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Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Children, Healthy Adults, and Older Adults...

Aug 1, 2019 - Influenza vaccination reduces rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza and symptomatic influenza-like illness in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults. There is no consistent evidence that influenza vaccination reduces school absenteeism in children, parental absenteeism ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p143.html

Medication Management for Chronic Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction - ...

Jul 1, 2019 - Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce hospitalizations for patients with HFpEF. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have not been shown to change the morbidity or mortality in patients with HFpEF.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p17.html

Aromatase Inhibitors Such as Letrozole (Femara) vs. Clomiphene (Clomid) for Subfertile ...

May 1, 2019 - When treated with letrozole, subfertile women with PCOS who are trying to conceive have increased chances of pregnancy (number needed to treat [NNT] = 11) and live birth (NNT = 10) compared with those treated with clomiphene.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p545.html

Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori Infection - Cochrane for ...

Jul 1, 2019 - When compared with serology or stool antigen tests, the urea breath test has the highest diagnostic accuracy to identify H. pylori infection in patients without a history of gastrectomy or recent use of antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p16.html

Anticoagulation for the Long-term Treatment of VTE in Patients with Cancer - Cochrane ...

Jun 1, 2019 - Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), vitamin K antagonists, and direct oral anticoagulants, when used to prevent recurrent VTE, have a similar impact on all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p676.html

Blood Pressure Targets for Patients with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease - ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Achieving a target BP of 135/85 mm Hg or less does not decrease the risk of total cardiovascular events vs. treating to a target of 140 to 160/90 to 100 mm Hg. Further, treating to the lower BP target does not improve total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p276.html

Alternative Interventions for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Men -...

Jun 1, 2019 - In men with chronic pelvic pain and urinary dysfunction who have not responded to standard medical management, extracorporeal shock wave therapy reduces symptoms and increases quality of life. Acupuncture may also provide benefit to some patients.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p677.html

Direct Oral Anticoagulants vs. Warfarin to Prevent Stroke and Embolic Events in ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Direct oral anticoagulants are as likely as warfarin to prevent all strokes and systemic embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and CKD stage 3. They do not increase the risk of major bleeding events. The evidence remains insufficient to make recommendations for the use of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p422.html

Different Durations of Corticosteroid Therapy for COPD Exacerbations - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2019 - Treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD with a shorter course of systemic corticosteroids (seven or fewer days) is likely to be as effective and safe as treating with longer courses (more than seven days).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p295.html

Saline Irrigation for Allergic Rhinitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

May 1, 2019 - asal saline irrigation reduces the severity of allergy symptoms for up to eight weeks vs. no treatment. It is uncertain if adding nasal saline to pharmacologic treatment further improves symptoms over pharmacologic treatment alone.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p544.html

Pulse Oximetry Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects in Newborns - Cochrane ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Pulse oximetry is an accurate screening test for critical congenital heart defects in newborns. Pulse oximetry is simple to use, widely available, and has moderate sensitivity (76.3%) and good specificity (99.9%). However, the prevalence of critical congenital heart defects is low, and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p421.html

Deep Venous Thrombosis: Home vs. Inpatient Treatment - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Patients treated at home with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) have lower rates of recurrent VTE than those treated in a hospital.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p642.html

Prophylactic Vaccination Against Human Papillomavirus to Prevent Cervical Cancer and ...

Jan 1, 2019 - HPV vaccination in women 15 to 26 years of age prevents the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN 3 in women regardless of previous HPV exposure (number needed to treat [NNT] = 39). No serious adverse effects are associated with administration of the HPV ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p15.html

Preventing or Delaying Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Diet and Exercise - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2018 - There is moderate-quality evidence that in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) defined by an abnormal 75-g two-hour glucose tolerance test, implementing changes in diet and adding physical activity together can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p643.html

Smectite for Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Children - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Mar 1, 2019 - When compared with placebo, smectite decreases the duration of diarrhea by about a day, with a mean difference of 24.4 fewer hours of diarrhea (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9 to 30.9 hours). Smectite also decreases stool output by 11.4 g per kg (95% CI, 0.8 to 22 g per kg).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p294.html

The Role of Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia - ...

