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Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p281.html

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p350.html

Ear Pain: Diagnosing Common and Uncommon Causes - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2018 - Otalgia (ear pain) is a common presentation in the primary care setting with many diverse causes. Pain that originates from the ear is called primary otalgia, and the most common causes are otitis media and otitis externa. Examination of the ear usually reveals abnormal findings in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p20.html

Evaluation of Neck Masses in Adults - American Family Physician

May 15, 2015 - Neck masses are often seen in clinical practice, and the family physician should be able to determine the etiology of a mass using organized, efficient diagnostic methods. The first goal is to determine if the mass is malignant or benign; malignancies are more common in adult smokers ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0515/p698.html

Croup: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

May 1, 2018 - Croup is a common respiratory illness affecting 3% of children six months to three years of age. It accounts for 7% of hospitalizations annually for fever and/or acute respiratory illness in children younger than five years. Croup is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction resulting...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p575.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a hot ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p501.html

Otitis Media: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2013 - Acute otitis media is diagnosed in patients with acute onset, presence of middle ear effusion, physical evidence of middle ear inflammation, and symptoms such as pain, irritability, or fever. Acute otitis media is usually a complication of eustachian tube dysfunction that occurs during ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/p435.html

Common Questions About Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2016 - Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection causes 15% to 30% of sore throats in children and 5% to 15% in adults, and is more common in the late winter and early spring. The strongest independent predictors of GABHS pharyngitis are patient age of five to 15 years, absence of...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p24.html

Chronic Cough: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2017 - Although chronic cough in adults (cough lasting longer than eight weeks) can be caused by many etiologies, four conditions account for most cases: upper airway cough syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease/laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, asthma, and nonasthmatic eosinophilic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p575.html

Chronic Rhinosinusitis - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2017 - Chronic rhinosinusitis is an inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses that occurs in 1% to 5% of the U.S. population. It may significantly decrease quality of life. Chronic rhinosinusitis is defined by the presence of at least two out of four cardinal symptoms (i.e., facial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1015/p500.html

Salivary Gland Disorders - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2014 - Salivary gland disorders include inflammatory, bacterial, viral, and neoplastic etiologies. The presentation can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Acute suppurative sialadenitis presents as rapid-onset pain and swelling and is treated with antibiotics, salivary massage, hydration, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0601/p882.html

Audiometry Screening and Interpretation - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2013 - The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p41.html

Hearing Loss in Adults: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2019 - More than 30 million U.S. adults have hearing loss. This condition is underrecognized, and hearing aids and other hearing enhancement technologies are underused. Hearing loss is categorized as conductive, sensorineural, or mixed. Age-related sensorineural hearing loss (i.e., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p98.html

Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - This collection features AFP content on thyroid and parathyroid disorders and related issues, including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroiditis. This collection features AFP content on thyroid and parathyroid disorders and related issues, including hyperthyroidism, ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=67

Current Concepts in Adult Acute Rhinosinusitis - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions that physicians treat in ambulatory care. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viral upper respiratory infections. A meta-analysis based on individual patient data found that common clinical signs and symptoms were ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p97.html

Chronic Nonallergic Rhinitis - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2018 - Chronic nonallergic rhinitis encompasses a group of rhinitis subtypes without allergic or infectious etiologies. Although chronic nonallergic rhinitis represents about one-fourth of rhinitis cases and impacts 20 to 30 million patients in the United States, its pathophysiology is unclear...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p171.html

Cerumen Impaction: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - Cerumen production is a normal and protective process for the ear canal. However, cerumen should be removed when it causes symptoms (e.g., hearing loss, itching, pain, tinnitus) or prevents assessment of the external auditory canal, the tympanic membrane, or audiovestibular system. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/p525.html

Acute Otitis Externa: An Update - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2012 - Acute otitis externa is a common condition involving inflammation of the ear canal. The acute form is caused primarily by bacterial infection, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus the most common pathogens. Acute otitis externa presents with the rapid onset of ear canal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1055.html

