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Mechanical Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2018 - Low back pain is usually nonspecific or mechanical. Mechanical low back pain arises intrinsically from the spine, intervertebral disks, or surrounding soft tissues. Clinical clues, or red flags, may help identify cases of nonmechanical low back pain and prompt further evaluation or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p421.html

Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Plantar fasciitis is a common problem that one in 10 people will experience in their lifetime. Plantar fasciopathy is an appropriate descriptor because the condition is not inflammatory. Risk factors include limited ankle dorsiflexion, increased body mass index, and standing for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p744.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Hip Pain - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2014 - Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p27.html

Common Superficial Bursitis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p224.html

Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p746.html

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common causes of anterior knee pain encountered in the outpatient setting in adolescents and adults younger than 60 years. The incidence in the United States is between 3% and 6%. The cardinal feature of PFPS is pain in or around ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p88.html

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2016 - Carpal tunnel syndrome, the most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity, is caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the carpal tunnel. Classically, patients with the condition experience pain and paresthesias in the distribution of the median nerve, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p993.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2015 - Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a heterogeneous group of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions involving the temporomandibular joint complex, and surrounding musculature and osseous components. TMD affects up to 15% of adults, with a peak incidence at 20 to 40 years of age....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0315/p378.html

Nocturnal Leg Cramps - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2012 - Up to 60 percent of adults report that they have had nocturnal leg cramps. The recurrent, painful tightening usually occurs in the calf muscles and can cause severe insomnia. The exact mechanism is unknown, but the cramps are probably caused by muscle fatigue and nerve dysfunction ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0815/p350.html

Common Foot Problems: Over-the-Counter Treatments and Home Care - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Most foot disorders do not require podiatry referral or complex interventions. After the clinical diagnosis is made, these conditions can typically be managed with over-the-counter (OTC) and home remedies, with guidance from the primary care physician. Stretching and strengthening ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p298.html

Stress Fractures: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2011 - Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. These injuries occur more commonly in lower extremities than in upper extremities. Stress fractures should be considered in patients who present with tenderness or edema after a recent increase in activity or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p39.html

Costochondritis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2009 - Costochondritis, an inflammation of costochondral junctions of ribs or chondrosternal joints of the anterior chest wall, is a common condition seen in patients presenting to the physician's office and emergency department. Palpation of the affected chondrosternal joints of the chest ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0915/p617.html

Hip Impingement: Identifying and Treating a Common Cause of Hip Pain - American Family ...

Dec 15, 2009 - Femoroacetabular impingement, also known as hip impingement, is the abutment of the acetabular rim and the proximal femur. Hip impingement is increasingly recognized as a common etiology of hip pain in athletes, adolescents, and adults. It injures the labrum and articular cartilage, and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1429.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Plantar fasciitis, a self-limiting condition, is a common cause of heel pain in adults. It affects more than 1 million persons per year, and two-thirds of patients with plantar fasciitis will seek care from their family physician. Plantar fasciitis affects sedentary and athletic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p676.html

Nonsurgical Management of Knee Pain in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - The role of the family physician in managing knee pain is expanding as recent literature supports nonsurgical management for many patients. Effective treatment depends on the etiology of knee pain. Oral analgesics—most commonly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen—are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p875.html

Update on Acute Ankle Sprains - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - Ankle sprains are a common problem seen by primary care physicians, especially among teenagers and young adults. Most ankle sprains are inversion injuries to the lateral ankle ligaments, although high sprains representing damage to the tibiofibular syndesmosis are becoming increasingly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1170.html

Common Conditions in the Overhead Athlete - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2014 - The overhead athlete is at unique risk for injury because of the mechanics associated with rapid shoulder elevation, abduction, and external rotation. Angulation of the humeral head against the posterosuperior glenoid can cause rotator cuff tendon and labral impingement. The throwing or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p537.html

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2011 - Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting approximately 3 to 6 percent of adults in the general population. Although the cause is not usually determined, it can include trauma, repetitive maneuvers, certain diseases, and pregnancy. Symptoms are related ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0415/p952.html

Clavicle Fractures - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2008 - Clavicle fractures are most common in children and young adults, typically occurring in persons younger than 25 years. Its superficial location, its thin midshaft, and the forces transmitted across it make the clavicle a common site for injury. The most common mechanism of injury is a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0101/p65.html

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention - American ...

