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Anemia in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2018 - Anemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in older adults. Diagnostic cutoff values for defining anemia vary with age, sex, and possibly race. Anemia is often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on laboratory testing. Patients may present with symptoms related to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p437.html

Unintentional Weight Loss in Older Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 2014 - Unintentional weight loss in persons older than 65 years is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The most common etiologies are malignancy, nonmalignant gastrointestinal disease, and psychiatric conditions. Overall, nonmalignant diseases are more common causes of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p718.html

Geriatric Assessment: An Office-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Family physicians should be proficient in geriatric assessment because, as society ages, older adults will constitute an increasing proportion of patients. Geriatric assessment evaluates medical, social, and environmental factors that influence overall well-being, and addresses ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p776.html

Preventing Falls in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2017 - The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p240.html

Geriatric Care - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on geriatric care and related issues, including assistive devices, elder mistreatment, failure to thrive, fall prevention, geriatric assessment, house calls, impaired visual acuity, and nursing home care. This collection features AFP content on ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=55

Exercise Prescriptions in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2017 - Regular physical activity and exercise are important for healthy aging and are beneficial for chronic disease management. Exercise prescriptions for older adults should account for the individual’s health status and functional capacity. Any amount of exercise is better than being ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p425.html

Preoperative Assessment in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Approach - American Family ...

Aug 15, 2018 - Surgical outcomes are significantly influenced by patients’ overall health, function, and life expectancy. A comprehensive geriatric preoperative assessment of older adults requires expanding beyond an organ-based or disease-based assessment. At a preoperative visit, it is important to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p214.html

The Geriatric Assessment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - The geriatric assessment is a multidimensional, multidisciplinary assessment designed to evaluate an older person’s functional ability, physical health, cognition and mental health, and socioenvironmental circumstances. It is usually initiated when the physician identifies a potential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p48.html

Delirium in Older Persons: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2014 - Delirium is defined as an acute, fluctuating syndrome of altered attention, awareness, and cognition. It is common in older persons in the hospital and long-term care facilities and may indicate a life-threatening condition. Assessment for and prevention of delirium should occur at ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p150.html

Gait and Balance Disorders in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2010 - Gait and balance disorders are common in older adults and are a major cause of falls in this population. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced level of function. Common causes include arthritis and orthostatic hypotension; however, most gait and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p61.html

Alzheimer Disease: Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Cognitive and ...

Jun 15, 2017 - Alzheimer disease comprises a syndrome of progressive cognitive and functional decline. Treatments should target cognitive and functional symptoms. Cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and a combination of a cholinesterase inhibitor and memantine have produced statistically significant...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p771.html

Detecting Elder Abuse and Neglect: Assessment and Intervention - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2014 - Elder mistreatment includes intentional or neglectful acts by a caregiver or trusted person that harm a vulnerable older person. It can occur in a variety of settings. One out of 10 older adults experiences some form of abuse or neglect by a caregiver each year, and the incidence is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0315/p453.html

Vision Loss in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2016 - Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p219.html

Common Questions About Pressure Ulcers - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - Patients with limited mobility due to physical or cognitive impairment are at risk of pressure ulcers. Primary care physicians should examine at-risk patients because pressure ulcers are often missed in inpatient, outpatient, and long-term care settings. High-risk patients should use ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p888.html

Behavioral Disorders in Dementia: Appropriate Nondrug Interventions and Antipsychotic ...

Aug 15, 2016 - Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia pose management challenges for caregivers and clinicians. Firstline nonpharmacologic treatments include eliminating physical and emotional stressors, modifying the patient’s environment, and establishing daily routines. Family members ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0815/p276.html

Pressure Ulcers: Prevention, Evaluation, and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2008 - A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin or underlying tissue, usually over a bony prominence, as a result of unrelieved pressure. Predisposing factors are classified as intrinsic (e.g., limited mobility, poor nutrition, comorbidities, aging skin) or extrinsic (e.g., pressure,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/p1186.html

Common Questions About Pneumonia in Nursing Home Residents - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2015 - Pneumonia in older adults residing in nursing homes can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Pneumococcal and influenza immunizations decrease the risk of pneumonia and are recommended for all nursing home patients. Older adults with pneumonia may not display classic signs and symptoms...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p612.html

Functional Decline in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2013 - Functional disability is common in older adults. It is often episodic and is associated with a high risk of subsequent health decline. The severity of disability is determined by physical impairments caused by underlying medical conditions, and by external factors such as social ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0915/p388.html

