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Abdominal Wall Pain: Clinical Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis, and Treatment - ...

Oct 1, 2018 - Abdominal wall pain is often mistaken for intra-abdominal visceral pain, resulting in expensive and unnecessary laboratory tests, imaging studies, consultations, and invasive procedures. Those evaluations generally are nondiagnostic, and lingering pain can become frustrating to the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p429.html

Dizziness: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Dizziness is a common yet imprecise symptom. It was traditionally divided into four categories based on the patient’s history: vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium, and light-headedness. However, the distinction between these symptoms is of limited clinical usefulness. Patients have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p154.html

Migraine Headache Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Migraines impose significant health and financial burdens. Approximately 38% of patients with episodic migraines would benefit from preventive therapy, but less than 13% take prophylactic medications. Preventive medication therapy reduces migraine frequency, severity, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p17.html

Mechanical Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2018 - Low back pain is usually nonspecific or mechanical. Mechanical low back pain arises intrinsically from the spine, intervertebral disks, or surrounding soft tissues. Clinical clues, or red flags, may help identify cases of nonmechanical low back pain and prompt further evaluation or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p421.html

Current Concepts in Concussion: Initial Evaluation and Management - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Mild traumatic brain injury, also known as concussion, is common in adults and youth and is a major health concern. Concussion is caused by direct or indirect external trauma to the head resulting in shear stress to brain tissue from rotational or angular forces. Concussion can affect a...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p426.html

Evaluation of Suspected Dementia - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Dementia is a significant and costly health condition that affects 5 million adults and is the fifth leading cause of death among Americans older than 65 years. The prevalence of dementia will likely increase in the future because the number of Americans older than 65 years is expected ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p398.html

Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p746.html

Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children is defined as at least three episodes of pain that occur over at least three months and affect the child’s ability to perform normal activities. RAP is most often considered functional (nonorganic) abdominal pain, but an organic cause is found ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p785.html

Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2011 - Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing when compared with blood pressure from the sitting or supine position. It results from an inadequate physiologic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p527.html

Tremor: Sorting Through the Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2018 - Tremor is an involuntary, rhythmic, oscillatory movement of a body part. It is the most common movement disorder encountered in primary care. The diagnosis of tremor is based on clinical information obtained from the history and physical examination. The most common tremors in patients ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p180.html

Delirium in Older Persons: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2014 - Delirium is defined as an acute, fluctuating syndrome of altered attention, awareness, and cognition. It is common in older persons in the hospital and long-term care facilities and may indicate a life-threatening condition. Assessment for and prevention of delirium should occur at ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0801/p150.html

Treating Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: An Update - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2016 - Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in approximately 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus who are treated in the office setting and significantly affects quality of life. It typically causes burning pain, paresthesias, and numbness in a stocking-glove pattern that progresses...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p227.html

Epilepsy: Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2017 - The occurrence of a single seizure does not always require initiation of antiepileptic drugs. Risk of recurrent seizures should guide their use. In adults, key risk factors for recurrence are two unprovoked seizures occurring more than 24 hours apart, epileptiform abnormalities on ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0715/p87.html

Prevention and Treatment of Motion Sickness - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Motion sickness is a common syndrome that occurs upon exposure to certain types of motion. It is thought to be caused by conflict between the vestibular, visual, and other proprioceptive systems. Although nausea is the hallmark symptom, it is often preceded by stomach awareness, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p41.html

Cervical Radiculopathy: Nonoperative Management of Neck Pain and Radicular Symptoms - ...

Jan 1, 2010 - Cervical radiculopathy is a disease process marked by nerve compression from herniated disk material or arthritic bone spurs. This impingement typically produces neck and radiating arm pain or numbness, sensory deficits, or motor dysfunction in the neck and upper extremities. Magnetic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0101/p33.html

Diagnosis of Acute Stroke - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Stroke can be categorized as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Awakening with or experiencing the abrupt onset of focal neurologic deficits is the hallmark of the diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The most common presenting symptoms of ischemic stroke ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p528.html

Primary Brain Tumors in Adults: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2016 - Primary intracranial tumors of the brain structures, including meninges, are rare with an overall five-year survival rate of 33.4%; they are collectively called primary brain tumors. Proven risk factors for these tumors include certain genetic syndromes and exposure to high-dose ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p211.html

Dizziness: A Diagnostic Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2010 - Dizziness accounts for an estimated 5 percent of primary care clinic visits. The patient history can generally classify dizziness into one of four categories: vertigo, disequilibrium, presyncope, or lightheadedness. The main causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p361.html

Treatment of Acute Migraine Headache - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2011 - Migraine headache is a common and potentially debilitating disorder often treated by family physicians. Before diagnosing migraine, serious intracranial pathology must be ruled out. Treating acute migraine is challenging because of substantial rates of nonresponse to medications and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0201/p271.html

Recognition and Management of Motor Delay and Muscle Weakness in Children - American ...

