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Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels: Causes and Evaluation - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2017 - Mild, asymptomatic elevations (less than five times the upper limit of normal) of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels are common in primary care. It is estimated that approximately 10% of the U.S. population has elevated transaminase levels. An approach based on the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p709.html

Abdominal Wall Pain: Clinical Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis, and Treatment - ...

Oct 1, 2018 - Abdominal wall pain is often mistaken for intra-abdominal visceral pain, resulting in expensive and unnecessary laboratory tests, imaging studies, consultations, and invasive procedures. Those evaluations generally are nondiagnostic, and lingering pain can become frustrating to the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p429.html

Depression in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2019 - The prevalence of major unipolar depression in children and adolescents is increasing in the United States. In 2016, approximately 5% of 12-year-olds and 17% of 17-year-olds reported experiencing a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Screening for depression in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p609.html

Pleuritic Chest Pain: Sorting Through the Differential Diagnosis - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - Pleuritic chest pain is characterized by sudden and intense sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the chest when inhaling and exhaling. Pulmonary embolism is the most common serious cause, found in 5% to 21% of patients who present to an emergency department with pleuritic chest pain. A ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p306.html

Unexplained Lymphadenopathy: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2016 - Lymphadenopathy is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as medications and iatrogenic causes. The history and physical examination alone usually identify the cause of lymphadenopathy. When the cause is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p896.html

Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p281.html

Dizziness: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Dizziness is a common yet imprecise symptom. It was traditionally divided into four categories based on the patient’s history: vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium, and light-headedness. However, the distinction between these symptoms is of limited clinical usefulness. Patients have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p154.html

Hemorrhoids: Diagnosis and Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2018 - Many Americans between 45 and 65 years of age experience hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoidal size, thrombosis, and location (i.e., proximal or distal to the dentate line) determine the extent of pain or discomfort. The history and physical examination must assess for risk factors and clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p172.html

Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic folliculitis affecting intertriginous areas. Onset generally occurs in young adulthood to middle adulthood (18 to 39 years of age). Females and blacks are more than twice as likely to be affected. Additional risk factors include family history, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p562.html

Acute Bronchitis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2016 - Cough is the most common illness-related reason for ambulatory care visits in the United States. Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by cough due to acute inflammation of the trachea and large airways without evidence of pneumonia. Pneumonia should be suspected in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p560.html

Acne Vulgaris: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - Acne vulgaris is the most prevalent chronic skin disease in the United States, affecting nearly 50 million people per year, mostly adolescents and young adults. Potential sequelae of acne, such as scarring, dyspigmentation, and low self-esteem, may result in significant morbidity. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p475.html

Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are common electrolyte disorders caused by changes in potassium intake, altered excretion, or transcellular shifts. Diuretic use and gastrointestinal losses are common causes of hypokalemia, whereas kidney disease, hyperglycemia, and medication use are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p487.html

Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Hyperthyroidism is an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in tissues caused by increased synthesis of thyroid hormones, excessive release of preformed thyroid hormones, or an endogenous or exogenous extrathyroidal source. The most common causes of an excessive production of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p363.html

Evaluation of Neck Masses in Adults - American Family Physician

May 15, 2015 - Neck masses are often seen in clinical practice, and the family physician should be able to determine the etiology of a mass using organized, efficient diagnostic methods. The first goal is to determine if the mass is malignant or benign; malignancies are more common in adult smokers ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0515/p698.html

Diagnosis and Management of Sodium Disorders: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia - American...

Mar 1, 2015 - Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are common findings in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Sodium disorders are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Plasma osmolality plays a critical role in the pathophysiology and treatment of sodium disorders. Hyponatremia ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p299.html

Vaginitis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2018 - Vaginitis is defined as any condition with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge, odor, irritation, itching, or burning. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Bacterial vaginosis is implicated in 40% to 50% of cases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p321.html

Diagnosis and Management of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder in Adults -...

