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Postpartum Hemorrhage: Prevention and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2017 - Postpartum hemorrhage is common and can occur in patients without risk factors for hemorrhage. Active management of the third stage of labor should be used routinely to reduce its incidence. Use of oxytocin after delivery of the anterior shoulder is the most important and effective ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p442.html

Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2014 - Many pregnant women take over-the-counter (OTC) medications despite the absence of randomized controlled trials to guide their use during pregnancy. Most data come from case-control and cohort studies. In 1979, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began reviewing all prescription and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1015/p548.html

Postpartum Care: An Approach to the Fourth Trimester - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - The postpartum period, defined as the 12 weeks after delivery, is an important time for a new mother and her family and can be considered a fourth trimester. Outpatient postpartum care should be initiated within three weeks after delivery in person or by phone, and may require multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p485.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

The Pregnant Patient: Managing Common Acute Medical Problems - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2018 - Women often see their primary care physicians for common acute conditions during pregnancy. These conditions may be caused by pregnancy (obstetric problems) or worsened by pregnancy (obstetrically aggravated problems), or they may require special consideration during pregnancy because ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p595.html

Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Issues - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on labor, delivery, and postpartum issues and related topics, including breastfeeding, cesarean delivery, episiotomy, labor pain management, postpartum hemorrhage, preterm labor and birth, shoulder dystocia, umbilical cord blood storage, and vaginal ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=16

Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2014 - Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age, and when untreated during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, placental abruption, hypertensive disorders, and growth restriction. Current guidelines recommend ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0215/p273.html

Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family...

Apr 1, 2015 - Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects approximately 6% of pregnancies in the United States, and it is increasing in prevalence. Pregnant women without known diabetes mellitus should be screened for GDM after 24 weeks of gestation. Treatment of GDM results in a statistically ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p460.html

Trauma in Pregnancy: Assessment, Management, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2014 - Trauma complicates one in 12 pregnancies, and is the leading nonobstetric cause of death among pregnant women. The most common traumatic injuries are motor vehicle crashes, assaults, falls, and intimate partner violence. Nine out of 10 traumatic injuries during pregnancy are classified ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1115/p717.html

Preterm Labor: Prevention and Management - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2017 - In the United States, preterm delivery is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and is the most common reason for hospitalization during pregnancy. The rate of preterm delivery (before 37 weeks’ gestation) has been declining since 2007. Clinical diagnosis of preterm labor is made if ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/p366.html

Breastfeeding: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - All major health organizations recommend breastfeeding as the optimal source of infant nutrition, with exclusive breastfeeding recommended for the first six months of life. After six months, complementary foods may be introduced. Most organizations recommend breastfeeding for at least ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p368.html

Identification and Management of Peripartum Depression - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Peripartum depression affects up to one in seven women and is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity if untreated. A history of depression is the strongest risk factor for developing peripartum depression. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p852.html

Update on Prenatal Care - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p199.html

Diagnosis and Management of Ectopic Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Ectopic pregnancy affects 1% to 2% of all pregnancies and is responsible for 9% of pregnancy-related deaths in the United States. When a pregnant patient presents with first-trimester bleeding or abdominal pain, physicians should consider ectopic pregnancy as a possible cause. The ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p34.html

Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2014 - Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy affects nearly 75% of pregnant women. The exact cause is unknown. In most cases, it is a mild, self-limited condition that can be controlled with conservative measures and has no adverse fetal sequelae. About 1% of women develop hyperemesis gravidarum, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p965.html

Management of Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2015 - Most of the nearly 4 million births in the United States annually are normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries. In the first stage of labor, normal birth outcomes can be improved by encouraging the patient to walk and stay in upright positions, waiting until at least 6 cm dilation to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p202.html

Prevention and Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2007 - Postpartum hemorrhage, the loss of more than 500 mL of blood after delivery, occurs in up to 18 percent of births and is the most common maternal morbidity in developed countries. Although risk factors and preventive strategies are dearly documented, not all cases are expected or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/p875.html

Options for Women with Unintended Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Unintended pregnancy refers to unwanted, unplanned, or mistimed pregnancies. One-half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, and family physicians are often asked to provide counseling, support, and resources for women with unintended pregnancies. Options include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p544.html

Cesarean Delivery: Counseling Issues and Complication Management - American Family ...