Evaluation of Suspected Dementia - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2011 - As the proportion of persons in the United States older than 65 years increases, the prevalence of dementia will increase as well. Risk factors for dementia include age, family history of dementia, apolipoprotein E4 genotype, cardiovascular comorbidities, chronic anticholinergic use, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1015/p895.html

Geriatric Assistive Devices - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2011 - Disability and mobility problems increase with age. Assistive devices such as canes, crutches, and walkers can be used to increase a patient’s base of support, improve balance, and increase activity and independence, but they are not without significant musculoskeletal and metabolic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0815/p405.html

Hearing Loss in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1150.html

Reducing the Risk of Adverse Drug Events in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2013 - Adverse drug events occur in 15 percent or more of older patients presenting to offices, hospitals, and extended care facilities. These events are potentially preventable up to 50 percent of the time. Common serious manifestations include falls, orthostatic hypotension, heart failure, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p331.html

Management of Falls in Older Persons: A Prescription for Prevention - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2011 - Although falls are a common cause of injury in older persons, they are not just a normal part of the aging process. The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1267.html

Implementing Advance Directives in Office Practice - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2012 - Patients prepare advance directives in an effort to maintain autonomy during periods of incapacity or at the end of life. Advance directive documents are specific to the state in which the patient lives, but an effective strategy in the family physician’s office involves more than ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p461.html

Anemia in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2010 - Anemia in older persons is commonly overlooked despite mounting evidence that low hemoglobin levels are a significant marker of physiologic decline. Using the World Health Organization definition of anemia (hemoglobin level less than 13 g per dL [130 g per L] in men and less than 12 g ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0901/p480.html

Clinical Vignettes in Geriatric Depression - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2011 - The diagnosis of depression in older patients is often complicated by comorbid conditions, such as cerebrovascular disease or dementia. Tools specific for this age group, such as the Geriatric Depression Scale or the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, may assist in making the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1149.html

Treatment of Constipation in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2005 - Constipation is a common complaint in older adults. Although constipation is not a physiologic consequence of normal aging, decreased mobility and other comorbid medical conditions may contribute to its increased prevalence in older adults. Functional constipation is diagnosed when no ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2277.html

Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2010 - Few older adults in the United States achieve the minimum recommended amount of physical activity. Lack of physical activity contributes to many chronic diseases that occur in older adults, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, lung disease, Alzheimer disease, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/p55.html

Diagnosing Dementia and Clarifying Goals of Care - Lown Right Care: Reducing Overuse ...

Sep 15, 2019 - A collaboration between AFP and the Lown Institute promotes a vision of delivering heath care that is based on the evidence, balanced in its approach, and focused on the patient.

American Family Physician : Lown Right Care: Reducing Overuse and Underuse

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p369.html

Nursing Home Care: Part I. Principles and Pitfalls of Practice - American Family Physician

May 15, 2010 - Approximately 1.5 million Americans reside in nursing homes. A family physician often leads the interdisciplinary team that provides for the medical, functional, emotional, nutritional, social, and environmental needs of these patients. The treatment of nursing home residents is a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/p1219.html

Common Oral Conditions in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2008 - Older persons are at risk of chronic diseases of the mouth, including dental infections (e.g., caries, periodontitis), tooth loss, benign mucosal lesions, and oral cancer. Other common oral conditions in this population are xerostomia (dry mouth) and oral candidiasis, which may lead to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p845.html

Diagnosis of Acute Abdominal Pain in Older Patients - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2006 - Acute abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint in older patients. Presentation may differ from that of the younger patient and is often complicated by coexistent disease, delays in presentation, and physical and social barriers. The physical examination can be misleadingly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1101/p1537.html

Geriatric Screening and Preventive Care - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2008 - Preventive health care decisions and recommendations become more complex as the population ages. The leading causes of death (i.e., heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic lower respiratory disease) among older adults mirror the actual causes of death ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0715/p206.html

Nursing Home Care: Part II. Clinical Aspects - American Family Physician

May 15, 2010 - Understanding the distinctions between the management of clinical problems in nursing homes compared with the community setting helps improve the overall care of nursing home residents. Liberalizing diets helps avoid unintentional weight loss in nursing home residents, although the use ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/p1229.html

Treatment of Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2009 - Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in nursing home residents, with 30-day mortality rates ranging from 10 to 30 percent. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of nursing home-acquired pneumonia, although Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0601/p976.html

Discussing Life Expectancy with Older Patients: Prediction and Patient Preferences - ...

