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Acute Kidney Injury: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2012 - Acute kidney injury is characterized by abrupt deterioration in kidney function, manifested by an increase in serum creatinine level with or without reduced urine output. The spectrum of injury ranges from mild to advanced, sometimes requiring renal replacement therapy. The diagnostic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1001/p631.html

Acute Kidney Injury: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2019 - Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate and resultant accumulation of metabolic waste products. Acute kidney injury is associated with an increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular events, and progression to chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p687.html

Acute Renal Failure - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2000 - Acute renal failure occurs in 5 percent of hospitalized patients. Etiologically, this common condition can be categorized as prerenal, intrinsic or postrenal. Most patients have prerenal acute renal failure or acute tubular necrosis (a type of intrinsic acute renal failure that is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2077.html

Adverse Reactions to Contrast Material. Recognition, Prevention and Treatment - ...

Oct 1, 2002 - Adverse reactions to contrast agents range from a mild inconvenience, such as itching associated with hives, to a life-threatening emergency. Renal toxicity is a well known adverse reaction associated with the use of intravenous contrast material. Other forms of adverse reactions ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1229.html

Assessment of Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2013 - Although routine screening for bladder cancer is not recommended, microscopic hematuria is often incidentally discovered by primary care physicians. The American Urological Association has published an updated guideline for the management of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, which is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p747.html

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2014 - Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited cause of kidney disease. Enlarging cysts within the kidneys are the clinical hallmark of the disease. Renal manifestations include varying degrees of kidney injury, urinary tract infections, kidney stones,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p303.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2011 - Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1138.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Prevention and Treatment of Common Complications - American ...

Nov 15, 2004 - Chronic kidney disease is a progressive condition that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Because of the important role the kidneys play in maintaining homeostasis, chronic kidney disease can affect almost every body system. Early recognition and intervention are essential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1115/p1921.html

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Part 1. Definition, ...

Sep 1, 2004 - In February 2002, the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation published clinical practice guidelines on chronic kidney disease. The first six of the 15 guidelines are of the greatest relevance to family physicians. Part I of this two-part article ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0901/p869.html

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Part II. Glomerular ...

Sep 15, 2004 - The Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative of the National Kidney Foundation published clinical practice guidelines on chronic kidney disease in February 2002. Of the 15 guidelines, the first six are of greatest relevance to family physicians. Part II of this two-part review covers ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0915/p1091.html

Detection and Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 19 million adult Americans, and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes and hypertension are the underlying causes in most cases of chronic kidney disease. Evidence suggests that progression to kidney failure can be delayed or prevented...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1723.html

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Globally, approximately 20% of the 400 million individuals with diabetes mellitus have diabetic kidney disease (DKD). DKD is associated with higher cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality, so timely diagnosis and treatment are critical. Screening for early DKD is best done ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p751.html

Diabetic Nephropathy--The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

May 1, 2012 - Nearly one-half of persons with chronic kidney disease have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes accounted for 44 percent of new cases of kidney failure in 2008. Diabetic nephropathy, also called diabetic kidney disease, is associated with significant macrovascular risk, and is the leading cause...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0501/p883.html

Diabetic Nephropathy: Common Questions - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2005 - Diabetic nephropathy, or diabetic kidney disease, affects 20 to 30 percent of patients with diabetes. It is a common cause of kidney failure. Diabetic nephropathy presents in its earliest stage with low levels of albumin (microalbuminuria) in the urine. The most practical method of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0701/p96.html

Diagnosis and Management of Acute Interstitial Nephritis - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2003 - Acute interstitial nephritis is an important cause of acute renal failure resulting from immune-mediated tubulointerstitial injury, initiated by medications, infection, and other causes. Acute interstitial nephritis may be implicated in up to 15 percent of patients hospitalized for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/p2527.html

Diagnosis and Management of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2016 - Nephrotic syndrome (NS) consists of peripheral edema, heavy proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia, often with hyperlipidemia. Patients typically present with edema and fatigue, without evidence of heart failure or severe liver disease. The diagnosis of NS is based on typical clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0315/p479.html

Diagnosis and Management of Sodium Disorders: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia - American...

Mar 1, 2015 - Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are common findings in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Sodium disorders are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Plasma osmolality plays a critical role in the pathophysiology and treatment of sodium disorders. Hyponatremia ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0301/p299.html

Drug Dosing Adjustments in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease - American Family ...

May 15, 2007 - Chronic kidney disease affects renal drug elimination and other pharmacokinetic processes involved in drug disposition (e.g., absorption, drug distribution, nonrenal clearance [metabolism]). Drug dosing errors are common in patients with renal impairment and can cause adverse effects ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/p1487.html

Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2008 - Drugs are a common source of acute kidney injury. Compared with 30 years ago, the average patient today is older, has more comorbidities, and is exposed to more diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the potential to harm kidney function. Drugs shown to cause nephrotoxicity exert ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/p743.html

End-Stage Renal Disease: Symptom Management and Advance Care Planning - American Family...