Ear and Hearing Disorders - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on ear and hearing disorders and related issues, including hearing loss, otitis externa, otitis media, and tinnitus. This collection features AFP content on ear and hearing disorders and related issues, including hearing loss, otitis ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=98

Evaluation and Management of Neck Masses in Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2014 - Neck masses in children usually fall into one of three categories: developmental, inflammatory/reactive, or neoplastic. Common congenital developmental masses in the neck include thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts, dermoid cysts, vascular malformations, and hemangiomas. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0301/p353.html

Epistaxis: Outpatient Management - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2018 - Epistaxis is a common emergency encountered by primary care physicians. Up to 60% of the general population experience epistaxis, and 6% seek medical attention for it. More than 90% of cases arise from the anterior nasal circulation, and most treatments can be easily performed in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p240.html

Hoarseness in Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2017 - Hoarseness is a common presentation in primary care practices. Combined with other voice-related changes, it falls under the umbrella diagnosis of dysphonia. Hoarseness has a number of causes, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to less common psychiatric disorders to more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p720.html

Common Questions About Infectious Mononucleosis - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2015 - Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0315/p372.html

Common Tongue Conditions in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2010 - Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0301/p627.html

Diagnostic Approach to Patients with Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2014 - Tinnitus, a common symptom encountered in family medicine, is defined as the perception of noise in the absence of an acoustic stimulus outside of the body. Because tinnitus is a symptom and not a disease, its underlying cause must be determined to best help patients. Although tinnitus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p106.html

Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 2011 - Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions for which patients seek medical care. Subtypes of rhinosinusitis include acute, subacute, recurrent acute, and chronic. Acute rhinosinusitis is further specified as bacterial or viral. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1057.html

Thyroiditis: An Integrated Approach - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2014 - Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0915/p389.html

Hemoptysis: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2015 - Hemoptysis is the expectoration of blood from the lung parenchyma or airways. The initial step in the evaluation is determining the origin of bleeding. Pseudohemoptysis is identified through the history and physical examination. In adults, acute respiratory tract infections (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p243.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Otitis Media - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2007 - Diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media include rapid onset of symptoms, middle ear effusion, and signs and symptoms of middle ear inflammation. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common bacterial isolates from the middle ear ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1650.html

Diagnosis of Ear Pain - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2008 - Many patients in primary care present with ear pain (otalgia). When the ear is the source of the pain (primary otalgia), the ear examination is usually abnormal. When the ear is not the source of the pain (secondary otalgia), the ear examination is typically normal. The cause of primary...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p621.html

Smell and Taste Disorders in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2013 - Smell and taste disorders can be challenging to diagnose because of the large number of potential etiologies. Patients are often unable to provide a clear history of symptoms, because they frequently cannot distinguish between difficulties with smell and taste. Standardized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/p852.html

Common Oral Lesions: Part II. Masses and Neoplasia - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2007 - Certain common oral lesions appear as masses, prompting concern about oral carcinoma. Many are benign, although some (e.g., leukoplakia) may represent neoplasia or cancer. Palatal and mandibular tori are bony protuberances and are benign anomalies. Oral pyogenic granulomas may appear in...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p509.html

Hearing Loss in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1150.html

Vocal Cord Dysfunction - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2010 - Vocal cord dysfunction involves inappropriate vocal cord motion that produces partial airway obstruction. Patients may present with respiratory distress that is often mistakenly diagnosed as asthma. Exercise, psychological conditions, airborne irritants, rhinosinusitis, gastroesophageal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0115/p156.html

Common Oral Lesions: Part I. Superficial Mucosal Lesions - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2007 - Common superficial oral lesions include candidiasis, recurrent herpes labialis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, erythema migrans, hairy tongue, and lichen planus. Recognition and diagnosis require taking a thorough history and performing a complete oral examination. Knowledge of clinical...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p501.html