Aug 1, 2018 - There is moderate-quality evidence that PPIs are more effective than placebo at relieving overall symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (number needed to treat [NNT] = 11). Low-quality evidence suggests a small benefit of PPI therapy compared with prokinetics, and little to no ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p152.html

Complementary and Integrative Treatments for Pain Management in Labor - Cochrane for ...

Feb 1, 2019 - There is evidence that all of the studied interventions have some benefit in labor, but the evidence is of low to very low quality. Massage, thermal interventions (warm and cold packs), relaxation techniques, yoga, and music reduce pain during latent labor, but not during active labor.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p154.html

Pharmacologic Interventions for Apathy in Patients with Alzheimer Disease - Cochrane ...

Jan 1, 2019 - Methylphenidate may improve apathy in select patients with AD (mean difference [MD] = –4.99 on the apathy evaluation scale; 95% confidence interval [CI], –9.55 to –0.43), although the clinical significance associated with these findings remains unclear and the evidence is considered low...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p14.html

Oral Immunotherapy for Egg Allergy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Providing daily, steadily increasing doses of egg protein over an extended period of time effectively diminishes the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic response among children with egg allergy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p156.html

Feed Thickener for Newborn Infants with Gastroesophageal Reflux - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Feed thickeners decrease the number of reflux episodes in full-term formula-fed infants. Additionally, full-term formula-fed infants with GER who are given thickeners are more than twice as likely to be asymptomatic compared with infants not receiving thickeners at one to eight weeks of...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p275.html

Interventions for Treatment of Overweight and Obese Children - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Aug 1, 2018 - Interventions that include combinations of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes may reduce weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-score (equivalent to BMI-for-age percentile) in overweight and obese children six to 11 years of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p151.html

Culture-Specific Asthma Education Programs for Minority Groups - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2018 - In children from minority groups, culture-specific asthma education programs (CAEPs) reduce the number of severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalization and improve asthma control as measured by the Childhood Asthma Control Test but not the Asthma Control Questionnaire. CAEPs ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p572.html

Interventions for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Children Five Years and...

Oct 1, 2018 - Child feeding interventions are effective in the short term (i.e., less than 12 months) for increasing a child's intake of fruits and vegetables, but only by less than 5% of the recommended daily allowance. Conversely, parental nutrition education and multicomponent interventions, such ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p419.html

Procalcitonin to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Respiratory Infections - Cochrane ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy, when compared with routine treatments, results in decreased mortality in patients with acute respiratory infections (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 1.4%; number needed to treat [NNT] = 71).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p20.html

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Detection of Alzheimer Disease in Patients with Mild...

Jun 1, 2018 - There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the detection of progressive dementias in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These tests carry the risk of overdiagnosis of dementia and, therefore, overtreatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p714.html

Individual Behavioral Counseling for Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Individual behavioral counseling conducted by a trained therapist provides some benefit when compared with brief counseling and support; however, this benefit is less pronounced in the context of pharmacotherapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p21.html

Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy for Epilepsy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

May 1, 2018 - In patients with partial-onset (focal) seizures, levetiracetam (Keppra), lamotrigine (Lamictal), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) were associated with the longest time to treatment withdrawal (i.e., the recommended patient-oriented outcome measure that balances tolerability with ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p572.html

DPP-4 Inhibitors and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes...

Apr 1, 2018 - There is only limited-quality evidence that at-risk patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists are less likely to progress to diabetes (number needed to treat [NNT] = 23). Serious adverse events were more likely in patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists than in patients taking placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p437.html

Atypical Antipsychotics for Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents -...

Jun 1, 2018 - Risperidone reduces measures of aggression and improves conduct in children with disruptive behavior disorders; however, only short-term use is recommended. Weight gain of 2 to 2.5 kg (4.4 to 5.5 lb) is common. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the benefits of other ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p715.html

Effectiveness and Safety of Celecoxib for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis - ...