Sep 1, 2019 - Evidence shows that physicians need more training in discussing life expectancy, and there are resources available to support this process for certain conditions.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p265.html

Geriatric Failure to Thrive - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2004 - In elderly patients, failure to thrive describes a state of decline that is multifactorial and may be caused by chronic concurrent diseases and functional impairments. Manifestations of this condition include weight loss, decreased appetite, poor nutrition, and inactivity. Four ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0715/p343.html

In Healthy Older Adults, Low-Dose Aspirin Increases All-Cause and Cancer-Specific ...

Jul 15, 2019 - The findings are completely unexpected. Although recent studies by this group and other groups of researchers have failed to find a cardiovascular benefit, likely because of better control of other cardiovascular risk factors, this study found increased all-cause mortality, primarily ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p118a.html

Preparing for Serious Illness: A Model for Better Conversations over the Continuum of ...

Mar 1, 2019 - How can we ensure that our seriously ill patients routinely get the right care without relying on individual sacrifice and luck?

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p281.html

Vertebral Compression Fractures in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2004 - Compression fracture of the vertebral body is common, especially in older adults. Vertebral compression fractures usually are caused by osteoporosis, and range from mild to severe. More severe fractures can cause significant pain, leading to inability to perform activities of daily ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0101/p111.html

To Prepare Patients Better: Reimagining Advance Care Planning - Editorials - American ...

Mar 1, 2019 - Forty-five million Americans live with one or more serious illnesses, many of which are life-limiting and marked by functional decline. Family physicians play a pivotal role in the care of these patients through their deep, longitudinal relationships.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p278.html

Lower Systolic BP During Antihypertensive Treatment Associated with More Deaths in ...

Jan 1, 2019 - In this small cohort study of patients older than 85 years, lower systolic blood pressure during treatment with antihypertensive medications is associated with higher death rates and greater cognitive decline.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p54.html

Vitamin D, Calcium, or Combined Supplementation for the Primary Prevention of Fractures...

Aug 15, 2018 - The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of the benefits and harms of vitamin D and calcium supplementation, alone or combined, for the primary prevention of fractures in men and premenopausal women.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/od2.html

Evaluation and Management of Delirium in Hospitalized Older Patients - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2008 - Delirium is common in hospitalized older patients and may be a symptom of a medical emergency, such as hypoxia or hypoglycemia. It is characterized by an acute change in cognition and attention, although the symptoms may be subtle and usually fluctuate throughout the day. This ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1265.html

Interventions to Prevent Falls and Fractures in Community-Dwelling Older Adults - ...

Aug 15, 2018 - Mr. and Mrs. J. present to your office for their annual wellness visits. He is 75 years of age, has well-controlled hypertension, does not smoke, and has a body mass index (BMI) of 26 kg per m2. He recently fell while walking from his home to a neighborhood barbeque.

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p253.html

Interventions to Prevent Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Recommendation ...

Aug 15, 2018 - The USPSTF recommends exercise interventions to prevent falls in community-dwelling adults 65 years or older who are at increased risk for falls.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/od1.html

Cancer Screening in the Older Patient - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2008 - Although there are clear guidelines that advise at what age to begin screening for various cancers, there is less guidance concerning when it may be appropriate to stop screening. The decision to stop screening must take into account patients' age; overall health and life expectancy; ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1215/p1369.html

Anemia in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2000 - Anemia should not be accepted as an inevitable consequence of aging. A cause is found in approximately 80 percent of elderly patients. The most common causes of anemia in the elderly are chronic disease and iron deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, gastrointestinal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1001/p1565.html

Exercise Alone and Various Combinations of Interventions Reduce the Risk of Injurious ...

May 1, 2018 - Exercise alone; exercise combined with vision assessment and treatment; exercise combined with vision assessment and treatment, and environmental assessment and modification; and clinic-level quality improvement strategies combined with multifactorial assessment and treatment, calcium ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p606.html

Light Therapy Improves Behavioral Disturbances, Sleep, Depression in Older Patients ...

Feb 15, 2018 - In this meta-analysis, older patients with cognitive impairment who were exposed to light therapy had moderate improvements in behavioral disturbances, small improvements in sleep quality, and moderate improvements in depression. The authors did not report data on responders vs. ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/od2.html

The AAFP Cognitive Care Kit: A Resource for Family Physicians - Editorials - American ...