Oct 15, 2010 - There are an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repairs in the United States each year. Most ACL tears occur from noncontact injuries. Women experience ACL tears up to nine times more often than men. Evaluation of the ACL should be performed immediately after ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p917.html

Management of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2007 - Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common cause of knee pain in the outpatient setting. It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and extension, particularly with overloading of the joint. Risk factors include overuse, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/p194.html

Shoulder Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Osteoarthritis of the shoulder is a gradual wearing of the articular cartilage that leads to pain and stiffness. As the joint surface degenerates, the subchondral bone remodels, losing its sphericity and congruity. The joint capsule also becomes thickened, leading to further loss of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p605.html

Principles of Casting and Splinting - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2009 - The ability to properly apply casts and splints is a technical skill easily mastered with practice and an understanding of basic principles. The initial approach to casting and splinting requires a thorough assessment of the injured extremity for proper diagnosis. Once the need for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0101/p16.html

Adhesive Capsulitis: A Review - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2011 - Adhesive capsulitis is a common, yet poorly understood, condition causing pain and loss of range of motion in the shoulder. It can occur in isolation or concomitantly with other shoulder conditions (e.g., rotator cuff tendinopathy, bursitis) or diabetes mellitus. It is often ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0215/p417.html

Chronic Low Back Pain: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2009 - Chronic low back pain is a common problem in primary care. A history and physical examination should place patients into one of several categories: (1) nonspecific low back pain; (2) back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis; (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0615/p1067.html

Gout: An Update - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2007 - Arthritis caused by gout (i.e., gouty arthritis) accounts for millions of outpatient visits annually, and the prevalence is increasing. Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition in tissues leading to arthritis, soft tissue masses (i.e., tophi), nephrolithiasis, and urate ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0915/p801.html

Acute Lumbar Disk Pain: Navigating Evaluation and Treatment Choices - American Family ...

Oct 1, 2008 - Acute lumbar disk herniations are the most common cause of sciatica. After excluding emergent causes, such as cauda equina syndrome, epidural abscess, fracture, or malignancy, a six-week trial of conservative management is indicated. Patients should be advised to stay active. If ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p835.html

Knee Joint Aspiration and Injection - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2002 - Knee joint aspiration and injection are performed to aid in diagnosis and treatment of knee joint diseases. The knee joint is the most common and the easiest joint for the physician to aspirate. One approach involves insertion of a needle 1 cm above and 1 cm lateral to the superior ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1015/p1497.html

Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2007 - Lateral epicondylitis is a common overuse syndrome of the extensor tendons of the forearm. It is sometimes called tennis elbow, although it can occur with many activities. The condition affects men and women equally and is more common in persons 40 years or older. Despite the prevalence...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0915/p843.html

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2007 - Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint. Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1115/p1477.html

Glucosamine - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2008 - Glucosamine is one of the most popular dietary supplements sold in the United States. Most clinical trials have focused on its use in osteoarthritis of the knee. The reported adverse effects have been relatively well studied and are generally uncommon and minor. No significant ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0815/p471.html

Dupuytren's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2007 - Dupuytren's disease is a progressive condition that causes the fibrous tissue of the palmar fascia to shorten and thicken. The disease is common in men older than 40 years; in persons of Northern European descent; and in persons who smoke, use alcohol, or have diabetes. Patients present...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0701/p86.html

Acute Ankle Sprain: An Update - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2006 - Acute ankle injury, a common musculoskeletal injury, can cause ankle sprains. Some evidence suggests that previous injuries or limited joint flexibility may contribute to ankle sprains. The initial assessment of an acute ankle injury should include questions about the timing and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1115/p1714.html

Nonspecific Low Back Pain and Return to Work - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2007 - As many as 90 percent of persons with occupational nonspecific low back pain are able to return to work in a relatively short period of time. As long as no

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1115/p1497.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Acute low back pain with or without sciatica usually is self-limited and has no serious underlying pathology. For most patients, reassurance, pain medications, and advice to stay active are sufficient. A more thorough evaluation is required in selected patients with

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1181.html

Clinical Evaluation and Treatment Options for Herniated Lumbar Disc - American Family ...