May 1, 2018 - Compared with placebo, celecoxib improves pain (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4) and clinical symptoms (NNT = 7), but it has no effect on physical function in patients with RA.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p573.html

Use of Niacin for Primary or Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular or Cerebrovascular ...

Apr 1, 2018 - Prescription niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) does not reduce myocardial infarctions, strokes, or overall mortality when used for primary or secondary prevention.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p436.html

Written Action Plans for Self-Management of COPD Exacerbations - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2018 - Written self-management plans, especially those that include guidance on smoking cessation, increase health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. They also decrease the need for respiratory-related hospital admissions among patients with high or low baseline risk.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p310.html

Effect of Pacifier Use on Duration of Breastfeeding - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2018 - In healthy, full-term, breastfeeding infants, there is moderate evidence that unrestricted pacifier use, started at birth or after lactation has been established, does not decrease the likelihood of continued exclusive or partial breastfeeding through four months of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p311.html

Injected Corticosteroids for Plantar Heel Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Feb 1, 2018 - There is low-quality evidence that corticosteroid injections slightly reduce heel pain at one month, but they make no significant difference beyond that time. Patients treated with corticosteroid injections were less likely to experience treatment failure—a designation that was defined ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p169.html

Effectiveness of Moisturizers in the Treatment of Patients with Eczema - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Moisturizers decrease the rate of eczema flare-ups by 3.7 times vs. no treatment (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4), as well as the amount of topical corticosteroids used per eczema flare-up (9.3 g less). Adverse effects are minimal.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p18.html

Effectiveness of Skin-to-Skin Care for Procedure-Related Pain in Newborns - Cochrane ...

Feb 1, 2018 - Skin-to-skin care, also known as kangaroo care, effectively reduces physiologic and behavioral measures of pain in neonates during painful procedures and has no identified adverse effects. Infants who received skin-to-skin care during painful procedures had a heart rate of 10.8 beats ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p170.html

Oral Rehydration Solutions for the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhea - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2017 - Oral rehydration solutions are distinguished by high or low osmolarity and by whether they are made with complex (i.e., polymer) or simple (i.e., glucose) carbohydrates. When oral rehydration solutions with high osmolarity (310 mOsm per L or greater) are compared, polymer-based ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p700.html

Dietary Interventions for Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Childhood - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Probiotics relieve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain in the short term (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8). There is no convincing evidence that fiber supplements improve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p19.html

Topical NSAIDs for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Topical diclofenac and ketoprofen are slightly more effective than placebo for relieving chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis in adults. Evidence is lacking to determine the effectiveness of topical NSAIDs compared with oral NSAIDs.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p573.html

Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Patients Being Treated for or Recovering from ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Pharmacotherapy alone and pharmacotherapy plus counseling are effective for tobacco cessation among patients being treated for or recovering from alcohol and substance use disorders. Counseling interventions without pharmacotherapy are not effective for tobacco cessation among patients ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p572.html

Mini-Mental State Examination for the Detection of Dementia in Older Patients - ...

Dec 1, 2016 - When scores are adjusted based on a patient's education level, the MMSE may be useful to rule out a diagnosis of dementia in clinically unevaluated patients 65 years and older (sensitivity = 97%; specificity = 70%). Scores of less than 24 may also be useful to rule in dementia in ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p880.html

Laxatives for the Management of Childhood Constipation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2017 - Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is superior to placebo (mean difference [MD] = 2.61 more stools per week; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 4.08), lactulose (MD = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.31), and milk of magnesia (MD = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.89) at increasing the number of bowel ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p433.html

Yoga for Cancer-Related Symptoms in Women with Breast Cancer - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Oct 1, 2017 - Yoga improves health-related quality of life, reduces sleep disturbances, and decreases fatigue in the short term (up to 12 weeks) among women diagnosed with breast cancer who have completed cancer-related treatment or are receiving cancer treatment compared with no intervention.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p434.html

Pregabalin for Fibromyalgia Pain in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - There is high-quality evidence that pregabalin in daily dosages of 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg reduces pain associated with fibromyalgia. The most effective dosage seems to be 450 mg daily; this dosage is more effective than placebo at reducing pain by at least 50% (number needed to ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p291.html

Vitamin D for the Management of Asthma - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - Despite the authors' caution that further data are needed to clarify the role of vitamin D in care, this Cochrane review found that its use reduces the average number of asthma exacerbations requiring corticosteroid treatment from 0.44 to 0.28 per person per year.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p290.html

Antiplatelet vs. Anticoagulation Therapy for Patients with Heart Failure in Sinus ...