Feb 1, 2015 - Nearly one-third of all deliveries in the United States are cesarean deliveries. Compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Interventions that decrease the chance of a cesarean delivery ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p178.html

Recommendations for Preconception Counseling and Care - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2013 - Given that nearly one-half of pregnancies are unintended, preconception care should be considered an integral part of primary care for women of reproductive age. Common issues in preconception care include family planning, achieving a healthy body weight, screening and treatment for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1015/p499.html

Common Skin Conditions During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2007 - Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/p211.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2009 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed in the 1960s to assist in the diagnosis of fetal hypoxia during labor. Continuous electronic fetal monitoring has been shown to reduce the incidence of neonatal seizures, but there has been no beneficial effect in decreasing cerebral ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1388.html

Office Management of Early Pregnancy Loss - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2011 - The management of early pregnancy loss used to be based largely in the hospital setting, but it has shifted to the outpatient setting, allowing women to remain under the care of their family physician throughout the miscarriage process. Up to 15 percent of recognized pregnancies end in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p75.html

Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2006 - Preterm premature rupture of membranes is the rupture of membranes during pregnancy before 37 weeks' gestation. It occurs in 3 percent of pregnancies and is the cause of approximately one third of preterm deliveries. It can lead to significant perinatal morbidity, including respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0215/p659.html

Labor Analgesia - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2012 - Regional analgesia has become the most common method of pain relief used during labor in the United States. Epidural and spinal analgesia are two types of regional analgesia. With epidural analgesia, an indwelling catheter is directed into the epidural space, and the patient receives a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p447.html

Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia: A Practice Bulletin from ACOG - Practice ...

Nov 15, 2019 - Globally, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the main causes of maternal death. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has released a practice bulletin to outline diagnosis and treatment recommendations for these conditions.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p649.html

Health Effects of Prenatal Radiation Exposure - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2010 - Pregnant women are at risk of exposure to nonionizing and ionizing radiation resulting from necessary medical procedures, workplace exposure, and diagnostic or therapeutic interventions before the pregnancy is known. Nonionizing radiation includes microwave, ultrasound, radio frequency,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0901/p488.html

Second Trimester Pregnancy Loss - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2007 - Second trimester pregnancy loss is uncommon, but it should be regarded as an important event in a woman's obstetric history. Fetal abnormalities, including chromosomal problems, and maternal anatomic factors, immunologic factors, infection, and thrombophilia should be considered; ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1101/p1341.html

Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: Updated CDC Guideline - American...

Jul 1, 2012 - Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States. Universal screening is recommended for pregnant women at 35 to 37 weeks’ gestation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its guideline for the prevention of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0701/p59.html

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2005 - To complement the 2005 Annual Clinical Focus on medical genomics, AFP will be publishing a series of short reviews on genetic syndromes. This series was designed to increase awareness of these diseases so that family physicians can recognize and diagnose children with these disorders ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0715/p279.html

Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2003 - Pregnant women commonly use over-the-counter medications. Although most over-the-counter drugs have an excellent safety profile, some have unproven safety or are known to adversely affect the fetus. The safety profile of some medications may change according to the gestational age of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/p2517.html

Managing Adverse Birth Outcomes: Helping Parents and Families Cope - American Family ...

May 1, 2012 - Unexpected adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes (e.g., stillbirth, birth trauma, congenital anomalies) present a crisis for the family and the medical care team. In cases of stillbirth, the family physician should be flexible in supporting the parents’ choices, validate the loss, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0501/p900.html

Postpartum Major Depression - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2010 - Postpartum major depression is a disorder that is often unrecognized and must be distinguished from baby blues. Antenatal depressive symptoms, a history of major depressive disorder, or previous postpartum major depression significantly increase the risk of postpartum major depression. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p926.html

Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2003 - Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, commonly known as 'morning sickness,' affects approximately 80 percent of pregnant women. Although several theories have been proposed, the exact cause remains unclear. Recent research has implicated Helicobacter pylori as one possible cause. Nausea and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0701/p121.html

Diagnosis and Management of Preeclampsia - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2004 - Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder of unknown etiology. The disorder affects approximately 5 to 7 percent of pregnancies and is a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia is defined by the new onset of elevated blood pressure ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1215/p2317.html

Management of Spontaneous Abortion - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - Spontaneous abortion, which is the loss of a pregnancy without outside intervention before 20 weeks' gestation, affects up to 20 percent of recognized pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion can be subdivided into threatened abortion, inevitable abortion, incomplete abortion, missed abortion,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1243.html