Jan 1, 2015 - Diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders in young children is often delayed for years after symptoms emerge, resulting in missed opportunities for therapy and genetic counseling. Identification of the weak child begins with careful attention to caregiver concerns and developmental ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p38.html

Peripheral Neuropathy: Differential Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2010 - Peripheral neuropathy has a variety of systemic, metabolic, and toxic causes. The most common treatable causes include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and nutritional deficiencies. The diagnosis requires careful clinical assessment, judicious laboratory testing, and electrodiagnostic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0401/p887.html

Pituitary Adenomas: An Overview - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2013 - Prolactinomas and nonfunctioning adenomas are the most common types of pituitary adenomas. Patients with pituitary adenomas may present initially with symptoms of endocrine dysfunction such as infertility, decreased libido, and galactorrhea, or with neurologic symptoms such as headache ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0901/p319.html

Differentiation and Diagnosis of Tremor - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2011 - Tremor, an involuntary, rhythmic, oscillatory movement of a body part, is the most common movement disorder encountered in clinical practice. Rest tremors occur in a body part that is relaxed and completely supported against gravity. Action tremors occur with voluntary contraction of a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0315/p697.html

Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Chronic Opioid Therapy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2016 - Evidence supports the use of opioids for treating acute pain. However, the evidence is limited for the use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic pain. Furthermore, the risks of chronic therapy are significant and may outweigh any potential benefits. When considering chronic opioid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0615/p982.html

Behavioral Disorders in Dementia: Appropriate Nondrug Interventions and Antipsychotic ...

Aug 15, 2016 - Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia pose management challenges for caregivers and clinicians. Firstline nonpharmacologic treatments include eliminating physical and emotional stressors, modifying the patient’s environment, and establishing daily routines. Family members ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0815/p276.html

Pharmacologic Management of Pain at the End of Life - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Although many patients experience debilitating pain at the end of life, there are many options to improve analgesia and quality of life. Pain assessment using a validated tool, with attention to patient function and specific goals, helps tailor individual treatment plans. The World ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p26.html

Chronic Daily Headache: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2014 - Chronic daily headache is defined as the presence of a headache on 15 days or more per month for at least three months. The most common types of chronic daily headache are chronic migraines and chronic tension-type headaches. If a red flag for a secondary cause of headache is present, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0415/p642.html

Multiple Sclerosis: A Primary Care Perspective - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2014 - Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common permanently disabling disorder of the central nervous system in young adults. Relapsing remitting MS is the most common type, and typical symptoms include sensory disturbances, Lhermitte sign, motor weakness, optic neuritis, impaired ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1101/p644.html

Cluster Headache - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2013 - Cluster headache causes severe unilateral temporal or periorbital pain, lasting 15 to 180 minutes and accompanied by autonomic symptoms in the nose, eyes, and face. Headaches often recur at the same time each day during the cluster period, which can last for weeks to months. Some ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0715/p122.html

Transient Ischemic Attack: Part I. Diagnosis and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2012 - Transient ischemic attack is defined as transient neurologic symptoms without evidence of acute infarction. It is a common and important risk factor for future stroke, but is greatly underreported. Common symptoms are sudden and transient, and include unilateral paresis, speech ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p521.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Syncope is a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness with complete return to preexisting neurologic function. It is classified as neurally mediated (i.e., carotid sinus hypersensitivity, situational, or vasovagal), cardiac, orthostatic, or neurogenic. Older adults are more likely to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p640.html

Bell's Palsy: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2007 - Bell's palsy is a peripheral palsy of the facial nerve that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. Affected patients develop unilateral facial paralysis over one to three days with forehead involvement and no other neurologic abnormalities. Symptoms typically peak in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p997.html

Recognition and Evaluation of Nontraumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Ruptured ...