Aug 1, 2017 - Heart failure increases the risk of thrombotic complications, but use of warfarin does not lower all-cause mortality more than aspirin in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in sinus rhythm.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p160.html

Effects of Yoga in Patients with Asthma - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2017 - Regular yoga improves quality of life as measured on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (mean difference = 0.57 units on a seven-point scale; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.77); improves asthma symptoms (standardized mean difference = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.65); and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p159.html

Surgery vs. Medical Therapy for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jul 1, 2017 - In women of reproductive age with chronic heavy menstrual bleeding, hysterectomy is the most effective treatment for controlling symptoms. Conservative surgery is more effective for controlling bleeding symptoms at one and two years than oral medications or the levonorgestrel-releasing ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p24.html

Acupuncture for Migraine Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - There is moderate-quality evidence that whole-body acupuncture is effective for migraine prevention. Compared with usual care, acupuncture is more effective at reducing headache frequency by at least 50% (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p23.html

Self-Monitoring and Self-Management of Oral Anticoagulation - Cochrane for Clinicians -...

Jun 1, 2017 - In patients taking warfarin (Coumadin) for anticoagulation, there is moderate-quality evidence that both self-monitoring (number needed to treat [NNT] = 100) and self-management (NNT = 53) reduce thromboembolic events, and that self-management reduces all-cause mortality (NNT = 67).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p700.html

Physical Fitness Training for Patients with Stroke - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Jun 1, 2017 - There is moderate-quality evidence that physical fitness training improves disability after stroke. Cardiovascular training that includes only aerobic exercise has a moderate effect on disability (standard mean difference [SMD] = 0.52 on a pooled disability scale), although it is not ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p701.html

Beta2 Agonists for Acute Cough or a Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Bronchitis - Cochrane ...

May 1, 2017 - There is insufficient evidence to determine whether beta2 agonists can improve symptoms for children with acute cough or bronchitis with wheeze. Beta2 agonists are not likely to benefit and may cause adverse effects in adults who do not have evidence of airflow restriction (number ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p551.html

Radioactive Iodine Therapy vs. Antithyroid Medications for Graves Disease - Cochrane ...

Mar 1, 2017 - Radioactive iodine therapy and antithyroid medications produce similar health-related quality-of-life outcomes in patients with Graves disease. Radioactive iodine therapy is an appropriate choice for patients who prefer definitive treatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p292.html

Citrate Salts for Preventing and Treating Calcium-Containing Kidney Stones in Adults - ...

May 1, 2017 - Citrate supplementation reduces stone size to less than 5 mm and prevents new stone formation when compared with placebo or no intervention. Citrate therapy also stabilizes existing stones and decreases the need for retreatment. These benefits come at the expense of upper ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p552.html

The Effect of Statins on Dementia and Cognitive Decline - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Feb 1, 2017 - Statins given in later life to patients at risk of vascular disease do not prevent dementia or cognitive decline compared with placebo. Adverse effects are similar between groups.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p151.html

Effects of Altered Dietary Salt Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease - ...

Apr 1, 2017 - Reducing salt intake lowers blood pressure and reduces proteinuria in patients with CKD, but there is no evidence to determine whether lowering salt consumption leads to clinically significant reductions in end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events, or all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p423.html

Preventing Unintended Adolescent Pregnancy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2017 - Among adolescents, educational interventions increase reported condom use at most recent intercourse, whereas contraceptive-promoting interventions increase use of hormonal contraception.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p422.html

Extended-Release Bupropion for Preventing Seasonal Affective Disorder in Adults - ...