May 1, 2015 - Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) are among the most common mental disorders in the United States, and they can negatively impact a patient’s quality of life and disrupt important activities of daily living. Evidence suggests that the rates of missed diagnoses ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0501/p617.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

Acute and Chronic Paronychia - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - Paronychia is inflammation of the fingers or toes in one or more of the three nail folds. Acute paronychia is caused by polymicrobial infections after the protective nail barrier has been breached. Treatment consists of warm soaks with or without Burow solution or 1% acetic acid. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p44.html

Acute and Chronic Urticaria: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2017 - Urticaria commonly presents with intensely pruritic wheals, sometimes with edema of the subcutaneous or interstitial tissue. It has a lifetime prevalence of about 20%. Although often self-limited and benign, it can cause significant discomfort, continue for months to years, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p717.html

Management of Constipation in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Chronic constipation is common in adults older than 60 years, and symptoms occur in up to 50% of nursing home residents. Primary constipation is also referred to as functional constipation. Secondary constipation is associated with chronic disease processes, medication use, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p500.html

Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an underlying and potentially reversible cause. The prevalence and potential etiologies of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p453.html

Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: When to Consider Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2017 - Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (e.g., in Graves disease, toxic nodular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p710.html

Hemolytic Anemia: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - Hemolytic anemia is defined by the premature destruction of red blood cells, and can be chronic or life-threatening. It should be part of the differential diagnosis for any normocytic or macrocytic anemia. Hemolysis may occur intravascularly, extravascularly in the reticuloendothelial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p354.html

Specific Learning Disabilities: The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2019 - Academic underachievement, such as failing a class and the threat of being held back because of academic issues, is common. Family physicians can provide support and guidance for families as they approach their child’s unique academic challenges. Specific learning disabilities are a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p628.html

Skin and Soft Tissue Infections - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p474.html

Mechanical Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2018 - Low back pain is usually nonspecific or mechanical. Mechanical low back pain arises intrinsically from the spine, intervertebral disks, or surrounding soft tissues. Clinical clues, or red flags, may help identify cases of nonmechanical low back pain and prompt further evaluation or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p421.html

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Premenopausal Women - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2019 - Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common symptom in women. The acronym PALM-COEIN facilitates classification, with PALM referring to structural etiologies (polyp, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy and hyperplasia), and COEIN referring to nonstructural etiologies (coagulopathy, ovulatory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p435.html

Acute Migraine Headache: Treatment Strategies - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2018 - Migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent attacks. Acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, triptans, antiemetics, ergot alkaloids, and combination analgesics have evidence supporting their effectiveness in the treatment of migraine. Acetaminophen ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/p243.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a hot ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p501.html

Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Summary of the Evidence - American Family...

Aug 1, 2017 - Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p170.html

Croup: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

May 1, 2018 - Croup is a common respiratory illness affecting 3% of children six months to three years of age. It accounts for 7% of hospitalizations annually for fever and/or acute respiratory illness in children younger than five years. Croup is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction resulting...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p575.html

A Stepwise Approach to the Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests - American Family...

Mar 1, 2014 - Office-based pulmonary function testing, also known as spirometry, is a powerful tool for primary care physicians to diagnose and manage respiratory problems. An obstructive defect is indicated by a low forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio, which...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p359.html

Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead to systemic symptoms, such as fevers, chills, nausea, emesis, and malaise. Although the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p114.html

Diagnosis and Management of Tinea Infections - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2014 - Tinea infections are caused by dermatophytes and are classified by the involved site. The most common infections in prepubertal children are tinea corporis and tinea capitis, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1115/p702.html

Failure to Thrive: A Practical Guide - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2016 - Children with very low weight for age or height and those who do not maintain an appropriate growth pattern may have failure to thrive (FTT), also known as weight faltering. If confirmed by repeated valid measurements, FTT should prompt a search for causes of undernutrition, including ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0815/p295.html

Chronic Rhinosinusitis - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2017 - Chronic rhinosinusitis is an inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses that occurs in 1% to 5% of the U.S. population. It may significantly decrease quality of life. Chronic rhinosinusitis is defined by the presence of at least two out of four cardinal symptoms (i.e., facial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1015/p500.html

Kidney Stones: Treatment and Prevention - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Kidney stones are a common disorder, with an annual incidence of eight cases per 1,000 adults. During an episode of renal colic, the first priority is to rule out conditions requiring immediate referral to an emergency department, then to alleviate pain, preferably with a nonsteroidal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p490.html

Acute Diarrhea in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p180.html

Evaluation of Elbow Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2014 - The elbow is a complex joint designed to withstand a wide range of dynamic exertional forces. The location and quality of elbow pain can generally localize the injury to one of the four anatomic regions: anterior, medial, lateral, or posterior. The history should include questions about...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0415/p649.html