Methods for Cervical Ripening and Induction of Labor - American Family Physician

May 15, 2003 - Induction of labor is common in obstetric practice. According to the most current studies, the rate varies from 9.5 to 33.7 percent of all pregnancies annually. In the absence of a ripe or favorable cervix, a successful vaginal birth is less likely. Therefore, cervical ripening or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0515/p2123.html

Venous Thromboembolism During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2008 - Venous thromboembolism is the leading cause of maternal death in the United States. Pregnancy is a risk factor for deep venous thrombosis, and risk is further increased with a personal or family history of thrombosis or thrombophilia. Screening for thrombophilia is not recommended for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0615/p1709.html

Antihypertensive Drug Therapy for Mild to Moderate Hypertension During Pregnancy - ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Compared with placebo, antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension (defined by the authors as a blood pressure of 140 to 169 mm Hg systolic or 90 to 109 mm Hg diastolic) caused by chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia during pregnancy does ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p403.html

What Family Physicians Can Do to Reduce Maternal Mortality - Editorials - American ...

Oct 15, 2019 - Family physicians can catalyze efforts to ensure the safety of all people who give birth and to support well-being during the postpartum period.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p460.html

Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children and Pregnant Women: Recommendation...

Oct 15, 2019 - The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for elevated blood lead levels in asymptomatic children.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/od1.html

Misoprostol Alone is Associated with High Rate of Successful First-Trimester Abortion -...

Jul 15, 2019 - Misoprostol alone was associated with a nearly 80% success rate in the first trimester of pregnancy on meta-analysis.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p119.html

Perinatal Depression: AAP Policy Statement on Recognition and Management - Practice ...

Oct 1, 2019 - The American Academy of Pediatrics has released a policy statement regarding the integration of perinatal depression recognition and management into well-child visits.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p443.html

Treatment of Threatened Miscarriage with Progestogens - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2019 - Progestogens reduce the risk of miscarriage when compared with placebo in patients with threatened miscarriage (number needed to treat [NNT] = 10.) Use of progestogens poses no significant risks to mother or baby.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p279.html

Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2008 - The second stage of labor is a dynamic event that may require assistance when maternal efforts fail to effect delivery or when there are nonreassuring fetal heart tones. Therefore, knowing how to perform an operative vaginal delivery with forceps or vacuum is vital for family physicians...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/p953.html

Shoulder Dystocia - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2004 - Shoulder dystocia can be one of the most frightening emergencies in the delivery room. Although many factors have been associated with shoulder dystocia, most cases occur with no warning. Calm and effective management of this emergency is possible with recognition of the impaction and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0401/p1707.html

Interventions to Prevent Perinatal Depression - Putting Prevention into Practice - ...

Sep 15, 2019 - A 25-year-old woman presents to your office after having recently missed her period. A urine pregnancy test confirms that she is pregnant. She takes acyclovir for suppression of genital herpes, which she acquired as a teenager. She reports a history of depression and sexual abuse during...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p365.html

Interventions to Prevent Perinatal Depression: Recommendation Statement - U.S. ...

Sep 15, 2019 - The USPSTF recommends that clinicians provide or refer pregnant and postpartum persons who are at increased risk of perinatal depression to counseling interventions.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/od1.html

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Postpartum Depression - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - ...

Aug 15, 2019 - In women with postpartum depression, the addition of CBT reduces depressive symptoms more effectively than usual care alone (medication and other therapies), with a medium effect size at the end of the intervention and a residual small effect size six months later.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p244.html

Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2008 - Vaginal delivery is a natural process that usually does not require significant medical intervention. Management guided by current knowledge of the relevant screening tests and normal labor process can greatly increase the probability of an uncomplicated delivery and postpartum course. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/p336.html

Can We Prevent Perinatal Depression in the Primary Care Office? - Editorials - American...

Sep 15, 2019 - Even if we do not provide maternity care, our commitment to the total care of our patients, which includes addressing behavioral medicine needs, allows us to be the ideal physicians to champion interventions to prevent perinatal depression.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p327.html

Preterm Labor - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2010 - Preventing preterm delivery remains one of the great challenges in modern medicine. Preterm birth rates continue to increase and accounted for 12.7 percent of all U.S. births in 2005. The etiology of preterm delivery is unclear, but is likely to be complex and influenced by genetics and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0215/p477.html

Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2000 - Urinary tract infections are common during pregnancy, and the most common causative organism is Escherichia coli. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to the development of cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria and subsequently treated with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0201/p713.html

Skin-to-Skin Contact for Improved Duration of Breastfeeding - FPIN's Help Desk Answers ...