Jan 1, 2017 - When started in the fall, extended-release bupropion, 300 mg once daily, is effective in preventing recurrent symptoms in high-risk adults with a history of SAD (number needed to treat [NNT] = 5), as well as those at lower risk (NNT = 8). Headaches, nausea, and insomnia may limit ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p10.html

Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older Adults Living in the Community - ...

Feb 1, 2017 - Structured exercise programs and home safety interventions reduce both the rate and the risk of falling among community-dwelling adults 65 years and older, whereas multifactorial assessment and intervention programs reduce the rate of falls but not the risk of falling. Vitamin D ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p152.html

Topical Tacrolimus for Eczema - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2016 - For children and adults with moderate to severe eczema, topical tacrolimus is an effective, albeit costly, alternative to topical corticosteroids. Both tacrolimus strengths (0.03% and 0.1%) are superior to low-potency topical corticosteroids, whereas tacrolimus 0.1% has similar ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p549.html

Misoprostol for Incomplete First Trimester Miscarriage - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Apr 1, 2014 - Misoprostol, administered by various routes, is as effective as expectant management and nearly as effective as uterine aspiration. All three options have high success rates for completing miscarriage. Women treated with misoprostol had higher rates of nausea, prolonged bleeding, and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p523.html

Interventions to Facilitate Shared Decision Making to Address Antibiotic Use for Acute ...

Jan 1, 2017 - Interventions to facilitate shared decision making reduce the prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections in the short term (within six weeks of the consultation) without increasing return visits or decreasing patient satisfaction (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p11.html

Impact of Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Dec 1, 2016 - Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation reduces cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization. There is no evidence that it reduces the rates of total mortality, myocardial infarctions, coronary artery bypass grafts, or percutaneous coronary interventions.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p881.html

Topical Antihistamines and Mast Cell Stabilizers for Treating Allergic Conjunctivitis -...

Jun 1, 2016 - Topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers, either alone or in combination, are safe and effective for reducing the symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p915.html

The Risk of MI and Ischemic Stroke with Combined Oral Contraceptives - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2016 - The overall risk of MI and ischemic stroke is increased in women who use combined oral contraceptives. The relative risk of MI and ischemic stroke increases as estrogen dose rises, increasing by 60% with doses of 20 mcg and more than doubling when doses of 50 mcg or more are used.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p691.html

Amiodarone for the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Nov 1, 2016 - Although not a substitute for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), amiodarone is effective for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death when compared with placebo (number needed to treat [NNT] = 47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 100), but it does not ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p692.html

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Fibromyalgia - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2016 - SSRIs may have a small to moderate effect on pain (number needed to treat [NNT] = 10), global improvement (NNT = 7), and depression (NNT = 13) in patients with fibromyalgia, but the quality of evidence is very low because of bias and small studies. SSRIs do not reduce fatigue related to...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p548.html

Second-Generation H1-Antihistamines for Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2016 - There is good evidence that second-generation H1-antihistamines are helpful in the short- and intermediate-term suppression of urticaria. Cetirizine (Zyrtec) in a dosage of 10 mg daily is effective at completely suppressing symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria (number needed to ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0901/p352.html

Fluoride Varnish for Preventing Dental Caries in Children and Adolescents - Cochrane ...

May 1, 2016 - Topically applied fluoride varnishes are safe and effective in preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. There is little information about adverse effects or treatment acceptability. Family physicians should consider incorporating fluoride varnish into childhood preventive ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p743.html

Acetaminophen for the Treatment of Pain in Newborns - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Aug 1, 2016 - Acetaminophen does not significantly reduce pain associated with heel lance, eye examinations, or assisted vaginal births in newborns. Acetaminophen may reduce the total amount of morphine a newborn needs in the first 48 hours following major abdominal or thoracic surgery.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p216.html

Capsaicin for Nonallergic Rhinitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2016 - Intranasal capsaicin is safe and effective for reducing symptoms of nonallergic rhinitis (number needed to treat = 4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 to 22). There is insufficient evidence to compare the effectiveness of capsaicin to other topical or systemic medications.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p217.html

Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroid Therapy for Mild Persistent Asthma in Children and ...

