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Acute Kidney Injury: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2019 - Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate and resultant accumulation of metabolic waste products. Acute kidney injury is associated with an increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular events, and progression to chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p687.html

Hypothermia and Cold Weather Injuries - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2019 - Hypothermia, frostbite, and nonfreezing cold injuries predominantly affect older adults, homeless or intoxicated people, adventurers, and military personnel. Prevention begins with clothing that is clean, layered, and loose to promote circulation. Base layers made of moisture-wicking ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p680.html

Nonspecific Low Back Pain and Return To Work - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2019 - Nonspecific low back pain refers to a condition without a distinct etiology to explain its associated symptoms. This pain may become chronic and is a major cause of work loss around the world. Without a specific explanation for a patient’s symptoms, the family physician is charged with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p697.html

Depression in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family ...

Nov 15, 2019 - The prevalence of major unipolar depression in children and adolescents is increasing in the United States. In 2016, approximately 5% of 12-year-olds and 17% of 17-year-olds reported experiencing a major depressive episode in the previous 12 months. Screening for depression in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p609.html

The Changing Climate: Managing Health Impacts - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2019 - Concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere at increasing rates, heating the Earth’s surface and destabilizing climate. Health impacts from climate change may include increased morbidity and mortality from worsening cardiopulmonary health, worsening ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p618.html

Specific Learning Disabilities: The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2019 - Academic underachievement, such as failing a class and the threat of being held back because of academic issues, is common. Family physicians can provide support and guidance for families as they approach their child’s unique academic challenges. Specific learning disabilities are a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p628.html

Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic folliculitis affecting intertriginous areas. Onset generally occurs in young adulthood to middle adulthood (18 to 39 years of age). Females and blacks are more than twice as likely to be affected. Additional risk factors include family history, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p562.html

Care of the Military Veteran: Selected Health Issues - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 18.2 million veterans were living in the United States in 2017, of whom 1.6 million were female. Less than one-half of all veterans receive care at a Veterans Health Administration or military treatment facility, leaving most to receive services from...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p544.html

Stuttering: Understanding and Treating a Common Disability - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - Childhood-onset fluency disorder, the most common form of stuttering, is a neurologic disability resulting from an underlying brain abnormality that causes disfluent speech. Stuttering can lead to significant secondary effects, including negative self-perception and negative perception ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p556.html

Acne Vulgaris: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - Acne vulgaris is the most prevalent chronic skin disease in the United States, affecting nearly 50 million people per year, mostly adolescents and young adults. Potential sequelae of acne, such as scarring, dyspigmentation, and low self-esteem, may result in significant morbidity. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p475.html

Postpartum Care: An Approach to the Fourth Trimester - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - The postpartum period, defined as the 12 weeks after delivery, is an important time for a new mother and her family and can be considered a fourth trimester. Outpatient postpartum care should be initiated within three weeks after delivery in person or by phone, and may require multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p485.html

Toilet Training: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - Toilet training is a significant developmental milestone in early childhood. Most U.S. children achieve the physiologic, cognitive, and emotional development necessary for toilet training by 18 to 30 months of age. Markers of readiness for toilet training include being able to walk, put...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p468.html

Anticoagulation: Updated Guidelines for Outpatient Management - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2019 - Anticoagulation therapy is recommended for preventing, treating, and reducing the recurrence of venous thromboembolism, and preventing stroke in persons with atrial fibrillation. Direct oral anticoagulants are first-line agents for eligible patients for treating venous thromboembolism ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p426.html

Opioid Use Disorder: Medical Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2019 - Opioid use disorder is highly prevalent and can be fatal. At least 2.1 million Americans 12 years and older had opioid use disorder in 2016, and approximately 47,000 Americans died from opioid overdoses in 2017. Opioid use disorder is a chronic relapsing condition, the treatment of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p416.html

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2019 - Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is caused by human enteroviruses and coxsackieviruses. Outbreaks can occur in the spring to fall and are common in North America, and most cases occur in patients younger than 10 years. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is transmitted by fecal-oral, oral-oral, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p408.html

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p350.html

Urinary Incontinence in Women: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women worldwide, resulting in a substantial economic burden and decreased quality of life. The Women’s Preventive Services Initiative is the only major organization that recommends annual screening for urinary incontinence in all women ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p339.html

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention - American Family ...