Aug 1, 2019 - Skin-to-skin-contact in the immediate postnatal period should be recommended to all mothers because it is associated with a higher likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge and for up to six months afterward (number needed to treat [NNT] = 5 to 8).

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/od2.html

Late Pregnancy Bleeding - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Effective management of vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy requires recognition of potentially serious conditions, including placenta previa, placental abruption, and vasa previa. Placenta previa is commonly diagnosed on routine ultrasonography before 20 weeks' gestation, but in nearly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1199.html

Preventing Spontaneous Abortion with Progestin Therapy - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Jul 1, 2019 - The use of progestin therapy in women with recurrent pregnancy loss appears to reduce the incidence of spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and stillbirth, and increase the rate of live birth. However, due to issues with the studies the authors were hesitant to give progestin their full...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/od1.html

Risks of Elective Labor Induction vs. Expectant Management - FPIN's Help Desk Answers -...

May 1, 2019 - Elective labor induction at 39 weeks’ gestation leads to a mean 145-g (5.1-oz) lower birth weight compared with expectant management, but there is conflicting evidence about the effects on rates of cesarean delivery, perinatal mortality, operative vaginal birth, and admission to the ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p587.html

Diagnosis and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2009 - Gestational diabetes occurs in 5 to 9 percent of pregnancies in the United States and is growing in prevalence. It is a controversial entity, with conflicting guidelines and treatment protocols. Recent studies show that diagnosis and management of this disorder have beneficial effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0701/p57.html

Interpretation of the Electronic Fetal Heart Rate During Labor - American Family Physician

May 1, 1999 - Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is commonly used to assess fetal well-being during labor. Although detection of fetal compromise is one benefit of fetal monitoring, there are also risks, including false-positive tests that may result in unnecessary surgical intervention. Since ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0501/p2487.html

Maternal Pertussis Vaccination During Pregnancy - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - American ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Women should receive the Tdap vaccine during pregnancy regardless of previous immunization history. Infants whose mothers received prenatal immunization had 50% fewer cases of pertussis compared with those whose mothers received postpartum immunization.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p454.html

Oral Health During Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2008 - Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/p1139.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2008 - The National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy has defined four categories of hypertension in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. A maternal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0701/p93.html

Complementary and Integrative Treatments for Pain Management in Labor - Cochrane for ...

Feb 1, 2019 - There is evidence that all of the studied interventions have some benefit in labor, but the evidence is of low to very low quality. Massage, thermal interventions (warm and cold packs), relaxation techniques, yoga, and music reduce pain during latent labor, but not during active labor.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p154.html

Metformin for Improving Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Pregnant Women Who Are Obese - ...

Mar 1, 2019 - This meta-analysis showed no clear benefit for metformin in reducing the risk of large for gestational age infants. Additionally, there was no difference in important secondary outcomes such as gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, shoulder dystocia, advanced perineal...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/od1.html

Mifepristone Pretreatment Improves Success Rate of Misoprostol for Early Pregnancy Loss...

Dec 1, 2018 - In women with early pregnancy loss between five and 12 weeks' gestation, pretreatment with 200 mcg of oral mifepristone before 800 mcg of vaginal misoprostol increases the likelihood of successful expulsion of the gestational sac.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p683a.html

Epidural Analgesia and Risk of Cesarean Delivery - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - American ...

Nov 1, 2018 - There is no difference in the risk of cesarean delivery in women who receive epidural analgesia before 4 to 5 cm cervical dilation compared with later dilation.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/od2.html

Screening for Preeclampsia: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task ...

Jan 15, 2018 - The USPSTF recommends screening for preeclampsia in pregnant women with blood pressure measurements throughout pregnancy.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/od1.html

Effectiveness of Intrapartum Antibiotics for Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid - Medicine...

