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Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2015 - Osteoporosis-related fractures affect approximately one in two white women and one in five white men in their lifetime. The impact of fractures includes loss of function, significant costs, and increased mortality. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends using dual energy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0815/p261.html

Uterine Fibroids: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2017 - Uterine fibroids are common benign neoplasms, with a higher prevalence in older women and in those of African descent. Many are discovered incidentally on clinical examination or imaging in asymptomatic women. Fibroids can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, bowel ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p100.html

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic burden and decreased quality of life. The Women’s Preventive Services Initiative is the only major organization that recommends annual screening for urinary incontinence in all women ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p339.html

Common Breast Problems - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Palpable breast masses, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are commonly encountered symptoms in outpatient practice, causing significant patient anxiety and precipitating medical consultation. The initial workup includes a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Women ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p505.html

Hirsutism in Women - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Hirsutism is the excessive growth of terminal hair in a typical male pattern in a female. It is often a sign of excessive androgen levels. Although many conditions can lead to hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hyperandrogenism account for more than 85% of cases. Less ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p168.html

Hormone Therapy and Other Treatments for Symptoms of Menopause - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2016 - The results of large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of hormone therapy for menopause. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease, as well as for symptoms of menopause. Combined ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p884.html

Common Questions About Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2016 - Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, including healthy women with normal genitourinary anatomy. Recurrent UTI is typically defined as three or more UTIs within 12 months, or two or more occurrences within six months. The same species that caused previous ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0401/p560.html

Intimate Partner Violence - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2016 - Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent worldwide health problem, affecting women more commonly than men. IPV is underreported and underrecognized by health care professionals. Even when IPV is recognized, it remains an underaddressed issue. In addition to physical injury and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1015/p646.html

Pelvic Organ Prolapse - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2017 - Pelvic organ prolapse is the descent of one or more of the anterior vaginal wall, posterior vaginal wall, the uterus (cervix), or the apex of the vagina (vaginal vault or cuff scar after hysterectomy). Prevalence increases with age. The cause of prolapse is multifactorial but is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p179.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Infertility - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2015 - Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation may be initiated sooner in patients who have risk factors for infertility or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Causes of infertility include male ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p308.html

Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Cancer - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2016 - Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Less than one-half of patients survive for more than five years after diagnosis. Ovarian cancer affects women of all ages but is most commonly diagnosed after menopause. More than 75% of affected women are diagnosed at an advanced ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0601/p937.html

Hirsutism in Women - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2012 - Hirsutism is excess terminal hair that commonly appears in a male pattern in women. Although hirsutism is generally associated with hyperandrogenemia, one-half of women with mild symptoms have normal androgen levels. The most common cause of hirsutism is polycystic ovary syndrome, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0215/p373.html

Diagnosis and Management of Endometrial Cancer - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2016 - Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. It is the fourth most common cancer in women in the United States after breast, lung, and colorectal cancers. Risk factors are related to excessive unopposed exposure of the endometrium to estrogen, including unopposed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0315/p468.html

Health Maintenance in Postmenopausal Women - American Family Physician

May 1, 2017 - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in postmenopausal women older than 50 years. Clinicians should use the pooled cohort risk assessment equations or another risk calculator every three to five years to estimate a woman’s 10-year risk of atherosclerotic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/p561.html

Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Practical Approach - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2015 - Sexual dysfunction in women is a common and often distressing problem that has a negative impact on quality of life and medication compliance. The problem is often multifactorial, necessitating a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment approach that addresses biological, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0815/p281.html

Health Maintenance in Women - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2013 - The health maintenance examination is an opportunity to focus on disease prevention and health promotion. The patient history should include screening for tobacco use, alcohol misuse, intimate partner violence, and depression. Premenopausal women should receive preconception counseling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p30.html

Dyspareunia in Women - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2014 - Dyspareunia is recurrent or persistent pain with sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal conflict. It affects approximately 10% to 20% of U.S. women. Dyspareunia can have a significant impact on a woman’s mental and physical health, body image, relationships with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1001/p465.html