Nov 15, 2017 - The AAFP Cognitive Care Kit was designed to give primary care physicians access to recommended materials to identify, screen, care for, and educate patients with cognitive impairment, as well as assist caregivers.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p630.html

Combination of Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Best for Older Persons with Obesity - ...

Sep 1, 2017 - In older patients with obesity embarking on a program to improve their health, weight loss accompanied by resistance training and aerobic training resulted in the biggest gains in functional status and physical performance.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p331.html

Minimizing Adverse Drug Events in Older Patients - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2007 - Adverse drug events are common in older patients, particularly in those taking at least five medications, but such events are predictable and often preventable. A rational approach to prescribing in older adults integrates physiologic changes of aging with knowledge of pharmacology. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1215/p1837.html

Dementia Care: More Than Just Prescription Drugs - Editorials - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2017 - Rather than focusing on medications to achieve a small temporary difference in cognition, patients and families might be better served if we focused more on nonpharmacologic treatments, and on more important issues, such as advance directives, driving, living arrangements, caregiver ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p766.html

Testosterone Does Not Improve Cognition in Memory-Impaired Older Men with Low ...

Jun 1, 2017 - Testosterone supplementation for men 65 years or older with age-associated memory impairment and a low baseline testosterone level was not associated with significant improvements in memory or other cognitive functions.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p733a.html

Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older Adults Living in the Community - ...

Feb 1, 2017 - Structured exercise programs and home safety interventions reduce both the rate and the risk of falling among community-dwelling adults 65 years and older, whereas multifactorial assessment and intervention programs reduce the rate of falls but not the risk of falling. Vitamin D ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p152.html

Exercise and Older Patients: Prescribing Guidelines - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2006 - A combination of aerobic activity, strength training, and flexibility exercises, plus increased general daily activity can reduce medication dependence and health care costs while maintaining functional independence and improving quality of life in older adults. However, patients often ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/p437.html

Falls in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2000 - Falls are the leading cause of injury-related visits to emergency departments in the United States and the primary etiology of accidental deaths in persons over the age of 65 years. The mortality rate for falls increases dramatically with age in both sexes and in all racial and ethnic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2159.html

The CDC’s STEADI Initiative: Promoting Older Adult Health and Independence Through Fall...

Aug 15, 2017 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Aug 15, 2017 Issue Editorials The CDC's STEADI Initiative: Promoting Older Adult Health and Independence Through Fall Prevention ROBIN LEE, PhD, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Am Fam Physician. 2017...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p220.html

Screening for Impaired Visual Acuity in Older Adults: Recommendation Statement - U.S. ...

Jun 15, 2016 - The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in older adults.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0615/od1.html

Making Decisions with Families at the End of Life - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2004 - Because advance directives are not yet the norm, end-of-life decisions for patients without medical decision-making capacity are made regularly within discussions between the patient's physician and family. Communication and decision making in these situations require a complex ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0815/p719.html

Navigating the Changes in Pneumococcal Immunizations for Adults - Editorials - American...

Sep 15, 2015 - New guidelines in pneumococcal immunization policy reflect evidence for the expansion of PCV13 to persons older than 65 years and to some high-risk younger adults, and afford the opportunity to improve the health of adults.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p456.html

Older Adult Drivers with Cognitive Impairment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2006 - As the number of drivers with cognitive impairment increases, family physicians are more likely to become involved in decisions about cessation of driving privileges in older patients. Physicians who care for cognitively impaired older adults should routinely ask about driving status. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1029.html

Citalopram Plus Methylphenidate Better Than Either Alone for Geriatric Depression - ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Combined treatment with citalopram plus methylphenidate provided faster improvement of depression symptoms in older patients with unipolar depression. Combined treatment was also more likely than either medication alone to lead to remission of depression at four weeks and 16 weeks.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p820.html

Prevention of Falls in Older Patients - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2005 - Falls are one of the most common geriatric syndromes threatening the independence of older persons. Between 30 and 40 percent of community-dwelling adults older than 65 years fall each year, and the rates are higher for nursing home residents. Falls are associated with increased ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0701/p81.html

Diagnostic Approach to the Confused Elderly Patient - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1998 - Confusion in the elderly patient is usually a symptom of delirium or dementia, but it may also occur in major depression and psychoses. Until another cause is identified, the confused patient should be assumed to have delirium, which is often reversible with treatment of the underlying ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0315/p1358.html

Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: Recommendation Statement - U.S. ...

Mar 15, 2015 - The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for cognitive impairment.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0315/od2.html

Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults - Putting Prevention into Practice -...