Nov 1, 2018 - This review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend prophylactic intrapartum antibiotics in laboring women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid because of the lack of difference in rates of neonatal sepsis between the antibiotic and placebo groups.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/od1.html

Obesity in Pregnancy: Risks and Management - Editorials - American Family Physician

May 1, 2018 - As obesity becomes more common, it is important for all maternity care clinicians to understand the risks and associated management of obesity in pregnancy. Elevated prepregnancy weight increases the absolute risk of many adverse fetal and maternal outcomes.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p559.html

Repair of Obstetric Perineal Lacerations - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2003 - Family physicians who deliver babies must frequently repair perineal lacerations after episiotomy or spontaneous obstetric tears. Effective repair requires a knowledge of perineal anatomy and surgical technique. Perineal lacerations are classified according to their depth. Sequelae of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1015/p1585.html

Chewing Gum for Reducing Post-Cesarean Section Ileus - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Although the current body of literature suggests a need for higher-quality, more robust research, the simplicity, frugality, and safety of chewing gum makes it a viable option to offer women undergoing cesarean section.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/od2.html

Safe Reduction of Primary Cesarean Births: National Partnership for Maternal Safety ...

Aug 15, 2018 - The National Partnership for Maternal Safety has developed a patient safety bundle that outlines important practices that every maternity unit should implement to reduce the number of primary cesarean births and improve care to increase the number of vaginal births.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p258.html

Effects of Prenatal Yoga on Labor Pain - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Participation in a prenatal yoga program may help reduce labor pain, but reported effects vary from modest to moderate.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p49.html

NSAIDs for Postpartum Perineal Pain - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2018 - Women with third- or fourth-degree perineal lacerations or who received an episiotomy can be given oral NSAIDs to reduce perineal pain in the first six hours postpartum.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/od3.html

Maternal Obesity and Labor Induction - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - American Family ...

May 15, 2018 - Pregnant women who are obese have nearly double the rate of cesarean delivery, and obesity increases the median duration of active labor by up to four hours when labor is induced. The difference in cesarean delivery rate is larger in obese primigravida patients presenting with cervical ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/p671.html

Screening and Treatment for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pregnancy - American ...

Jul 15, 2007 - Many sexually transmitted infections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening all pregnant women for human immunodeficiency virus infection as early as possible. Treatment with highly active antiretroviral ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/p265.html

Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Identification and Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1998 - Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common diagnosis in obstetrics and carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Identification of IUGR is crucial because proper evaluation and management can result in a favorable outcome. Certain pregnancies are at high ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0801/p453.html

Intercontraction Intervals for Predicting Timing of Labor Evaluation - FPIN's Help Desk...

Mar 1, 2018 - Women at term who have at least 12 contractions per hour are more likely to be diagnosed with active labor within 24 hours. A reduction in the interval between contractions is associated with the onset of active labor.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/od3.html

Screening for Preeclampsia - Putting Prevention into Practice - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2018 - A 28-year-old white woman comes to your clinic for prenatal care reporting a new-onset severe headache. She is currently pregnant with twins at an estimated gestational age of 22 weeks. Her obstetric history is significant for one previous term singleton vaginal delivery at 24 years of ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/p117.html

Pregnancy Prevention in Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2004 - Although the pregnancy rate in adolescents has declined steadily in the past 10 years, it remains a major public health problem with lasting repercussions for the teenage mothers, their infants and families, and society as a whole. Successful strategies to prevent adolescent pregnancy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1015/p1517.html

Immediate Postpartum LARC: An Underused Contraceptive Option - Editorials - American ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Providing immediate postpartum LARC to women who want it is an evidence-based, patient-centered, and safe practice.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p9.html

Risk of Preterm Birth with Vaginal Progesterone in Twin Pregnancies - FPIN's Help Desk ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Women with twin pregnancies should not routinely receive vaginal progesterone because it does not reduce the risk of preterm birth. Vaginal progesterone should be administered to reduce adverse neonatal outcomes in women with twin pregnancies and a short cervix (25 mm or less).

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/od3.html

Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2003 - Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common but controversial disorder. While no large randomized controlled trials show that screening for and treating gestational diabetes affect perinatal outcomes, multiple studies have documented an increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1101/p1767.html

ACOG Releases Guideline on Gestational Diabetes - Practice Guidelines - American Family...

Sep 15, 2014 - Gestational diabetes increases the risk of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and developing diabetes later in life. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released a guideline that provides recommendations based on good-quality ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0915/p416.html

Tranexamic Acid Decreased Death from Bleeding but Not All-Cause Mortality in Women with...