Care of the Military Veteran: Selected Health Issues - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 18.2 million veterans were living in the United States in 2017, of whom 1.6 million were female. Less than one-half of all veterans receive care at a Veterans Health Administration or military treatment facility, leaving most to receive services from...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p544.html

Impetigo: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2014 - Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0815/p229.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Dysuria: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2015 - The most common cause of acute dysuria is infection, especially cystitis. Other infectious causes include urethritis, sexually transmitted infections, and vaginitis. Noninfectious inflammatory causes include a foreign body in the urinary tract and dermatologic conditions. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p778.html

Ingrown Toenail Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Ingrown toenails account for approximately 20% of foot problems in primary care. The great toe is most often affected. Ingrown toenails occur most commonly in young men, and nail care habits and footwear are most often contributory factors. No consensus has been reached for the best ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p158.html

Knee Pain in Adults and Adolescents: The Initial Evaluation - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2018 - Knee pain affects approximately 25% of adults, and its prevalence has increased almost 65% over the past 20 years, accounting for nearly 4 million primary care visits annually. Initial evaluation should emphasize excluding urgent causes while considering the need for referral. Key ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1101/p576.html

Epididymitis: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2016 - Inflammation of the epididymis, or epididymitis, is commonly seen in the outpatient setting. Etiology and treatment are based on patient age and the likely causative organisms. Epididymitis presents as the gradual onset of posterior scrotal pain that may be accompanied by urinary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p723.html

Uterine Fibroids: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2017 - Uterine fibroids are common benign neoplasms, with a higher prevalence in older women and in those of African descent. Many are discovered incidentally on clinical examination or imaging in asymptomatic women. Fibroids can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, bowel ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p100.html

Initial Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - ...

Jan 1, 2015 - Eating disorders are life-threatening conditions that are challenging to address; however, the primary care setting provides an important opportunity for critical medical and psychosocial intervention. The recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p46.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Hip Pain - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2014 - Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p27.html

Stuttering: Understanding and Treating a Common Disability - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - Childhood-onset fluency disorder, the most common form of stuttering, is a neurologic disability resulting from an underlying brain abnormality that causes disfluent speech. Stuttering can lead to significant secondary effects, including negative self-perception and negative perception ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p556.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease and H. pylori Infection - American ...

Feb 15, 2015 - The most common causes of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) are Helicobacter pylori infection and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The test-and-treat strategy for detecting H. pylori is appropriate in situations where the risk of gastric cancer is low based on age younger ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p236.html

Surgical and Nonsurgical Management of Gallstones - American Family Physician

May 15, 2014 - Cholelithiasis, or gallstones, is one of the most common and costly of all the gastrointestinal diseases. The incidence of gallstones increases with age. At-risk populations include persons with diabetes mellitus, persons who are obese, women, rapid weight cyclers, and patients on ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0515/p795.html

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2017 - Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of this infection. RSV is transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets either directly from an infected person or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p94.html

Common Questions About Oppositional Defiant Disorder - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2016 - Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by a pattern of angry or irritable mood, argumentative or defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting for at least six months. Children and adolescents with ODD may have trouble controlling their temper ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p586.html

Pityriasis Rosea: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2018 - Pityriasis rosea is a common self-limiting rash that usually starts with a herald patch on the trunk and progresses along the Langer lines to a generalized rash over the trunk and limbs. The diagnosis is based on clinical and physical examination findings. The herald patch is an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p38.html

First Trimester Bleeding: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Approximately one-fourth of pregnant women will experience bleeding in the first trimester. The differential diagnosis includes threatened abortion, early pregnancy loss, and ectopic pregnancy. Pain and heavy bleeding are associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p166.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p159.html

Diagnosis and Management of Acute Diverticulitis - American Family Physician

May 1, 2013 - Uncomplicated diverticulitis is localized diverticular inflammation, whereas complicated diverticulitis is diverticular inflammation associated with an abscess, phlegmon, fistula, obstruction, bleeding, or perforation. Patients with acute diverticulitis may present with left lower ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p612.html

Diagnosis and Management of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2016 - Nephrotic syndrome (NS) consists of peripheral edema, heavy proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia, often with hyperlipidemia. Patients typically present with edema and fatigue, without evidence of heart failure or severe liver disease. The diagnosis of NS is based on typical clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0315/p479.html

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Globally, approximately 20% of the 400 million individuals with diabetes mellitus have diabetic kidney disease (DKD). DKD is associated with higher cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality, so timely diagnosis and treatment are critical. Screening for early DKD is best done ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p751.html

Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention - American ...