Apr 1, 2012 - The prevalence of end-stage renal disease continues to increase, and dialysis is offered to older and more medically complex patients. Pain is problematic in up to one-half of patients receiving dialysis and may result from renal and nonrenal etiologies. Opioids can be prescribed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p705.html

Evaluating Proteinuria in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 1998 - Proteinuria is a common laboratory finding in children. It can be identified as either a transient or a persistent finding and can represent a benign condition or a serious disease. A rapid but qualitative assessment of proteinuria can be made using dipstick or sulfosalicylic acid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1001/p1145.html

Evaluation of Incidental Renal and Adrenal Masses - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Incidental renal or adrenal masses are sometimes found during imaging for problems unrelated to the kidneys and adrenal glands. Knowledgeable family physicians can reliably diagnose these masses, thereby avoiding unnecessary worry and procedures for their patients. A practical and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p288.html

Evaluation of Poststreptococcal Illness - American Family Physician

May 15, 2005 - Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, scarlet fever, and rarely asymptomatic carrier states are associated with a number of poststreptococcal suppurative and nonsuppurative complications. As in streptococcal pharyngitis, acute rheumatic fever, pediatric autoimmune ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1949.html

Gadolinium-Associated Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2009 - Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a progressive, potentially fatal multiorgan system fibrosing disease related to exposure of patients with renal failure to the gadolinium-based contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging. Because of this relationship between nephrogenic systemic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1001/p711.html

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: An Emerging Health Risk - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2006 - Hemolytic uremic syndrome is caused primarily by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. The most common cause of acute renal failure in children, hemolytic uremic syndrome also can occur in adults. Characteristic features of the syndrome are microangiopathic anemia, thrombotic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/p991.html

Hyperkalemia - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2006 - Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors. Acute episodes of hyperkalemia commonly are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p283.html

Kidney Stones: Treatment and Prevention - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Kidney stones are a common disorder, with an annual incidence of eight cases per 1,000 adults. During an episode of renal colic, the first priority is to rule out conditions requiring immediate referral to an emergency department, then to alleviate pain, preferably with a nonsteroidal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p490.html

Management of Acute Renal Failure - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2005 - Acute renal failure is present in 1 to 5 percent of patients at hospital admission and affects up to 20 percent of patients in intensive care units. The condition has prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes, with prerenal conditions accounting for 60 to 70 percent of cases. The cause...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1739.html

Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2009 - Nephrotic syndrome may be caused by primary (idiopathic) renal disease or by a variety of secondary causes. Patients present with marked edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and often hyperlipidemia. In adults, diabetes mellitus is the most common secondary cause, and focal segmental ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1115/p1129.html

Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2015 - Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are common electrolyte disorders caused by changes in potassium intake, altered excretion, or transcellular shifts. Diuretic use and gastrointestinal losses are common causes of hypokalemia, whereas kidney disease, hyperglycemia, and medication use are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0915/p487.html

Preoperative Care of Patients with Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2002 - Patients with chronic kidney disease often require surgical interventions for vascular access and for medical problems related to comorbid conditions. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates are increased in these patients. Preoperative attention to common medical problems that ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1015/p1471.html

Proteinuria in Adults: A Diagnostic Approach - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2000 - Proteinuria is a common finding in adults in primary care practice. An algorithmic approach can be used to differentiate benign causes of proteinuria from rarer, more serious disorders. Benign causes include fever, intense activity or exercise, dehydration, emotional stress and acute ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0915/p1333.html

Proteinuria in Children - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2010 - Proteinuria is common in children and may represent a benign condition or a serious underlying renal disease or systemic disorder. Proteinuria may occur secondary to glomerular or tubular dysfunction. Although a 24-hour urine protein excretion test is usually recommended, it may be ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/p645.html

Proteinuria in Children: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Although proteinuria is usually benign in the form of transient or orthostatic proteinuria, persistent proteinuria may be associated with more serious renal diseases. Proteinuria may be an independent risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease in children. Mechanisms of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p248.html

Radiologic Evaluation of Suspected Renovascular Hypertension - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2009 - More than 72 million Americans have hypertension, and the majority of these persons have essential hypertension. However, a significant subset has a secondary cause. The most common cause of secondary hypertension is renal vascular hypertension, of which renal artery stenosis is the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0801/p273.html

Renal Cell Carcinoma: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Kidney cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the United States with 90% being attributed to renal cell carcinoma. Men, especially black men, are more likely to be affected than women. Renal masses, either cystic or solid, are best detected with contrast-enhanced, triple-phase ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p179.html

Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an underlying and potentially reversible cause. The prevalence and potential etiologies of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p453.html

Update on the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2012 - Chronic kidney disease is common and associated with significant morbidity. Given the high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, it is important to identify and treat related risk factors. However, there is growing uncertainty about the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1015/p749.html

Urinalysis: A Comprehensive Review - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2005 - A complete urinalysis includes physical, chemical, and microscopic examinations. Midstream clean collection is acceptable in most situations, but the specimen should be examined within two hours of collection. Cloudy urine often is a result of precipitated phosphate crystals in alkaline...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1153.html

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