Jul 15, 2015 - N.D. is a 72-year-old white man who presents for a preventive visit. He smokes, and his medical history is significant for essential hypertension, which is stable and well controlled with medication. N.D.'s close friend was recently diagnosed with dementia, and N.D. is concerned that he...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0715/p125.html

Depression in Later Life: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge - American Family ...

May 15, 2004 - Depression in elderly persons is widespread, often undiagnosed, and usually untreated. The current system of care is fragmented and inadequate, and staff at residential and other facilities often are ill-equipped to recognize and treat patients with depression. Because there is no ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0515/p2375.html

Respecting End-of-Life Treatment Preferences - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - Most patients eventually must face the process of planning for their future medical care. However, few Americans have a living will or a durable power of attorney for health care. Although advance directives provide a legal basis for physicians to carry out treatment using a health care...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1263.html

Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Elderly Patients - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2005 - Coronary heart disease remains a leading cause of mortality in the United States, with 84 percent of persons 65 years or older dying from this disease. Secondary preventive measures, including lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy, are important for elderly patients because of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0615/p2289.html

Complex Care: Treating an Older Patient with Multiple Comorbidities - Curbside ...

Mar 1, 2014 - Although there are guidelines for management of single chronic illnesses, the evidence base for management of multiple comorbidities is lacking. The American Geriatrics Society described a clinical approach to managing patients with multiple comorbidities in 2012.

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p392.html

Pneumonia in Older Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2004 - Compared with community-dwelling persons, residents in long-term care facilities have more functional disabilities and underlying medical illnesses and are at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases. Pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this group. Risk ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1015/p1495.html

Should Family Physicians Routinely Screen Patients for Cognitive Impairment? Yes: ...

Jun 1, 2014 - Being able to anticipate and mitigate the potentially adverse outcomes of hospitalization in these patients should be reason enough to screen for cognitive impairment in the primary care setting.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p861.html

Should Family Physicians Routinely Screen Patients for Cognitive Impairment? No: ...

Jun 1, 2014 - Dementia screening should not be exempt from the requirement that it first be shown to improve outcomes before being implemented in practice.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p864.html

Dementia - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2014 - What are the effects of treatments on cognitive, behavioral, and psychological symptoms of dementia (Alzheimer disease, Lewy body dementia, or vascular dementia)?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p117.html

Ambulatory Devices for Chronic Gait Disorders in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2003 - Gait disorders in the elderly are common and in most cases cannot be treated medically or surgically. Therefore, treatment often relies on ambulatory devices such as canes, crutches, and walkers. Before selecting a device, the patient should be evaluated to define whether one or both ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0415/p1717.html

Exercise Effective for Depression in Older Patients - POEMs - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2013 - An organized exercise program for older patients, which may include strength training, endurance training, or both, may be helpful for some patients with symptoms of depression. The results will not be striking, but exercise is an option for patients willing to participate.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/od2.html

Evaluating and Treating Unintentional Weight Loss in the Elderly - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2002 - Elderly patients with unintentional weight loss are at higher risk for infection, depression and death. The leading causes of involuntary weight loss are depression (especially in residents of long-term care facilities), cancer (lung and gastrointestinal malignancies), cardiac disorders...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0215/p640.html

Prevention of Herpes Zoster in Older Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

Nov 1, 2013 - The herpes zoster (shingles) vaccine has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing shingles in older adults. Vaccination benefit was greater in persons 60 to 69 years of age than in those 70 years and older. Local injection site reactions were common.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1101/p578.html

Caring for Older Patients Who Have Significant Hearing Loss - Curbside Consultation - ...

Mar 1, 2013 - This scenario illustrates issues related to end-of-life care and placement in a long-term care facility for older individuals with significant hearing loss. An analysis of data from the 1999 to 2006 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and statistics from the ...

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p360.html

Appropriate Use of Polypharmacy for Older Patients - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Apr 1, 2013 - Multidisciplinary interventions that address polypharmacy decrease inappropriate prescribing and medication-related problems in patients 65 years and older, but it is not clear if they reduce hospital admissions or improve quality of life. Most interventions studied were led by ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0401/p483.html

Seizure Disorders in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2003 - Seizure disorders become increasingly common after the age of 60 years and can have a significant impact on functional status. The goal of antiepileptic drug therapy is to control seizures but preserve quality of life. If possible, seizure control should be achieved with one agent given...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0115/p325.html

Primary Insomnia in Older Persons - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - What are the effects of nondrug and drug treatments for primary insomnia in older persons (those 60 years and older)?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p280.html

Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Recommendation Statement - U.S....