Natural Family Planning - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2012 - Natural family planning methods provide a unique option for committed couples. Advantages include the lack of medical adverse effects and the opportunity for participants to learn about reproduction. Modern methods of natural family planning involve observation of biologic markers to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1115/p924.html

Clinical Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women - American Family Physician

May 1, 2013 - Most cases of urinary incontinence in women fall under one of three major subtypes: urge, stress, or mixed. A stepped-care approach that advances from least invasive (behavioral modification) to more invasive (surgery) interventions is recommended. Bladder retraining and pelvic floor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0501/p634.html

Common Breast Problems - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2012 - A palpable mass, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are common breast symptoms for which patients seek medical attention. Patients should be evaluated initially with a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Most women presenting with a breast mass will require imaging and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0815/p343.html

Breast Cancer Screening Update - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - Breast cancer is the most common non–skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North American women. Mammography is the only screening test shown to reduce breast cancer–related mortality. There is general agreement that screening should be offered at least biennially ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p274.html

Treatment of Breast Cancer - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2010 - Understanding breast cancer treatment options can help family physicians care for their patients during and after cancer treatment. This article reviews typical treatments based on stage, histology, and biomarkers. Lobular carcinoma in situ does not require treatment. Ductal carcinoma ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1339.html

Counseling Patients About Hormone Therapy and Alternatives for Menopausal Symptoms - ...

Oct 1, 2010 - The results of recent large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of menopausal hormone therapy. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy in an attempt to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease. Hormone therapy appears to increase ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1001/p801.html

Ovarian Cancer: An Overview - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2009 - Although ovarian cancer may occur at any age, it is more common in patients older than 50 years. Patients often present with nonspecific pelvic or abdominal symptoms. Initial diagnostic tests include transvaginal ultrasonography and serum cancer antigen 125 measurement; however, these ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0915/p609.html

Alopecia in Women - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2003 - Alopecia can be divided into disorders in which the hair follicle is normal but the cycling of hair growth is abnormal and disorders in which the hair follicle is damaged. Androgenetic alopecia is the most common cause of hair loss in women. Other disorders include alopecia areata, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0301/p1007.html

Assessing Breast Cancer Risk in Women - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2008 - Understanding modifiable and nonmodifiable factors that increase or decrease breast cancer risk allows family physicians to counsel women appropriately. Nonmodifiable factors associated with increased breast cancer risk include advanced age, female sex, family history of breast cancer, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1215/p1361.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Atrophic Vaginitis - American Family Physician

May 15, 2000 - Up to 40 percent of postmenopausal women have symptoms of atrophic vaginitis. Because the condition is attributable to estrogen deficiency, it may occur in premenopausal women who take antiestrogenic medications or who have medical or surgical conditions that result in decreased levels ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0515/p3090.html

Practical Use of the Pessary - American Family Physician

May 1, 2000 - The pessary is an effective tool in the management of a number of gynecologic problems. The pessary is most commonly used in the management of pelvic support defects such as cystocele and rectocele. Pessaries can also be used in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. The wide ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0501/p2719.html

Nonhormonal Therapies for Hot Flashes in Menopause - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2006 - Numerous reports in the medical literature and popular media have discussed the effectiveness of various nonhormonal agents in reducing menopausal hot flash symptoms. Data for these therapies are limited, and most of the studies have been conducted in women with a history of breast ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p457.html

Screening for Breast Cancer: Current Recommendations and Future Directions - American ...

Jun 1, 2007 - Breast cancer is one of the most significant health concerns in the United States. Recent reviews have questioned the value of traditional breast cancer screening methods. Breast self-examination has been shown not to improve cancer-specific or all-cause mortality in large studies, but ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0601/p1660.html

Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Women - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2006 - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the primary cause of death in women for almost a century, and more women than men have died of CVD every year since 1984. Although CVD incidence can be reduced by adherence to a heart-healthy lifestyle and detection and treatment of major risk ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1015/p1331.html

Pharmacologic Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2004 - Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density and a deterioration in the microarchitecture of bone that increases its susceptibility to fracture. The World Health Organization defines osteoporosis as a bone mineral density that is 2.5 standard deviations or more below the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1001/p1293.html