Oct 1, 2013 - Swift diagnosis and treatment are critical for good outcomes in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is usually caused by a ruptured aneurysm. This type of stroke often results in death or disability. Rates of misdiagnosis and treatment delays for subarachnoid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/p451.html

Parkinson Disease: An Update - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - Parkinson disease is a progressive neurologic disorder afflicting approximately 1 percent of Americans older than 60 years. The cardinal features of Parkinson disease are bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability. There are a number of neurologic conditions that mimic the...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p267.html

Current Concepts in Concussion: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2012 - Concussion is a disturbance in brain function caused by direct or indirect force to the head. It is a functional rather than structural injury that results from shear stress to brain tissue caused by rotational or angular forces—direct impact to the head is not required. Initial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0115/p123.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2011 - Herpes zoster (shingles) is diagnosed clinically by recognition of the distinctive, painful vesicular rash appearing in a unilateral, dermatomal distribution. An estimated 1 million cases occur in the United States each year, and increasing age is the primary risk factor. Laboratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/p1432.html

Subacute to Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2012 - Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1045.html

Medications for Migraine Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - Sufficient evidence and consensus exist to recommend propranolol, timolol, amitriptyline, divalproex, sodium valproate, and topiramate as first-line agents for migraine prevention. There is fair evidence of effectiveness with gabapentin and naproxen sodium. Botulinum toxin also has ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p72.html

Treatment of Alzheimer Disease - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2011 - Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, affecting more than one-third of Americans older than 85 years. It is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Amyloid plaque accumulation, neurofibrillary tau tangles, and depletion of acetylcholine are among...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0615/p1403.html

Treatment of Vertigo - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2005 - Vertigo is the illusion of motion, usually rotational motion. As patients age, vertigo becomes an increasingly common presenting complaint. The most common causes of this condition are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, acute vestibular neuronitis or labyrinthitis, Ménière's ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1115.html

Initial Evaluation of Vertigo - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2006 - Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, acute vestibular neuronitis, and Meniere's disease cause most cases of vertigo; however, family physicians must consider other causes including cerebrovascular disease, migraine, psychological disease, perilymphatic fistulas, multiple sclerosis, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p244.html

Chronic Low Back Pain: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2009 - Chronic low back pain is a common problem in primary care. A history and physical examination should place patients into one of several categories: (1) nonspecific low back pain; (2) back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis; (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/p1067.html

Trigeminal Neuralgia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Trigeminal neuralgia is an uncommon disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of lancinating pain in the trigeminal nerve distribution. Typically, brief attacks are triggered by talking, chewing, teeth brushing, shaving, a light touch, or even a cool breeze. The pain is nearly always ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1291.html

Treating Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2010 - Diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain affects the functionality, mood, and sleep patterns of approximately 10 to 20 percent of patients with diabetes mellitus. Treatment goals include restoring function and improving pain control. Patients can realistically expect a 30 to 50 percent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0715/p151.html

Frontotemporal Dementia: A Review for Primary Care Physicians - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2010 - Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in persons younger than 65 years. Variants include behavioral variant FTD, semantic dementia, and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Behavioral and language manifestations are core features of FTD, and patients have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1201/p1372.html

Acute Stroke Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2009 - Stroke can be categorized as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Awakening with or experiencing the abrupt onset of focal neurologic deficits is the hallmark of ischemic stroke diagnosis. The most common presenting symptoms for ischemic stroke are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/p33.html

Neuropsychological Evaluation in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2010 - Referring a patient to a neuropsychologist for evaluation provides a level of rigorous assessment of brain function that often cannot be obtained in other ways. The neuropsychologist integrates information from the patient’s medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies; an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0901/p495.html

Behavior Disorders of Dementia: Recognition and Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2006 - Psychosis may pose a greater challenge than cognitive decline for patients with dementia and their caregivers. The nature and frequency of psychotic symptoms varies over the course of illness, but in most patients, these symptoms occur more often in the later stages of disease. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0215/p647.html

Vitamin B12 Deficiency - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2003 - Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common cause of macrocytic anemia and has been implicated in a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. The role of B12 deficiency in hyperhomocysteinemia and the promotion of atherosclerosis is only now being explored. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0301/p979.html

Acute Lumbar Disk Pain: Navigating Evaluation and Treatment Choices - American Family ...

