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Newborn Circumcision Techniques - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2020 - Newborn male circumcision is a common elective surgical procedure for the removal of foreskin covering the glans penis. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0601/p680.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p159.html

VItamin D Supplementation in Infants, Children, and Adolescents - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2010 - Advertisement << Previous article Next article >> Mar 15, 2010 Issue Vitamin D Supplementation in Infants, Children, and Adolescents CATHERINE F. CASEY, MD; DAVID C. SLAWSON, MD; and LINDSEY R. NEAL, MD, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, Virginia Am Fam...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0315/p745.html

Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Depression - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2012 - Major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is a common condition that affects physical, emotional, and social development. Risk factors include a family history of depression, parental conflict, poor peer relationships, deficits in coping skills, and negative thinking. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0901/p442.html

Respiratory Distress in the Newborn - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2007 - The most common etiology of neonatal respiratory distress is transient tachypnea of the newborn; this is triggered by excessive lung fluid, and symptoms usually resolve spontaneously. Respiratory distress syndrome can occur in premature infants as a result of surfactant deficiency and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p987.html

Caring for Pregnant Women and Newborns with Hepatitis B or C - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2010 - Family physicians encounter diagnostic and treatment issues when caring for pregnant women with hepatitis B or C and their newborns. When hepatitis B virus is perinatally acquired, an infant has approximately a 90 percent chance of becoming a chronic carrier and, when chronically ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1115/p1225.html

A Practical Approach to Neonatal Jaundice - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Kernicterus and neurologic sequelae caused by severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are preventable conditions. A structured and practical approach to the identification and care of infants with jaundice can facilitate prevention, thus decreasing rates of morbidity and mortality. Primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1255.html

Infantile Hemangioma: AAP Releases Guideline for Management - Practice Guidelines - ...

Aug 1, 2019 - Infantile hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors of childhood, occurring in up to approximately 5% of infants. These benign vascular tumors are small, self-resolving, and do not require treatment.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p186.html

Addition of Steroids Improves Outcomes in Children and Adults with CAP - POEMs - ...

Jan 1, 2020 - Adding corticosteroid treatment to the management of CAP is beneficial for children and adults. Treatment decreases clinical failures, time in the hospital, and the risk of death in adults with severe pneumonia.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p55.html

Maintenance Intravenous Fluids in Children: AAP Provides Recommendations - Practice ...

Aug 15, 2019 - The American Academy of Pediatrics has created an evidence-based guideline recommending the use of isotonic fluids for patients 28 days to 18 years of age to reduce the risk of developing hyponatremia.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p251.html

Thickened Feedings for Infants with Gastroesophageal Reflux - FPIN's Help Desk Answers ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Bottle-fed infants with gastroesophageal reflux should be given thickened formula feedings.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p437.html

Oppositional Defiant Disorder - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2008 - Oppositional defiant disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., as a recurrent pattern of developmentally inappropriate, negativistic, defiant, and disobedient behavior toward authority figures. This behavior often appears in the preschool...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p861.html

Smectite for Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Children - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Mar 1, 2019 - When compared with placebo, smectite decreases the duration of diarrhea by about a day, with a mean difference of 24.4 fewer hours of diarrhea (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9 to 30.9 hours). Smectite also decreases stool output by 11.4 g per kg (95% CI, 0.8 to 22 g per kg).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p294.html

Feed Thickener for Newborn Infants with Gastroesophageal Reflux - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Feed thickeners decrease the number of reflux episodes in full-term formula-fed infants. Additionally, full-term formula-fed infants with GER who are given thickeners are more than twice as likely to be asymptomatic compared with infants not receiving thickeners at one to eight weeks of...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p275.html

Interventions for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Children Five Years and...

Oct 1, 2018 - Child feeding interventions are effective in the short term (i.e., less than 12 months) for increasing a child's intake of fruits and vegetables, but only by less than 5% of the recommended daily allowance. Conversely, parental nutrition education and multicomponent interventions, such ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p419.html

Interventions for Treatment of Overweight and Obese Children - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Aug 1, 2018 - Interventions that include combinations of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes may reduce weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z-score (equivalent to BMI-for-age percentile) in overweight and obese children six to 11 years of age.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p151.html

Hyperpronation Method for Reduction of Nursemaid's Elbow - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

May 15, 2018 - Although data are limited, the results have consistently shown a higher rate of success with first attempt reduction of nursemaids' elbow when the hyperpronation method was used. For other outcomes, including pain and adverse effects such as bruising, no conclusions could be drawn ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/od2.html