Oct 15, 2017 - In this really large study, tranexamic acid did not decrease the frequency of the primary outcome of death or hysterectomy in women with postpartum hemorrhage. However, there was a very small reduction in the rate of death from bleeding in the women treated with tranexamic acid.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1015/od1.html

ACOG Guidelines on Psychiatric Medication Use During Pregnancy and Lactation - Practice...

Sep 15, 2008 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has released guidelines on psychiatric medication used by women during pregnancy and lactation. The use of psychotropic medications in these women is a concern because of the risks of adverse perinatal and postnatal outcomes.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/p772.html

Membrane Sweeping to Decrease Rates of Postdate Induction - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - ...

Jan 1, 2017 - In uncomplicated pregnancies, membrane sweeping at 38 to 40 weeks' gestation safely decreases the rate of postdate inductions. Membrane sweeping increases the incidence of spontaneous labor, especially in the subsequent seven days, and results in fewer pregnancies extending beyond 41 ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p35.html

Vaccinations in Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2003 - Adult immunization rates have fallen short of national goals partly because of misconceptions about the safety and benefits of current vaccines. The danger of these misconceptions is magnified during pregnancy, when concerned physicians are hesitant to administer vaccines and patients ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0715/p299.html

Preventing Postpartum Hemorrhage: Managing the Third Stage of Labor - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2006 - Postpartum hemorrhage is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Most postpartum hemorrhages are caused by uterine atony and occur in the immediate postpartum period. Expectant or physiologic management of the third stage of labor has been compared with active ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1025.html

Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: Recommendation ...

May 15, 2017 - The USPSTF recommends that all women who are planning or capable of pregnancy take a daily supplement containing 0.4 to 0.8 mg (400 to 800 μg) of folic acid.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/od4.html

Ectopic Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2000 - Ectopic pregnancy occurs at a rate of 19.7 cases per 1,000 pregnancies in North America and is a leading cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester. Greater awareness of risk factors and improved technology (biochemical markers and ultrasonography) allow ectopic pregnancy to be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0215/p1080.html

Vitamin E in Pregnancy - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2017 - Vitamin E supplementation in pregnant women does not show any benefit among the most patient-important outcomes.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/od1.html

Oral NSAIDs for Perineal Pain in the Early Postpartum Period - Medicine by the Numbers ...

May 1, 2017 - Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were able to adequately relieve perineal pain for many postpartum women at four hours and longer.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/od1.html

Down Syndrome: Prenatal Risk Assessment and Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2000 - Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is the most commonly recognized genetic cause of mental retardation. The risk of trisomy 21 is directly related to maternal age. All forms of prenatal testing for Down syndrome must be voluntary. A nondirective approach should be used when presenting patients ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0815/p825.html

Dystocia in Nulliparous Women - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2007 - Dystocia is common in nulliparous women and is responsible for more than 50 percent of primary cesarean deliveries. Because cesarean delivery rates continue to rise, physicians providing maternity care should be skilled in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of dystocia. If labor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0601/p1671.html

NPMS Releases Consensus Statement on Venous Thromboembolism During Pregnancy - Practice...

Mar 15, 2017 - The main strategy for preventing VTE-related mortality is thromboprophylaxis, but guidance regarding its use differs across specialties and organizations. For this reason, the National Partnership for Maternal Safety (NPMS), a group made up of a variety of leaders in women's health ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/p397.html

An Approach to the Postpartum Office Visit - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2005 - The postpartum period (typically the first six weeks after delivery) may underscore physical and emotional health issues in new mothers. A structured approach to the postpartum office visit ensures that relevant conditions and concerns are discussed and appropriately addressed. Common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1215/p2491.html

Examination of the Placenta - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 1998 - A one-minute examination of the placenta performed in the delivery room provides information that may be important to the care of both mother and infant. The findings of this assessment should be documented in the delivery records. During the examination, the size, shape, consistency ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0301/p1045.html

CDC Updates Guidelines for the Prevention of Perinatal GBS Disease - Practice ...

May 1, 2011 - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcus (GBS) disease in 1996; the guidelines were updated in 2002 and again in 2010. The most recent guidelines elaborate on laboratory methods and thresholds for GBS...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1106.html

The CDC’s Recommendations to Help Prevent Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - Editorials...

Jan 1, 2017 - Alcohol screening and brief intervention, coupled with regular discussion of the patient's reproductive life plan and ready access to effective contraception, can help ensure a healthier next generation while respecting women's autonomy.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p6.html

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