Sep 15, 2019 - Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the upper genital tract occurring predominantly in sexually active young women. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are common causes; however, other cervical, enteric, bacterial vaginosis–associated, and respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p357.html

Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p281.html

Venous Ulcers: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Venous ulcers are the most common type of chronic lower extremity ulcers, affecting 1% to 3% of the U.S. population. Venous hypertension as a result of venous reflux (incompetence) or obstruction is thought to be the primary underlying mechanism for venous ulcer formation. Risk factors ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p298.html

Top POEMs of 2018 Consistent with the Principles of the Choosing Wisely Campaign - ...

Sep 1, 2019 - In this article, we discuss the POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters) of 2018 judged to be most consistent with the principles of the Choosing Wisely campaign. We selected these POEMs through a crowdsourcing strategy of the daily POEMs information service for Canadian Medical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p290.html

Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part II. Counseling Recommendations - ...

Aug 15, 2019 - School-aged children (five to 12 years) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, during health maintenance visits, it is important to counsel families on healthy lifestyle practices. Children should eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p219.html

Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part I. History, Physical Examination, ...

Aug 15, 2019 - The goals of the health maintenance visit in school-aged children (five to 12 years) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. During the visit, the physician should address patient and parent/caregiver concerns and ask about ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p213.html

Electronic Cigarettes: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2019 - Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular devices designed to heat a liquid solution, often containing nicotine, that generates an inhaled aerosol, or vapor. e-Cigarettes have been marketed as healthier alternatives to traditional cigarettes. Thus, most adult users are current or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p227.html

Ingrown Toenail Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Ingrown toenails account for approximately 20% of foot problems in primary care. The great toe is most often affected. Ingrown toenails occur most commonly in young men, and nail care habits and footwear are most often contributory factors. No consensus has been reached for the best ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p158.html

Hirsutism in Women - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Hirsutism is the excessive growth of terminal hair in a typical male pattern in a female. It is often a sign of excessive androgen levels. Although many conditions can lead to hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hyperandrogenism account for more than 85% of cases. Less ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p168.html

Management of Chronic Tendon Injuries - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Chronic tendon injuries are common athletic and occupational injuries that account for many physician visits. Tendons have a complex biology that provides a unique combination of strength, flexibility, and elasticity but also predisposes them to injury. The term tendinopathy is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p147.html

Hearing Loss in Adults: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2019 - More than 30 million U.S. adults have hearing loss. This condition is underrecognized, and hearing aids and other hearing enhancement technologies are underused. Hearing loss is categorized as conductive, sensorineural, or mixed. Age-related sensorineural hearing loss (i.e., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p98.html

Erythema Multiforme: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2019 - Erythema multiforme is an immune-mediated reaction that involves the skin and sometimes the mucosa. Classically described as target-like, the erythema multiforme lesions can be isolated, recurrent, or persistent. Most commonly, the lesions of erythema multiforme present symmetrically on...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p82.html

Acupuncture for Pain - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2019 - Acupuncture has been increasingly used as an integrative or complementary therapy for pain. It is well-tolerated with little risk of serious adverse effects. Traditional acupuncture and nontraditional techniques, such as electroacupuncture and dry needling, often result in reported pain...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p89.html

Amenorrhea: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Menstrual patterns can be an indicator of overall health and self-perception of well-being. Primary amenorrhea, defined as the lifelong absence of menses, requires evaluation if menarche has not occurred by 15 years of age or three years post-thelarche. Secondary amenorrhea is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p39.html

Polypharmacy: Evaluating Risks and Deprescribing - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Polypharmacy, defined as regular use of at least five medications, is common in older adults and younger at-risk populations and increases the risk of adverse medical outcomes. There are several risk factors that can lead to polypharmacy. Patient-related factors include having multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p32.html

Lead Poisoning in Children - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Asymptomatic lead poisoning has become more common in children. Blood lead levels of less than 5 µg per dL are associated with impairments in neurocognitive and behavioral development that are irreversible. Risk factors for lead poisoning include age younger than five years, low ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p24.html

Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Plantar fasciitis is a common problem that one in 10 people will experience in their lifetime. Plantar fasciopathy is an appropriate descriptor because the condition is not inflammatory. Risk factors include limited ankle dorsiflexion, increased body mass index, and standing for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p744.html