Sep 1, 2017 - The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p314.html

Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Plantar fasciitis is a common problem that one in 10 people will experience in their lifetime. Plantar fasciopathy is an appropriate descriptor because the condition is not inflammatory. Risk factors include limited ankle dorsiflexion, increased body mass index, and standing for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p744.html

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2019 - Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is caused by human enteroviruses and coxsackieviruses. Outbreaks can occur in the spring to fall and are common in North America, and most cases occur in patients younger than 10 years. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is transmitted by fecal-oral, oral-oral, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p408.html

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Primary Care Approach to Diagnosis and Management - ...

Aug 15, 2016 - Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems, including the skin, musculoskeletal, renal, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and reproductive systems. Family physicians should be familiar with the manifestations of lupus to aid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0815/p284.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillance - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2015 - Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and women. The incidence and mortality rate of the disease have been declining over the past two decades because of early detection and treatment. Screening in persons at average risk should begin at 50 years of age; the U.S. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0115/p93.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

Iron Deficiency Anemia: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2013 - Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder worldwide and accounts for approximately one-half of anemia cases. The diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia is confirmed by the findings of low iron stores and a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below normal. Women should be...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0115/p98.html

Toilet Training: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - Toilet training is a significant developmental milestone in early childhood. Most U.S. children achieve the physiologic, cognitive, and emotional development necessary for toilet training by 18 to 30 months of age. Markers of readiness for toilet training include being able to walk, put...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p468.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2015 - Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a heterogeneous group of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions involving the temporomandibular joint complex, and surrounding musculature and osseous components. TMD affects up to 15% of adults, with a peak incidence at 20 to 40 years of age....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0315/p378.html

Disorders of Puberty: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2017 - Disorders of puberty can profoundly impact physical and psychosocial well-being. Precocious puberty is pubertal onset before eight years of age in girls and before nine years of age in boys. Patients with early isolated pubertal changes, prepubertal linear growth, and no worrisome ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p590.html

Crohn's Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2018 - Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the gastrointestinal tract. It can cause lesions from mouth to anus and may result in extraintestinal complications. The prevalence of Crohn’s disease is increasing in adults and children. Genetic predispositions to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p661.html

Gas, Bloating, and Belching: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family ...

Mar 1, 2019 - Gas, bloating, and belching are associated with a variety of conditions but are most commonly caused by functional gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders are characterized by disordered motility and visceral hypersensitivity that are often worsened by psychological distress. An ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p301.html

Amenorrhea: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2013 - Although amenorrhea may result from a number of different conditions, a systematic evaluation including a detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory assessment of selected serum hormone levels can usually identify the underlying cause. Primary amenorrhea, which by definition...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p781.html

Unintentional Weight Loss in Older Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 2014 - Unintentional weight loss in persons older than 65 years is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The most common etiologies are malignancy, nonmalignant gastrointestinal disease, and psychiatric conditions. Overall, nonmalignant diseases are more common causes of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p718.html

Evaluation of the Painful Eye - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2016 - Eye problems constitute 2% to 3% of all primary care and emergency department visits. Common eye conditions that can cause eye pain are conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, and hordeolum, and some of the most serious eye conditions include acute angle-closure glaucoma, orbital cellulitis, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0615/p991.html

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2016 - Carpal tunnel syndrome, the most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity, is caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the carpal tunnel. Classically, patients with the condition experience pain and paresthesias in the distribution of the median nerve, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p993.html

Lice and Scabies: Treatment Update - American Family Physician

May 15, 2019 - Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed with visualization of live lice. Nits (lice eggs or egg casings) alone are not sufficient to diagnose a current infestation. A no-nit ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/p635.html

Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p746.html

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2017 - The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be suspected in patients with risk factors (primarily a history of smoking) who report dyspnea at rest or with exertion, chronic cough with or without sputum production, or a history of wheezing. COPD may be suspected ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p433.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Atrial fibrillation is a supraventricular arrhythmia that adversely affects cardiac function and increases the risk of stroke. It is the most common arrhythmia and a major source of morbidity and mortality; its prevalence increases with age. Pulse rate is sensitive, but not specific, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p442.html

Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children is defined as at least three episodes of pain that occur over at least three months and affect the child’s ability to perform normal activities. RAP is most often considered functional (nonorganic) abdominal pain, but an organic cause is found ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p785.html

Bartholin Duct Cyst and Gland Abscess: Office Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - The Bartholin glands, located in the base of the labia minora, have a role in vaginal lubrication. Because of the presence of other glands, removal of a Bartholin gland does not affect lubrication. Ductal blockage of these typically pea-sized structures can result in enlargement of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p760.html

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2019 - Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the upper genital tract occurring predominantly in sexually active young women. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are common causes; however, other cervical, enteric, bacterial vaginosis–associated, and respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p357.html

Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Jaundice in adults can be an indicator of significant underlying disease. It is caused by elevated serum bilirubin levels in the unconjugated or conjugated form. The evaluation of jaundice relies on the history and physical examination. The initial laboratory evaluation should include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p164.html

Common Superficial Bursitis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p224.html

Hepatitis B: Screening, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2019 - Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partly double-stranded DNA virus that causes acute and chronic liver infection. Screening for hepatitis B is recommended in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and in adolescents and adults at high risk of chronic infection. Hepatitis B vaccination ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p314.html

Noonan Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2014 - Noonan syndrome is a common genetic disorder that causes multiple congenital abnormalities and a large number of potential health conditions. Most affected individuals have characteristic facial features that evolve with age; a broad, webbed neck; increased bleeding tendency; and a high...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p37.html

Preventing Falls in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2017 - The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p240.html

Common Questions About Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection causes 15% to 30% of sore throats in children and 5% to 15% in adults, and is more common in the late winter and early spring. The strongest independent predictors of GABHS pharyngitis are patient age of five to 15 years, absence of...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p24.html

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common causes of anterior knee pain encountered in the outpatient setting in adolescents and adults younger than 60 years. The incidence in the United States is between 3% and 6%. The cardinal feature of PFPS is pain in or around ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p88.html

Acute Hand Infections - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2019 - Acute hand infections are often caused by puncture wounds and are generally classified into superficial or deep infections. Superficial infections occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, whereas deep infections can involve the tendon sheaths, adjacent anatomic compartments, deep ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0215/p228.html

Intestinal Obstruction: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - Acute intestinal obstruction occurs when the forward flow of intestinal contents is interrupted or impaired by a mechanical cause. It is most commonly induced by intra-abdominal adhesions, malignancy, and herniation. The clinical presentation generally includes nausea, emesis, colicky ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p362.html

Vaccine Adverse Events: Separating Myth from Reality - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2017 - Vaccines are one of the most successful medical advances in modern times. Most vaccine-preventable illnesses are unfamiliar to modern parents. Because of this, parents are increasingly questioning the necessity of immunizing their children, especially because no vaccine is completely ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0615/p786.html

Erythema Multiforme: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2019 - Erythema multiforme is an immune-mediated reaction that involves the skin and sometimes the mucosa. Classically described as target-like, the erythema multiforme lesions can be isolated, recurrent, or persistent. Most commonly, the lesions of erythema multiforme present symmetrically on...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p82.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2015 - Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition in infants, adolescents, and adults. The characteristic symptoms—scaling, erythema, and itching—occur most often on the scalp, face, chest, back, axilla, and groin. Seborrheic dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on the location and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0201/p185.html

Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2017 - Multiple myeloma accounts for 1.6% of all cancer cases and approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. In 2015, an estimated 28,850 new cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed in the United States, and the disease caused more than 11,000 deaths. Patients older ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/p373.html

Diagnosis and Management of Sarcoidosis - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in any organ, most commonly the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes. A diagnosis of sarcoidosis should be suspected in any young or middle-aged adult presenting with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p840.html

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2013 - Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by a serum glucose level greater than 250 mg per dL, a pH less than 7.3, a serum bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq per L, an elevated serum ketone level, and dehydration. Insulin deficiency is the main precipitating factor. Diabetic ketoacidosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p337.html

Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2011 - Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing when compared with blood pressure from the sitting or supine position. It results from an inadequate physiologic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p527.html

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