecific Pain - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Physicians most often recommend or prescribe oral medication for relief of acute pain. This review of the available evidence supports the use of acetaminophen in doses up to 1,000 mg as the initial choice for mild to moderate acute pain. In some cases, modest improvements in analgesic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p913.html

Outpatient Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Optimal outpatient treatment of systolic heart failure has three goals that should be pursued simultaneously: (1) control of risk factors for the development and progression of heart failure, (2) treatment of heart failure, and (3) education of patients. Control of risk factors includes...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2157.html

Perioperative Cardiovascular Medication Management in Noncardiac Surgery: Common ...

May 15, 2017 - Several medications have been used perioperatively in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery in an attempt to improve outcomes. Antiplatelet therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular events should generally be discontinued seven to 10 days before surgery to avoid increasing the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p645.html

Pharmacologic Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2008 - Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with diabetes, and adequate control of blood pressure significantly reduces the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Patients with diabetes should achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm Hg. The use of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1277.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: An Update - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2003 - Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the development of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which are associated with neuronal destruction, particularly in cholinergic neurons. Drugs that inhibit the degradation of acetylcholine within synapses are the mainstay of therapy. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1001/p1365.html

Polypharmacy: Evaluating Risks and Deprescribing - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Polypharmacy, defined as regular use of at least five medications, is common in older adults and younger at-risk populations and increases the risk of adverse medical outcomes. There are several risk factors that can lead to polypharmacy. Patient-related factors include having multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p32.html

Postexposure Prophylaxis Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2010 - Family physicians often encounter situations in which postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral medications against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be indicated. When the exposure source's HIV status is unknown and testing of the source is possible, use of a rapid HIV ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0715/p161.html

Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are common electrolyte disorders caused by changes in potassium intake, altered excretion, or transcellular shifts. Diuretic use and gastrointestinal losses are common causes of hypokalemia, whereas kidney disease, hyperglycemia, and medication use are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p487.html

Premenstrual Syndrome - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2003 - Premenstrual syndrome, a common cyclic disorder of young and middle-aged women, is characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that consistently occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Women with more severe affective symptoms are classified as having premenstrual ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0415/p1743.html

Prevention and Treatment of Overweight in Children and Adolescents - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2004 - Overweight in childhood and adolescence is an important public health issue because of its rapidly increasing prevalence and associated adverse medical and social consequences. Recent studies have estimated that 15 percent of children in the United States are at risk for overweight, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0601/p2591.html

Respiratory Distress in the Newborn - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2007 - The most common etiology of neonatal respiratory distress is transient tachypnea of the newborn; this is triggered by excessive lung fluid, and symptoms usually resolve spontaneously. Respiratory distress syndrome can occur in premature infants as a result of surfactant deficiency and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p987.html

Secondary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2010 - Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. In patients who have had a myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure, secondary prevention of coronary artery disease by comprehensive risk factor modification reduces mortality, decreases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0201/p289.html

Selecting Medications for the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2005 - In response to the growing population of older patients with incontinence, pharmaceutical companies are developing new drugs to treat the condition. Before prescribing medications for incontinence, however, physicians should determine the nature and cause of the patient's incontinence. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0115/p315.html

Sepsis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2020 - Guidelines published in 2016 provide a revised definition of sepsis: life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The guidelines define septic shock as sepsis with circulatory, cellular, and metabolic dysfunction that is associated with a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p409.html

Severe Asymptomatic Hypertension: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Hypertension affects one-third of Americans and is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal disease, and death. Severe asymptomatic hypertension is defined as severely elevated blood pressure (180 mm Hg or more systolic, or 110 mm Hg or more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p492.html

Skin and Soft Tissue Infections - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p474.html

Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Stable coronary artery disease refers to a reversible supply/demand mismatch related to ischemia, a history of myocardial infarction, or the presence of plaque documented by catheterization or computed tomography angiography. Patients are considered stable if they are asymptomatic or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p376.html

Stress Fractures: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. These injuries occur more commonly in lower extremities than in upper extremities. Stress fractures should be considered in patients who present with tenderness or edema after a recent increase in activity or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p39.html

Subacute to Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2012 - Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1045.html

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