Tourette's Syndrome - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2008 - Tourette's syndrome is a movement disorder most commonly seen in school-age children. The incidence peaks around preadolescence with one half of cases resolving in early adulthood. Tourette's syndrome is the most common cause of tics, which are involuntary or semivoluntary, sudden, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p651.html

Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Despite reported benefits associated with the use of hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis, we have chosen a yellow recommendation because the more recent trials and systematic reviews have shown either much smaller effect size or no benefit at all compared with the older trials. Learn more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p23.html

Antibiotics for Otitis Media in Children - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2018 - This meta-analysis concludes that the risk of a prolonged course of antibiotics was twice as high for children younger than two years with bilateral acute otitis media than for children two years and older with unilateral acute otitis media, indicating that antibiotics might be ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/od3.html

Childhood Obesity: Highlights of AMA Expert Committee Recommendations - American Family...

Jul 1, 2008 - Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem; 13.9 percent of children two to five years of age, 18.8 percent of children six to 11 years of age, and 17.4 percent of adolescents 12 to 19 years of age in America are obese. Practical strategies that primary care physicians can use...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0701/p56.html

Atypical Antipsychotics for Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents -...

Jun 1, 2018 - Risperidone reduces measures of aggression and improves conduct in children with disruptive behavior disorders; however, only short-term use is recommended. Weight gain of 2 to 2.5 kg (4.4 to 5.5 lb) is common. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the benefits of other ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p715.html

Acute Otitis Media in Children - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2017 - What are the effects of treatments (analgesics, antibiotics, and myringotomy) in children with acute otitis media?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p109.html

Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics Increase Adverse Events in Children with Acute Respiratory ...

Apr 1, 2018 - Broad-spectrum antibiotics are no more effective than narrow-spectrum antibiotics for treating acute respiratory tract infections in infants and children, and adverse events are significantly more common in children treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p474a.html

Effectiveness of Skin-to-Skin Care for Procedure-Related Pain in Newborns - Cochrane ...

Feb 1, 2018 - Skin-to-skin care, also known as kangaroo care, effectively reduces physiologic and behavioral measures of pain in neonates during painful procedures and has no identified adverse effects. Infants who received skin-to-skin care during painful procedures had a heart rate of 10.8 beats ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p170.html

Dietary Interventions for Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Childhood - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2018 - Probiotics relieve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain in the short term (number needed to treat [NNT] = 8). There is no convincing evidence that fiber supplements improve pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p19.html

Laxatives for the Management of Childhood Constipation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2017 - Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is superior to placebo (mean difference [MD] = 2.61 more stools per week; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 4.08), lactulose (MD = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.31), and milk of magnesia (MD = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.89) at increasing the number of bowel ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p433.html

Reducing Tobacco Use in Adolescents - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2008 - After steadily decreasing since the late 1990s, adolescent smoking rates have stabilized at levels well above national goals. Experts recommend screening for tobacco use and exposure at every patient visit, although evidence of improved outcomes in adolescents is lacking. Counseling ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/p483.html

Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Infancy and Early Childhood: An Update - American Family...

Jun 1, 2006 - Recent innovations in medical technology have changed newborn screening programs in the United States. The widespread use of tandem mass spectrometry is helping to identify more inborn errors of metabolism. Primary care physicians often are the first to be contacted by state and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1981.html

Treatment for Calcaneal Apophysitis - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2017 - Several treatments for calcaneal apophysitis may produce modest short-term improvements in pain scores. Heel inserts and prefabricated orthotics may initially improve pain scores and dysfunction, but patients have equal improvement by three months with or without therapy.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0715/p126.html

Antibiotics May Equal Surgery for Children with Appendicitis - POEMs - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2017 - Antibiotic treatment appears to be effective for children with uncomplicated appendicitis without evidence of perforation or rupture, with 97% of children discharged without surgery. Approximately one in seven children will eventually have recurrence and require surgery. A couple of ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p737.html

Topiramate and Amitriptyline Not Effective for Migraine in Children - POEMs - American ...

May 15, 2017 - Topiramate, amitriptyline, and placebo all led to a similar, substantial improvement in migraine frequency and disability. How to harness this strong placebo effect for our patients is an important, but unanswered, question.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/od2.html

If You Give Amoxicillin/Clavulanate to Six- to 23-Month-Olds with AOM, 10 Days Is ...