Oct 1, 2008 - Acute lumbar disk herniations are the most common cause of sciatica. After excluding emergent causes, such as cauda equina syndrome, epidural abscess, fracture, or malignancy, a six-week trial of conservative management is indicated. Patients should be advised to stay active. If ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p835.html

Management of Herpes Zoster (Shingles) and Postherpetic Neuralgia - American Family ...

Apr 15, 2000 - Herpes zoster (commonly referred to as

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0415/p2437.html

Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2006 - Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that can cause significant disability and decreased quality of life. The cardinal physical signs of the disease are distal resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and asymmetric onset. Levodopa is the primary treatment for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1215/p2046.html

Restless Legs Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2008 - Restless legs syndrome is a common neurologic movement disorder that affects approximately 10 percent of adults. Of those affected with this condition, approximately one third have symptoms severe enough to require medical therapy. Restless legs syndrome may be a primary condition, or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0715/p235.html

Chronic Nonmalignant Pain in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2008 - A systematic approach to chronic nonmalignant pain includes a comprehensive evaluation; a treatment plan determined by the diagnosis and mechanisms underlying the pain; patient education; and realistic goal setting. The main goal of treatment is to improve quality of life while ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1115/p1155.html

Evaluation of a First Seizure - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Seizure is a common presentation in the emergency care setting, and new-onset epilepsy is the most common cause of unprovoked seizures. The patient history and physical examination should direct the type and timing of laboratory and imaging studies. No single sign, symptom, or test ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1342.html

Tourette's Syndrome - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2008 - Tourette's syndrome is a movement disorder most commonly seen in school-age children. The incidence peaks around preadolescence with one half of cases resolving in early adulthood. Tourette's syndrome is the most common cause of tics, which are involuntary or semivoluntary, sudden, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p651.html

Diagnostic Approach to Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2004 - Tinnitus is a common disorder with many possible causes. Most cases of tinnitus are subjective, but occasionally the tinnitus can be heard by an examiner. Otologic problems, especially hearing loss, are the most common causes of subjective tinnitus. Common causes of conductive hearing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0101/p120.html

Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2003 - Orthostatic hypotension is a physical finding defined by the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology as a systolic blood pressure decrease of at least 20 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure decrease of at least 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1215/p2393.html

Cerebral Palsy: An Overview - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - The presentation of cerebral palsy can be global mental and physical dysfunction or isolated disturbances in gait, cognition, growth, or sensation. It is the most common childhood physical disability and affects 2 to 2.5 children per 1,000 born in the United States. The differential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p91.html

Mind-Body Therapies for Headache - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2007 - Headache is one of the most common and enigmatic problems encountered by family physicians. Headache is not a singular entity, and different pathologic mechanisms are involved in distinct types of headache. Most types of headache involve dysfunction of peripheral or central nociceptive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1115/p1518.html

Evaluation and Treatment of the Child with Febrile Seizure - American Family Physician

May 15, 2006 - Up to 5 percent of children in North America and western Europe experience at least one episode of febrile seizure before six years of age. Most of these seizures are self-limited and patients do not require treatment. Continuous therapy after the seizure is not effective in reducing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0515/p1761.html

Clinical Evaluation and Treatment Options for Herniated Lumbar Disc - American Family ...

Feb 1, 1999 - Degeneration of the intervertebral disc from a combination of factors can result in herniation, particularly at the L4-5 and L5-S1 levels. The presence of pain, radiculopathy and other symptoms depends on the site and degree of herniation. A detailed history and careful physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0201/p575.html

The Management of the Acute Migraine Headache - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2002 - As many as 30 million Americans have migraine headaches. The impact on patients and their families can be tremendous, and treatment of migraines can present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for family physicians. Abortive treatment options include nonspecific and migraine-specific ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1201/p2123.html

Dementia With Lewy Bodies: An Emerging Disease - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2006 - Dementia with Lewy bodies appears to be the second most common form of dementia, accounting for about one in five cases. The condition is characterized by dementia accompanied by delirium, visual hallucinations, and parkinsonism. Other common symptoms include syncope, falls, sleep ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1223.html

Management of Cluster Headache - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2005 - Cluster headache, an excruciating, unilateral headache usually accompanied by conjunctival injection and lacrimation, can occur episodically or chronically, and can be difficult to treat. Existing effective treatments may be underused because of underdiagnosis of the syndrome. Oxygen ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0215/p717.html