Feb 1, 1999 - Degeneration of the intervertebral disc from a combination of factors can result in herniation, particularly at the L4-5 and L5-S1 levels. The presence of pain, radiculopathy and other symptoms depends on the site and degree of herniation. A detailed history and careful physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0201/p575.html

Cerebral Palsy: An Overview - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - The presentation of cerebral palsy can be global mental and physical dysfunction or isolated disturbances in gait, cognition, growth, or sensation. It is the most common childhood physical disability and affects 2 to 2.5 children per 1,000 born in the United States. The differential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p91.html

Acute Finger Injuries: Part II. Fractures, Dislocations, and Thumb Injuries - American ...

Mar 1, 2006 - Family physicians can treat most finger fractures and dislocations, but when necessary, prompt referral to an orthopedic or hand surgeon is important to maximize future function. Examination includes radiography (oblique, anteroposterior, and true lateral views) and physical examination...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0301/p827.html

Management of Hip Fracture: The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2006 - The incidence of hip fracture is expected to increase as the population ages. One in five persons dies in the first year after sustaining a hip fracture, and those who survive past one year may have significant functional limitation. Although surgery is the main treatment for hip ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2195.html

Joint and Soft Tissue Injection - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2002 - Injection techniques are helpful for diagnosis and therapy in a wide variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Diagnostic indications include the aspiration of fluid for analysis and the assessment of pain relief and increased range of motion as a diagnostic tool. Therapeutic indications ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0715/p283.html

Management of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome and Rotator Cuff Tears - American Family ...

Feb 15, 1998 - Rotator cuff impingement syndrome and associated rotator cuff tears are commonly encountered shoulder problems. Symptoms include pain, weakness and loss of motion. Causes of impingement include acromioclavicular joint arthritis, calcified coracoacromial ligament, structural ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0215/p667.html

Plantar Fasciitis: Evidence-Based Review of Diagnosis and Therapy - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2005 - Plantar fasciitis causes heel pain in active as well as sedentary adults of all ages. The condition is more likely to occur in persons who are obese or in those who are on their feet most of the day. A diagnosis of plantar fasciitis is based on the patient's history and physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2237.html

Assessment and Management of Acute Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 1999 - Acute low back pain is commonly treated by family physicians. In most cases, only conservative therapy is needed. However, the history and physical examination may elicit warning signals that indicate the need for further work-up and treatment. These

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1115/p2299.html

Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2001 - Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain in adults. The disorder classically presents with pain that is particularly severe with the first few steps taken in the morning. In general, plantar fasciitis is a self-limited condition. However, symptoms usually resolve more quickly ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0201/p467.html

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Review and Guidelines for Treatment - American Family ...

Nov 1, 1999 - Managing patellofemoral pain syndrome is a challenge, in part because of lack of consensus regarding its cause and treatment. Contributing factors include overuse and overload of the patellofemoral joint, biomechanical problems and muscular dysfunction. The initial treatment plan should...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1101/p2012.html

Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2003 - Carpal tunnel syndrome affects approximately 3 percent of adults in the United States. Pain and paresthesias in the distribution of the median nerve are the classic symptoms. While Tinel's sign and a positive Phalen's maneuver are classic clinical signs of the syndrome, hypalgesia and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0715/p265.html

Diagnosis and Management of Acute Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2000 - Acute low back pain is commonly encountered in primary care practice but the specific cause often cannot be identified. This ailment has a benign course in 90 percent of patients. Recurrences and functional limitations can be minimized with appropriate conservative management, including...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0315/p1779.html

Adhesive Capsulitis: A Sticky Issue - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 1999 - The shoulder is a very complex joint that is crucial to many activities of daily living. Decreased shoulder mobility is a serious clinical finding. A global decrease in shoulder range of motion is called adhesive capsulitis, referring to the actual adherence of the shoulder capsule to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1843.html

Knee Braces: Current Evidence and Clinical Recommendations for Their Use - American ...

Jan 15, 2000 - Methods of preventing and treating knee injuries have changed with the rapid development and refinement of knee braces. Prophylactic knee braces are designed to protect uninjured knees from valgus stresses that could damage the medial collateral ligaments. However, no conclusive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0115/p411.html

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: New Treatment for Vertebral Compression Fractures - ...

Aug 15, 2002 - Interventional radiologists have been performing image-guided spinal procedures for many years. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a newer technique in which a medical grade cement is injected though a needle into a painful fractured vertebral body. This stabilizes the fracture, allowing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0815/p611.html

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