Jul 1, 2016 - Intermittent inhaled corticosteroid therapy reduces the risk of asthma exacerbations in children and adults with mild persistent asthma. Intermittent use appears to be safe in these patients.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p21.html

Honey for Acute Cough in Children - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - For patients one to 18 years of age, providing honey for cough symptoms can reduce the frequency and severity of cough, as well as improve sleep for patients and parents, when compared with placebo or no treatment. Honey is no better than dextromethorphan for symptom control.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p20.html

When to Discontinue Antiepileptic Drug Therapy for Patients in Remission - Cochrane for...

Jun 1, 2016 - Children with epilepsy should be seizure-free for at least two years before stopping antiepileptic drug therapy, especially those who have partial seizures or a history of abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) results.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p914.html

Antiviral Therapy for Bell Palsy - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - The combination of antiviral agents and corticosteroids is more effective than corticosteroids alone for the complete recovery of patients with Bell palsy (number needed to treat [NNT] = 15) and for the resolution of motor synkinesis and excessive tear production (NNT = 12). Antivirals ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p742.html

The Impact of Contraception on Lactation - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Use of hormonal contraception does not appear to shorten breastfeeding duration or negatively impact infant growth, based on inconsistent evidence of moderate quality. It is unclear if hormonal contraception negatively impacts breast milk volume or composition. Overall, there was ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p356.html

Pilates for the Treatment of Low Back Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2016 - There is low- to moderate-quality evidence that Pilates exercises taught by certified instructors improve pain and reduce disability in patients with chronic low back pain. It is unclear whether a Pilates regimen is superior to other exercise plans for the treatment of low back pain. ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p556.html

Oral Contraceptives Are Not an Effective Treatment for Ovarian Cysts - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2014 - Oral contraceptives are not an effective treatment for ovarian cysts, whether the cysts are spontaneous or associated with medically induced ovulation. Most cysts resolve without intervention within two to three months. Those that do not resolve in this time frame are more likely to be ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1101/p623.html

Impact of Antenatal Dietary Education and Supplementation on Maternal and Infant Health...

Apr 1, 2016 - Antenatal dietary education appears to decrease the rate of preterm birth and increase infant birth weight among undernourished women. Providing balanced energy and protein supplements to pregnant women decreases the risk of stillbirth, low birth weight, and having an infant that is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p557.html

Influenza Vaccination for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2016 - Influenza vaccination may reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with established cardiovascular disease. The effect of vaccination is unclear among patients in the general population without known cardiovascular disease.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p357.html

Quinine for Leg Cramps - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2016 - Quinine is moderately effective in decreasing the frequency and intensity of muscle cramps, but it is also associated with an increase in minor adverse effects. In addition, there is a risk of rare but serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p177.html

Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

Feb 1, 2016 - Electronic cigarettes with nicotine increase smoking cessation rates compared with placebo, with effectiveness similar to that of nicotine patches. In addition, more patients using electronic cigarettes with nicotine were able to halve their use of cigarettes than those using placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p178.html

Therapist-Supported Online Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Adult Anxiety - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2016 - Therapist-supported online CBT is more effective than no treatment and as effective as face-to-face CBT for reducing overall anxiety as well as symptoms, and improving quality of life in adults with anxiety disorders.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0101/p19.html

Chewing Gum for Postoperative Recovery of Gastrointestinal Function - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2015 - Having patients chew gum reduces the time to first flatus and time to first bowel movement, as well as the length of hospitalization by about half a day.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p974.html

Tricyclic Antidepressants for the Treatment of ADHD in Children and Adolescents - ...