Dec 15, 2012 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation to prevent falls in community-dwelling adults 65 years or older who are at increased risk of falls.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1215/od3.html

Putting Prevention into Practice - Dec 15, 2012 - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2012 - Case study: A 73-year-old woman comes to your office for routine follow-up for hypertension. She lives alone in an apartment and walks slowly, requiring the use of a cane. She is otherwise healthy and alert. Her most recent eye examination was three years ago.

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1215/p1135.html

Promoting and Prescribing Exercise in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2002 - Regular exercise provides a myriad of health benefits in older adults, including improvements in blood pressure, diabetes, lipid profile, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and neurocognitive function. Regular physical activity is also associated with decreased mortality and age-related ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0201/p419.html

Using Medications Appropriately in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2002 - Older Americans comprise 13 percent of the population, but they consume an average of 30 percent of all prescription drugs. Every day, physicians are faced with issues surrounding appropriate prescribing to older patients. Polypharmacy, use of supplements, adherence issues, and the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1115/p1917.html

Common Infections in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Infectious diseases account for one third of all deaths in people 65 years and older. Early detection is more difficult in the elderly because the typical signs and symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis, are frequently absent. A change in mental status or decline in function may be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p257.html

Sleep Problems in the Elderly - American Family Physician

May 1, 1999 - Refreshing sleep requires both sufficient total sleep time as well as sleep that is in synchrony with the individual's circadian rhythm. Problems with sleep organization in elderly patients typically include difficulty falling asleep, less time spent in the deeper stages of sleep, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0501/p2551.html

Appropriate Use of Psychotropic Drugs in Nursing Homes - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2000 - The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1987 limited the use of psychotropic medications in residents of long-term care facilities. Updates of OBRA guidelines have liberalized some dosing restrictions, but documentation of necessity and periodic trials of medication withdrawal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1437.html

The Geriatric Patient: A Systematic Approach to Maintaining Health - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2000 - The number of persons 65 years of age and older continues to increase dramatically in the United States. Comprehensive health maintenance screening of this population is becoming an important task for primary care physicians. As outlined by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0215/p1089.html

Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2000 - Management of abnormalities in water homeostasis is frequently challenging. Because age-related changes and chronic diseases are often associated with impairment of water metabolism in elderly patients, it is absolutely essential for clinicians to be aware of the pathophysiology of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0615/p3623.html

Influenza in the Nursing Home - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2002 - Although influenza affects persons of all ages, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified several groups who are at increased risk for complications. One such group is residents of nursing homes or other long-term care facilities. During influenza epidemics, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0101/p75.html

Alcoholism in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2000 - Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are common but underrecognized problems among older adults. One third of older alcoholic persons develop a problem with alcohol in later life, while the other two thirds grow older with the medical and psychosocial sequelae of early-onset alcoholism. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0315/p1710.html

Constipation in the Elderly - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1998 - Constipation affects as many as 26 percent of elderly men and 34 percent of elderly women and is a problem that has been related to diminished perception of quality of life. Constipation may be the sign of a serious problem such as a mass lesion, the manifestation of a systemic disorder...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0915/p907.html

AGS Releases Guideline for Prevention of Falls in Older Persons - Practice Guidelines -...

Jul 1, 2010 - Recommendations from the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) guide physicians in screening older patients for risk of falling and preventing falls among those at increased risk.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0701/p81.html

Depression Without Sadness: Alternative Presentations of Depression in Late Life - ...

Sep 1, 1999 - Older adults often deny feeling sad while exhibiting other characteristics of depression. Elderly patients with depression who do not present with sadness often have unexplained somatic complaints and exhibit a sense of hopelessness. Anxiety and anhedonia (a general loss of ability to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0901/p820.html

Hospice Care in the Nursing Home - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 1998 - Hospice care is being used more frequently to provide skills and services that are not otherwise available in nursing homes. For eligible terminally ill patients, the Medicare Hospice Benefit supplies an interdisciplinary team with skills in pain management, symptom control and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0201/p491.html

Diagnostic Evaluation of Urinary Incontinence in Geriatric Patients - American Family ...

Jun 1, 1998 - In most cases, the evaluation of urinary incontinence requires only a history, a physical examination, urinalysis and measurement of postvoid residual urine volume. The initial purposes of the evaluation are to identify conditions requiring referral or specialized work-up and to detect ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0601/p2675.html

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