Antibiotics for Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Because of the relatively high rate of reported adverse effects and the high likelihood of resolution of symptoms with supportive care and symptomatic management, the authors recommend selective antibiotic use in patients with acute sinusitis. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/od1.html

Tympanometry - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - Tympanometry provides useful quantitative information about the presence of fluid in the middle ear, mobility of the middle ear system, and ear canal volume. Its use has been recommended in conjunction with more qualitative information (e.g., history, appearance, and mobility of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1713.html

Hoarseness in Adults - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2009 - Numerous conditions can cause hoarseness, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to more serious systemic, neurologic, or cancerous conditions involving the larynx. Evaluation of a patient with hoarseness includes a careful history, physical examination, and in many cases, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0815/p363.html

Cerumen Impaction - American Family Physician

May 15, 2007 - Cerumen is a naturally occurring, normally extruded product of the external auditory canal. It is usually asymptomatic, but when it becomes impacted it can cause complications such as hearing loss, pain, or dizziness. It also can interfere with examination of the tympanic membrane. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/p1523.html

Diagnosis and Management of Sjogren Syndrome - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2009 - Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by dry eyes and dry mouth. Other organ systems are affected in many patients. Sjogren syndrome is classified as primary or secondary. In primary disease, Sjogren syndrome is a solitary process, whereas secondary disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0315/p465.html

Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Throat - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2007 - Foreign bodies in the ear, nose, and throat are occasionally seen in family medicine, usually in children. The most common foreign bodies are food, plastic toys, and small household items. Diagnosis is often delayed because the causative event is usually unobserved, the symptoms are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1185.html

Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2004 - Sore throat is one of the most common reasons for visits to family physicians. While most patients with sore throat have an infectious cause (pharyngitis), fewer than 20 percent have a clear indication for antibiotic therapy (i.e., group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection). ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1465.html

IDSA Updates Guideline for Managing Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis - Practice ...

Sep 1, 2013 - The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has updated its 2002 guideline on managing group A streptococcal pharyngitis. The illness primarily occurs in children five to 15 years of age. Patients typically present with sudden onset of a sore throat, pain with swallowing, and fever.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0901/p338.html

Management of Epistaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2005 - Family physicians frequently encounter patients with epistaxis (nasal bleeding). In rare cases, this condition may lead to massive bleeding and even death. Although epistaxis can have an anterior or posterior source, it most often originates in the anterior nasal cavity. A directed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0115/p305.html

Single-Dose Oral Dexamethasone Decreases Sore Throat Pain - POEMs - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2018 - Sore throats are rarely fatal anymore, but there is really no such thing as just a sore throat. Whereas antibiotics have no analgesic activity, a single low dose of a corticosteroid such as oral dexamethasone—0.6 mg per kg for children at least five years of age and up to 10 mg for ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/od1.html

Tonsillectomy in Children: AAO-HNS Updates Guideline - Practice Guidelines - American ...

Sep 1, 2019 - The American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (AAO–HNS) has updated its 2011 guideline on tonsillectomy indications and perioperative care in children one to 18 years of age.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p316.html

Common Oral Conditions in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2008 - Older persons are at risk of chronic diseases of the mouth, including dental infections (e.g., caries, periodontitis), tooth loss, benign mucosal lesions, and oral cancer. Other common oral conditions in this population are xerostomia (dry mouth) and oral candidiasis, which may lead to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p845.html

The Adult Neck Mass - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2002 - Family physicians frequently encounter neck masses in adult patients. A careful medical history should be obtained, and a thorough physical examination should be performed. The patient's age and the location, size, and duration of the mass are important pieces of information. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0901/p831.html

Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2009 - Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1115/p1117.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2008 - Peritonsillar abscess remains the most common deep infection of the head and neck. The condition occurs primarily in young adults, most often during November to December and April to May, coinciding with the highest incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and exudative tonsillitis. A ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0115/p199.html

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