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Gastroenteritis and Diarrhea in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2020 - This collection features AFP content on gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children and related issues, including dehydration, foodborne illnesses, probiotics, and rotavirus vaccination. This collection features AFP content on gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children and related issues, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=9

Cerebral Palsy: An Overview - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2020 - Cerebral palsy, which occurs in two to three out of 1,000 live births, has multiple etiologies resulting in brain injury that affects movement, posture, and balance. The movement disorders associated with cerebral palsy are categorized as spasticity, dyskinesia, ataxia, or mixed/other. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/p213.html

Thickened Feedings for Infants with Gastroesophageal Reflux - FPIN's Help Desk Answers ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Bottle-fed infants with gastroesophageal reflux should be given thickened formula feedings.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p437.html

Maintenance Intravenous Fluids in Children: AAP Provides Recommendations - Practice ...

Aug 15, 2019 - The American Academy of Pediatrics has created an evidence-based guideline recommending the use of isotonic fluids for patients 28 days to 18 years of age to reduce the risk of developing hyponatremia.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p251.html

Smectite for Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Children - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Mar 1, 2019 - When compared with placebo, smectite decreases the duration of diarrhea by about a day, with a mean difference of 24.4 fewer hours of diarrhea (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9 to 30.9 hours). Smectite also decreases stool output by 11.4 g per kg (95% CI, 0.8 to 22 g per kg).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p294.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p159.html

Feed Thickener for Newborn Infants with Gastroesophageal Reflux - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Feed thickeners decrease the number of reflux episodes in full-term formula-fed infants. Additionally, full-term formula-fed infants with GER who are given thickeners are more than twice as likely to be asymptomatic compared with infants not receiving thickeners at one to eight weeks of...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p275.html

Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children is defined as at least three episodes of pain that occur over at least three months and affect the child’s ability to perform normal activities. RAP is most often considered functional (nonorganic) abdominal pain, but an organic cause is found ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p785.html

Dietary Interventions for Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Childhood - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Probiotics relieve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain in the short term (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8). There is no convincing evidence that fiber supplements improve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p19.html

Laxatives for the Management of Childhood Constipation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2017 - Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is superior to placebo (mean difference [MD] = 2.61 more stools per week; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 4.08), lactulose (MD = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.31), and milk of magnesia (MD = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.89) at increasing the number of bowel ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p433.html

Acute Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p830.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants and Children - American ...

Oct 15, 2015 - Gastroesophageal reflux is defined as the passage of stomach contents into the esophagus with or without accompanied regurgitation (spitting up) and vomiting. It is a normal physiologic process that occurs throughout the day in infants and less often in children and adolescents. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1015/p705.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2015 - Among infants younger than 12 months diagnosed with GERD, weak evidence supports the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2 antagonists. Among children 12 months and older, studies have shown moderate benefit from PPIs and weak benefit from H2 antagonists for providing ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p351.html

Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults - ...

Aug 15, 2015 - P.N. is a 35-year-old man whose parents were born in southeast Asia. Although he was born in the United States, P.N. does not have any vaccination records from his childhood. During an office visit, he mentions that a relative was recently diagnosed with hepatitis B virus (HBV) ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0815/p301.html

Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: ...

Apr 15, 2015 - The USPSTF recommends screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in persons at high risk for infection.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/od2.html

Ondansetron for Gastroenteritis in Children and Adolescents - Medicine by the Numbers -...

Apr 1, 2015 - Studies show vomiting stopped in 1 in 5 patients and diarrhea was a consistent adverse effect. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/od3.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Constipation in Children and Adolescents - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2014 - Childhood constipation is common and almost always functional without an organic etiology. Stool retention can lead to fecal incontinence in some patients. Often, a medical history and physical examination are sufficient to diagnose functional constipation. Further evaluation for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p82.html

AAP Releases Guideline for the Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children - ...

Mar 1, 2014 - The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published a guideline on the management of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in children based on recommendations from the North American and European Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. It is important to ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p395.html

Probiotics for Persistent Diarrhea in Children - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jul 1, 2011 - Limited data suggest that probiotic use decreases duration and frequency of loose stools, and reduces length of hospital stay in children with persistent diarrhea. One high-quality study showed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to be effective. Probiotics are generally well tolerated.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0701/p25.html

Caring for Pregnant Women and Newborns with Hepatitis B or C - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2010 - Family physicians encounter diagnostic and treatment issues when caring for pregnant women with hepatitis B or C and their newborns. When hepatitis B virus is perinatally acquired, an infant has approximately a 90 percent chance of becoming a chronic carrier and, when chronically ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1115/p1225.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2008 - What are the effects of treatments for acute gastroenteritis?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0201/p353.html

CDC Reports on Postmarketing Safety of the Rotateq Vaccine - Practice Guidelines - ...

Oct 1, 2007 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have monitored the postmarketing safety of Rotateq through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and the Vaccine Safety Datalink. The CDC determined that there was not a statistically ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p1060.html

ACIP Recommends Routine Rotavirus Vaccinations in Infants and Children - Practice ...