Apr 1, 2017 - These authors begin with the assumption that we should treat children who have AOM with amoxicillin/clavulanate. The greatest benefit was in children one to two years of age who had more severe pain and fever. In children with less severe symptoms, observation should still be the ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p457.html

Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Youth: An Update - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2007 - Although type 1 diabetes historically has been more common in patients eight to 19 years of age, type 2 diabetes is emerging as an important disease in this group. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 8 to 45 percent of new childhood diabetes. This article is an update from the National ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0901/p658.html

Acute Asthma and Other Recurrent Wheezing Disorders in Children - Clinical Evidence ...

Jul 15, 2013 - What are the effects of treatments for acute asthma in children?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0715/p130.html

Hypertension in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

May 1, 2006 - The development of a national database on normative blood pressure levels throughout childhood has contributed to the recognition of elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents. The epidemic of childhood obesity, the risk of developing left ventricular hypertrophy, and evidence ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0501/p1558.html

Evaluation and Treatment of the Child with Febrile Seizure - American Family Physician

May 15, 2006 - Up to 5 percent of children in North America and western Europe experience at least one episode of febrile seizure before six years of age. Most of these seizures are self-limited and patients do not require treatment. Continuous therapy after the seizure is not effective in reducing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0515/p1761.html

Prognosis Following Mild Head Injury in Children - Point-of-Care Guides - American ...

Dec 15, 2016 - Concussion, also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury, is a common injury in children. It is defined as a transient disturbance in mental status following head trauma, and it can cause a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional sequelae. Symptoms continuing for more than 28 ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p1006.html

Croup - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - What are the effects of treatments (dexamethasone or humidification) in children with mild and moderate to severe croup?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p476.html

Promoting Medication Adherence in Children - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2006 - The problem of getting children to follow a treatment regimen is widespread and is frustrating for physicians. The extent to which any patient adheres to a medical regimen is an essential determinant of clinical success. Strategies to improve adherence in children include using ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0901/p793.html

Acetaminophen for the Treatment of Pain in Newborns - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Aug 1, 2016 - Acetaminophen does not significantly reduce pain associated with heel lance, eye examinations, or assisted vaginal births in newborns. Acetaminophen may reduce the total amount of morphine a newborn needs in the first 48 hours following major abdominal or thoracic surgery.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p216.html

CBT Effective in Adolescents with Depression Who Do Not Want Medication - POEMs - ...

Sep 1, 2016 - In adolescents who eschew drug treatment of major depression, short-term CBT is more effective than treatment as usual in inducing recovery, with a number needed to treat of 4 to 10. CBT also produced faster results.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0901/p384.html

Honey for Acute Cough in Children - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - For patients one to 18 years of age, providing honey for cough symptoms can reduce the frequency and severity of cough, as well as improve sleep for patients and parents, when compared with placebo or no treatment. Honey is no better than dextromethorphan for symptom control.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p20.html

Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Children: Part II. Rheumatic Causes - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2006 - Primary care physicians should have a working knowledge of rheumatic diseases of childhood that manifest primarily as musculoskeletal pain. Children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can present with painless joint inflammation and may have normal results on rheumatologic tests. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0715/p293.html

Tricyclic Antidepressants for the Treatment of ADHD in Children and Adolescents - ...

Sep 1, 2015 - TCAs, specifically desipramine and nortriptyline (Pamelor), are superior to placebo at reducing ADHD symptoms in the short term (two to six weeks); however, the quality of evidence is low. Increased heart rate and diastolic blood pressure may be noted with treatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p352.html

Childhood Asthma: Treatment Update - American Family Physician

May 15, 2005 - The prevalence of childhood asthma has risen significantly over the past four decades. A family history of atopic disease is associated with an increased likelihood of developing asthma, and environmental triggers such as tobacco smoke significantly increase the severity of daily asthma...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1959.html

Menstrual Concerns in an Adolescent with Disabilities - Curbside Consultation - ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Clinicians who care for female adolescents with cognitive and physical disabilities are often consulted on the management of menstrual bleeding for purposes of hygiene, dysmenorrhea, and treatment of premenstrual symptoms. Contraception is also commonly discussed to mitigate pregnancy ...

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p823.html

AAP Releases Guideline for the Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children - ...

Mar 1, 2014 - The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published a guideline on the management of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in children based on recommendations from the North American and European Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. It is important to ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p395.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2015 - Among infants younger than 12 months diagnosed with GERD, weak evidence supports the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2 antagonists. Among children 12 months and older, studies have shown moderate benefit from PPIs and weak benefit from H2 antagonists for providing ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/p351.html

Bronchodilators for Bronchiolitis - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2015 - Studies show that none were helped and the impact of harms such as decreased oxygen saturation and tachycardia was uncertain.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0901/od1.html

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