Sep 1, 2015 - TCAs, specifically desipramine and nortriptyline (Pamelor), are superior to placebo at reducing ADHD symptoms in the short term (two to six weeks); however, the quality of evidence is low. Increased heart rate and diastolic blood pressure may be noted with treatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p352.html

Exercise for Osteoarthritis of the Knee - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Land-based exercise programs reduce knee pain and improve quality of life and physical function following treatment in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p774.html

Psychological Interventions for Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2015 - Psychological therapy, specifically cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), has been shown to reduce the severity of medically unexplained physical symptoms in patients with somatoform disorders. The effect is small to moderate in magnitude, but in these studies CBT was as acceptable as usual...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p975.html

Interventions Aimed at Increasing Childhood Vaccination Rates - Cochrane for Clinicians...

Nov 1, 2015 - Community discussions, community meetings, and information campaigns may increase immunization uptake in areas with only moderate vaccine use. There is no clear evidence to guide face-to-face educational interventions, and the impact of face-to-face interventions is uncertain in areas ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p775.html

Point-of-Care C-Reactive Protein Testing to Help Guide Treatment of Acute Respiratory ...

Oct 1, 2015 - Point-of-care C-reactive protein (CRP) testing used as an adjunct to a physician's clinical examination can modestly reduce antibiotic use. Measurement of CRP to guide antibiotic prescription does not appear to affect the duration of illness or recovery, although one study suggests that...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p571.html

The Role of Levetiracetam in Treating Chronic Neuropathic Pain Symptoms - Cochrane for ...

Jul 1, 2015 - Based on low-quality evidence, levetiracetam was found to be ineffective for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain symptoms. Moreover, patients who were taking levetiracetam experienced adverse effects at a significantly higher rate than those who were taking placebo.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p23.html

Colchicine for Acute Gout - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Low-quality evidence shows that low-dose colchicine (up to 1.8 mg over one hour) is an effective therapy for acute gout.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p759.html

Calcium Supplementation for Preventing Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy - Cochrane ...

Oct 1, 2015 - High-dose calcium supplementation (i.e., at least 1,000 mg per day) during pregnancy reduces the risk of developing hypertension and preeclampsia. The most significant risk reduction occurs in women at risk of hypertensive disorders and those with low-calcium diets.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p570.html

ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs for Primary Hypertension - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Apr 15, 2015 - ACE inhibitors and ARBs have similar effects on cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in head-to-head trials. However, slightly more adverse effects were noted in patients assigned to ACE inhibitor therapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p522.html

The Epley Maneuver for Treatment of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo - Cochrane for...

Aug 1, 2015 - Treatment with the Epley maneuver resolves benign paroxysmal positional vertigo better than sham therapy or control. Minor adverse effects are uncommon.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p184.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2015 - Among infants younger than 12 months diagnosed with GERD, weak evidence supports the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2 antagonists. Among children 12 months and older, studies have shown moderate benefit from PPIs and weak benefit from H2 antagonists for providing ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p351.html

Magnesium Sulfate for Prevention of Preterm Birth - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Apr 1, 2015 - Magnesium sulfate does not delay delivery when used in patients with preterm labor. Although magnesium sulfate is not associated with any serious adverse maternal outcomes, it may be associated with an increase in total fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p444.html

Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals - Cochrane for Clinicians -...

Apr 15, 2015 - Low-quality evidence suggests that training health care professionals in patient-centered communication improves the engagement of patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in their health care. Interventions that were primarily educational appeared to be ineffective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p523.html

Optimal Duration of Treatment Regimens for H. pylori Eradication - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2014 - When using proton pump inhibitor (PPI) triple therapy, increasing the duration of treatment from seven to 10 days or from 10 to 14 days significantly increases the eradication of H. pylori. When using other treatment regimens, it is unclear whether increasing duration of treatment ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/p766.html

Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for the Treatment of ADHD in Adults - Cochrane for ...

Apr 1, 2015 - In adults with ADHD, immediate-release methylphenidate improves symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness compared with placebo. Short-term adverse effects such as weight loss and decreased appetite do not appear to be serious. However, larger studies of longer ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p445.html

Aclidinium for Stable COPD - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Aclidinium did not decrease all-cause mortality or exacerbations requiring oral steroids, antibiotics, or both. However, aclidinium decreased the number of patients with exacerbations requiring hospitalization and improved quality of life in those with stable COPD.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p760.html

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