Mar 15, 2007 - Recommendations for administration of a live, oral, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (Rotateq) has been released by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Rotavirus is a common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children and infants, and rotavirus ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/p924.html

Hirschsprung's Disease: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2006 - Hirschsprung's disease (congenital megacolon) is caused by the failed migration of colonic ganglion cells during gestation. Varying lengths of the distal colon are unable to relax, causing functional colonic obstruction. Hirschsprung's disease most commonly involves the rectosigmoid ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1015/p1319.html

Practice Guidelines - Sep 15, 2006 - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2006 - The CDC recommends continued measures to encourage screening to reduce mortality rates from colorectal cancer. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has compared data from the 2002 and 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys to determine the number...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/p1048.html

Practice Guidelines - Sep 15, 2006 - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2006 - Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) compared tobacco use among adolescents 13 to 15 years of age from 1999 to 2005.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/p1048a.html

ACIP Updates Recommendations for Immunization Against Hepatitis A Virus - Practice ...

Jun 15, 2006 - The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has released updated recommendations on the prevention of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection through immunization; the report also includes new epidemiologic data and results of economic analyses of nationwide routine vaccination of...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2233.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Constipation in Infants and Children - American Family ...

Feb 1, 2006 - Constipation in children usually is functional and the result of stool retention. However, family physicians must be alert for red flags that may indicate the presence of an uncommon but serious organic cause of constipation, such as Hirschsprung's disease (congenital aganglionic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p469.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Jun 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Many patients request delayed umbilical cord clamping in their birth plans. Delayed cord clamping allows continued perfusion while the baby transitions to newborn circulation. However, when an infant is high risk, physicians frequently clamp and cut the cord early to allow the neonatal ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2091a.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Jun 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2005 - Thickened feeds and metoclopramide reduce symptoms of GER in normally developing infants. However, elevating the head of the crib appears to have no effect.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0601/p2091.html

Practice Guidelines - Jan 15, 2005 - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2005 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Jan 15, 2005 Issue Practice Guideline Briefs CARRIE MORANTZ BRIAN TORREY Am Fam Physician. 2005 Jan 15;71(2):386-387. Guidelines for Pediatric Intermediate Care Many children admitted to the hospital need a higher level of care than...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0115/p386a.html

Practice Guidelines - Jan 15, 2005 - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2005 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Jan 15, 2005 Issue Practice Guideline Briefs CARRIE MORANTZ BRIAN TORREY Am Fam Physician. 2005 Jan 15;71(2):386. Diagnosis of Celiac Disease The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has released an evidence report on celiac...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0115/p386.html

Intravenous Fluids for Children with Gastroenteritis - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

Jan 1, 2005 - Most children with gastroenteritis do not require intravenous fluids and will respond favorably to ORT. Intravenous fluids do not shorten the duration of gastroenteritis and are more likely to cause adverse effects than ORT.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0101/p121.html

Practice Guidelines - Sep 15, 2004 - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2004 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Sep 15, 2004 Issue Practice Guideline Briefs CARRIE MORANTZ BRIAN TORREY Am Fam Physician. 2004 Sep 15;70(6):1168. Influenza Vaccination Among Health Care Workers The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID) has issued a...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0915/p1168.html

Practice Guidelines - Sep 15, 2004 - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2004 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Sep 15, 2004 Issue Practice Guideline Briefs CARRIE MORANTZ BRIAN TORREY Am Fam Physician. 2004 Sep 15;70(6):1168-1171. Updated Guideline on Jaundice in Newborns The Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia of the American Academy of...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0915/p1168a.html

Acute Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2003 - Acute abdominal pain in children presents a diagnostic dilemma. Although many cases of acute abdominal pain are benign, some require rapid diagnosis and treatment to minimize morbidity. Numerous disorders can cause abdominal pain. The most common medical cause is gastroenteritis, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0601/p2321.html

Childhood Constipation - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2003 - What are the effects of treatments for childhood constipation?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0301/p1041.html

Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants and Children - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2001 - Gastroesophageal reflux is a common, self-limited process in infants that usually resolves by six to 12 months of age. Effective, conservative management involves thickened feedings, positional treatment, and parental reassurance. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a less common,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1201/p1853.html

Management of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 1999 - Acute gastroenteritis is a common and costly clinical problem in children. It is a largely self-limited disease with many etiologies. The evaluation of the child with acute gastroenteritis requires a careful history and a complete physical examination to uncover other illnesses with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1201/p2555.html

Failure to Pass Meconium: Diagnosing Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction - American Family ...

Nov 1, 1999 - Timely passage of the first stool is a hallmark of the well-being of the newborn infant. Failure of a full-term newborn to pass meconium in the first 24 hours may signal intestinal obstruction. Lower intestinal obstruction may be associated with disorders such as Hirschsprung's disease,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1101/p2043.html

Treatment Guidelines for Primary Nonretentive Encopresis and Stool Toileting Refusal - ...

Apr 15, 1999 - Nonretentive encopresis refers to inappropriate soiling without evidence of fecal constipation and retention. This form of encopresis accounts for up to 20 percent of all cases. Characteristics include soiling accompanied by daily bowel movements that are normal in size and consistency....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0415/p2171.html

Gastroenteritis in Children: Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family ...

Nov 15, 1998 - Gastroenteritis in children is a common reason for visits to family physicians. Most cases of gastroenteritis have a viral etiology and are self-limited. However, more severe or prolonged cases of gastroenteritis can result in dehydration with significant morbidity and mortality. This ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1115/p1769.html

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