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Prevention and Management - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2005 - The recognizable appearance and the dermatomal distribution of herpes zoster lesions usually enable a clinical diagnosis to be made easily. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia occur mainly in older patients. The role of the varicella vaccine in preventing herpes zoster is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0915/p1075.html

An Algorithm for the Evaluation of Peripheral Neuropathy - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 1998 - The diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies can be frustrating, time consuming and costly. Careful clinical and electrodiagnostic assessment, with attention to the pattern of involvement and the types of nerve fibers most affected, narrows the differential diagnosis and helps to focus the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0215/p755.html

Tension-Type Headache - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2002 - Tension-type headache typically causes pain that radiates in a band-like fashion bilaterally from the forehead to the occiput. Pain often radiates to the neck muscles and is described as tightness, pressure, or dull ache. Migraine-type features (unilateral, throbbing pain, nausea, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0901/p797.html

Older Adult Drivers with Cognitive Impairment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2006 - As the number of drivers with cognitive impairment increases, family physicians are more likely to become involved in decisions about cessation of driving privileges in older patients. Physicians who care for cognitively impaired older adults should routinely ask about driving status. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1029.html

Initial Evaluation of the Patient with Suspected Dementia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2005 - Dementia is a common disorder among older persons, and projections indicate that the number of patients with dementia in the United States will continue to grow. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia account for the majority of cases of dementia. After a thorough history and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0501/p1745.html

Evaluation and Prevention of Diabetic Neuropathy - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Diabetic neuropathy is a debilitating disorder that occurs in nearly 50 percent of patients with diabetes. It is a late finding in type 1 diabetes but can be an early finding in type 2 diabetes. The primary types of diabetic neuropathy are sensorimotor and autonomic. Patients may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2123.html

Oral Analgesics for Acute Nonspecific Pain - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Physicians most often recommend or prescribe oral medication for relief of acute pain. This review of the available evidence supports the use of acetaminophen in doses up to 1,000 mg as the initial choice for mild to moderate acute pain. In some cases, modest improvements in analgesic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p913.html

Transient Ischemic Attacks: Part I. Diagnosis and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2004 - Transient ischemic attack is no longer considered a benign event but, rather, a critical harbinger of impending stroke. Failure to quickly recognize and evaluate this warning sign could mean missing an opportunity to prevent permanent disability or death. The 90-day risk of stroke after...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0401/p1665.html

The Patient with Daily Headaches - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2004 - The term 'chronic daily headache' (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. Daily headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1215/p2299.html

Management of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2004 - Gait instability, urinary incontinence, and dementia are the signs and symptoms typically found in patients who have normal pressure hydrocephalus. Estimated to cause no more than 5 percent of cases of dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus often is treatable, and accurate recognition ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0915/p1071.html

Tremor - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2003 - Tremor, a rhythmic, involuntary, oscillatory movement of body parts, is the most common movement disorder. Tremors are classified as rest or action tremors. Rest tremor occurs when the affected body part is completely supported against gravity. Action tremors are produced by voluntary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1015/p1545.html

Stroke: Strategies for Primary Prevention - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2003 - Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in North America. Primary prevention of stroke includes lifestyle modifications and measures to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, and atrial fibrillation. Lowering blood pressure in patients with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1215/p2379.html

Recognizing Spinal Cord Emergencies - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2001 - Physicians who work in primary care settings and emergency departments frequently evaluate patients with neck and back pain. Spinal cord emergencies are uncommon, but injury must be recognized early so that the diagnosis can be quickly confirmed and treatment can be instituted to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0815/p631.html

Headaches in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2002 - Headaches are common during childhood and become more common and increase in frequency during adolescence. The rational, cost-effective evaluation of children with headache begins with a careful history. The first step is to identify the temporal pattern of the headache--acute, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0215/p625.html

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Common Cause of Spinal Cord Dysfunction in Older ...

Sep 1, 2000 - Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in older persons. The aging process results in degenerative changes in the cervical spine that, in advanced stages, can cause compression of the spinal cord. Symptoms often develop insidiously and are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0901/p1064.html

The "Burner": A Common Nerve Injury in Contact Sports - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 1999 - A

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1101/p2035.html

Pharmacologic Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: An Update - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2003 - Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the development of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which are associated with neuronal destruction, particularly in cholinergic neurons. Drugs that inhibit the degradation of acetylcholine within synapses are the mainstay of therapy. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1001/p1365.html

Early Diagnosis of Dementia - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2001 - Until recently, the most significant issue facing a family physician regarding the diagnosis and treatment of dementia was ruling out delirium and potentially treatable etiologies. However, as more treatment options become available, it will become increasingly important to diagnose ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0215/p703.html

West Nile Virus in the United States: An Update on an Emerging Infectious Disease - ...