Endometrial Biopsy - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2001 - Endometrial biopsy is an office procedure that serves as a helpful tool in diagnosing various uterine abnormalities. The technique is fairly easy to learn and may be performed without assistance. The biopsy is obtained through the use of an endometrial suction catheter that is inserted ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0315/p1131.html

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2000 - Because the prevalence of urinary incontinence increases with age, a working knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of the various types of urinary incontinence is fundamental to the care of women. As the population of the United States ages, primary care physicians can expect to see ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1201/p2433.html

Epilepsy in Women - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2002 - Epilepsy in women raises special reproductive and general health concerns. Seizure frequency and severity may change at puberty, over the menstrual cycle, with pregnancy, and at menopause. Estrogen is known to increase the risk of seizures, while progesterone has an inhibitory effect. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1015/p1489.html

Breast-Conserving Surgery for Breast Cancer - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2002 - Surgical treatment of breast cancer has changed significantly in recent years. Fine-needle aspirations or core-needle biopsies can be used in the diagnostic process, thus avoiding scarring incisions. The preferred method of treatment for many women with early breast cancer is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1215/p2271.html

Alternative Therapies for Traditional Disease States: Menopause - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2002 - With growing concern about the use of hormone replacement therapy, some women are looking for alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms and preventing postmenopausal cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. In observational trials, exercise has been associated with decreased ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0701/p129.html

Oral Contraceptive Use During the Menopausal Years - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 1998 - Few guidelines exist for the use of estrogen, particularly low-dose oral contraceptives, during the perimenopausal years. Use of low-dose oral contraceptive pills in women over 35 years of age provides protection against unwanted pregnancy, maintains a stable hormonal environment and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1373.html

Optimal Management of Cholesterol Levels and the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease ...

Jan 15, 2002 - Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in women, is largely preventable. Lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet and exercise) are the cornerstone of primary and secondary prevention. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides and low levels of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0115/p217.html

Managing Menopause - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2000 - Many women will spend one third of their lifetime after menopause. A growing number of options are available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms like vasomotor instability and vaginal atrophy, as well as the long-term health risks such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1391.html

Bisphosphonates: Safety and Efficacy in the Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis - ...

May 1, 2000 - Osteoporosis affects more than 28 million Americans. With the advent of accessible and affordable diagnostic studies, awareness and recognition of this disease by patients and clinicians are growing. Osteoporotic fractures of the spine and hip are costly and associated with significant ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0501/p2731.html

Uterine Fibroid Embolization - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2000 - Interventional radiologists have performed uterine artery embolization to treat women with emergency uterine bleeding since the 1970s. In this procedure, the physician guides a small angiographic catheter into the uterine arteries and injects a stream of tiny particles that decreases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0615/p3601.html

Coronary Artery Disease Prevention: What's Different for Women? - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2001 - Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women, as well as an important cause of disability, although many women and their physicians underestimate the risk. Exercise, hypertension treatment, smoking cessation and aspirin therapy are effective measures for the primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0401/p1393.html

Depression in Women: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 1999 - Women experience depression twice as often as men. The diagnostic criteria for depression are the same for both sexes, but women with depression more frequently experience guilt, anxiety, increased appetite and sleep, weight gain and comorbid eating disorders. Women may achieve higher ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0701/p225.html

Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Screening - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2000 - Approximately 180,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually, accounting for about 48,000 deaths per year in the United States. The screening guidelines for the diagnosis of breast cancer are continually changing. Because of increased awareness of the signs and symptoms of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0801/p596.html

Raloxifene: A Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 1999 - Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that produces both estrogen-agonistic effects on bone and lipid metabolism and estrogen-antagonistic effects on uterine endometrium and breast tissue. Because of its tissue selectivity, raloxifene may have fewer side effects than are...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1131.html

Breast Cancer in Older Women - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 1998 - The American Geriatric Society currently recommends screening mammography for women up to 85 years of age whose life expectancy is three years or longer. The value of clinical breast examinations in older women needs further study. Total mastectomy and partial mastectomy with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1001/p1163.html

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