Aug 15, 2003 - West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and human neuropathogen. Since the virus was recognized in New York City in 1999, it has spread rapidly across the United States, with human disease documented in 39 states and the District of Columbia. West Nile virus can cause a broad ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0815/p653.html

Management of Seizures and Epilepsy - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 1998 - While the evaluation and treatment of patients with seizures or epilepsy is often challenging, modern therapy provides many patients with complete seizure control. After a first seizure, evaluation should focus on excluding an underlying neurologic or medical condition, assessing the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1589.html

Recognition and Management of Tourette's Syndrome and Tic Disorders - American Family ...

Apr 15, 1999 - Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome are conditions that primary care physicians are likely to encounter. Up to 20 percent of children have at least a transient tic disorder at some point. Once believed to be rare, Tourette's syndrome is now known to be a more common disorder that ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0415/p2263.html

Charcot Foot: The Diagnostic Dilemma - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2001 - Primary care physicians involved in the management of patients with diabetes are likely to encounter the diagnostic and treatment challenges of pedal neuropathic joint disease, also known as Charcot foot. The acute Charcot foot is characterized by erythema, edema and elevated ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1101/p1591.html

Neurological Complications of Scuba Diving - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2001 - Recreational scuba diving has become a popular sport in the United States, with almost 9 million certified divers. When severe diving injury occurs, the nervous system is frequently involved. In dive-related barotrauma, compressed or expanding gas within the ears, sinuses and lungs ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0601/p2211.html

New Concepts In Acute Pain Therapy: Preemptive Analgesia - American Family Physician

May 15, 2001 - Pain, which is often inadequately treated, accompanies the more than 23 million surgical procedures performed each year and may persist long after tissue heals. Preemptive analgesia, an evolving clinical concept, involves the introduction of an analgesic regimen before the onset of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0515/p1979.html

Advances in the Treatment of Epilepsy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2001 - Significant advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy over the past decade. With the advent of electroencephalographic video monitoring, physicians are now able to reliably differentiate epilepsy from other conditions that can mimic it, such as pseudoseizures. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0701/p91.html

Update on Parkinson's Disease - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1999 - Parkinson's disease is a progressive degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The hallmark physical signs are tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is caused by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and nigrostriatal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0415/p2155.html

Preventing Stroke in Patients with Transient Ischemic Attacks - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 1999 - Stroke is the third most common overall cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. New therapeutic interventions instituted in the period immediately after a stroke have revolutionized the approach to ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Recognition of a...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1115/p2329.html

AAN Updates Guidelines on Evaluating Driving Risk in Patients with Dementia - Practice ...

Nov 1, 2010 - Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) updated guidelines for the evaluation and management of driving risk in persons with dementia. The new evidence-based guidelines offer characteristics that can help to identify persons that are at risk of unsafe ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1101/p1144.html

Assessment and Management of Concussion in Sports - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 1999 - The most common head injury in sports is concussion. Athletes who sustain a prolonged loss of consciousness should be transported immediately to a hospital for further evaluation. Assessment of less severe injuries should include a thorough neurologic examination. The duration of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0901/p887.html

Treatment of Nonmalignant Chronic Pain - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2000 - Nonmalignant, chronic pain is associated with physical, emotional and financial disability. Recent animal studies have shown that remodeling within the central nervous system causes the physical pathogenesis of chronic pain. This central neural plasticity results in persistent pain ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1331.html

Recognizing an Index Case of Tuberous Sclerosis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2000 - Tuberous sclerosis is the most common neurocutaneous syndrome after neurofibromatosis. Dermatologic manifestations may be the only clues the family physician has to the diagnosis of the disorder, which is also marked by childhood seizures and mental retardation. Characteristic signs of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0201/p703.html

Stroke: Part I. A Clinical Update on Prevention - American Family Physician

May 1, 1999 - Clinical trials conducted during the past five years have yielded important results that have allowed us to refine our approach to stroke prevention. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension prevents stroke and is generally well tolerated. New antiplatelet agents (clopidogrel and the...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0501/p2475.html

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