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Globally, approximately 20% of the 400 million individuals with diabetes mellitus have diabetic kidney disease (DKD). DKD is associated with higher cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality, so timely diagnosis and treatment are critical. Screening for early DKD is best done ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p751.html

Bartholin Duct Cyst and Gland Abscess: Office Management - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - The Bartholin glands, located in the base of the labia minora, have a role in vaginal lubrication. Because of the presence of other glands, removal of a Bartholin gland does not affect lubrication. Ductal blockage of these typically pea-sized structures can result in enlargement of the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p760.html

Adolescent Substance Use and Misuse: Recognition and Management - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2019 - Adolescent use of illicit substances imposes an enormous burden on individuals, families, and communities. The types of illicit substances adolescents are using have changed drastically over the past decade with decreases in alcohol use (including binge alcohol use) offset by increases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p689.html

Varicose Veins: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - Varicose veins are twisted, dilated veins most commonly located on the lower extremities. The exact pathophysiology is debated, but it involves a genetic predisposition, incompetent valves, weakened vascular walls, and increased intravenous pressure. Risk factors include family history ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p682.html

Caregiver Care - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - Eighty percent of adults requiring long-term care currently live at home in the community, and unpaid family caregivers provide 90% of their care. Family caregivers serve as a critical extension of the U.S. health care system, and the demand for family caregivers is expected to increase...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p699.html

Lice and Scabies: Treatment Update - American Family Physician

May 15, 2019 - Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed with visualization of live lice. Nits (lice eggs or egg casings) alone are not sufficient to diagnose a current infestation. A no-nit ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/p635.html

Apophysitis and Osteochondrosis: Common Causes of Pain in Growing Bones - American ...

May 15, 2019 - Apophysitis and osteochondrosis are common causes of pain in growing bones but have differing etiologies and required management. Apophysitis results from a traction injury to the cartilage and bony attachment of tendons in children and adolescents. Most often it is an overuse injury in...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/p610.html

Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Benefits of Exercise, Yoga, and Meditation - American...

May 15, 2019 - Many people with depression or anxiety turn to nonpharmacologic and nonconventional interventions, including exercise, yoga, meditation, tai chi, or qi gong. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have shown that these interventions can improve symptoms of depression and anxiety ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/p620.html

Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions in Primary Care - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - Drug interactions are common in the primary care setting and are usually predictable. Identifying the most important and clinically relevant drug interactions in primary care is essential to patient safety. Strategies for reducing the risk of drug-drug interactions include minimizing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p558.html

Top 20 Research Studies of 2018 for Primary Care Physicians - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - In 2018, through regular surveillance of more than 110 English-language research journals, 255 research studies met the criteria to become POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters). Using a validated tool, physician members of the Canadian Medical Association rated these POEMs for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p565.html

Interventional Radiology: Indications and Best Practices - American Family Physician

May 1, 2019 - Interventional radiology employs image-guided techniques to perform minimally invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment. Interventional radiology is often used to place central venous catheters and subcutaneous ports, with some evidence of benefit over surgical placement. Arterial...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p547.html

Kidney Stones: Treatment and Prevention - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Kidney stones are a common disorder, with an annual incidence of eight cases per 1,000 adults. During an episode of renal colic, the first priority is to rule out conditions requiring immediate referral to an emergency department, then to alleviate pain, preferably with a nonsteroidal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p490.html

Common Breast Problems - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Palpable breast masses, mastalgia, and nipple discharge are commonly encountered symptoms in outpatient practice, causing significant patient anxiety and precipitating medical consultation. The initial workup includes a detailed clinical history and physical examination. Women ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p505.html

Heat-Related Illnesses - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2019 - Heat-related illnesses comprise a spectrum of syndromes resulting from disruption of thermoregulation in people exposed to high environmental heat. Symptoms range from heat edema and exercise-associated muscle cramps to exercise-associated collapse, heat exhaustion, and life-threatening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p482.html

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Premenopausal Women - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2019 - Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common symptom in women. The acronym PALM-COEIN facilitates classification, with PALM referring to structural etiologies (polyp, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy and hyperplasia), and COEIN referring to nonstructural etiologies (coagulopathy, ovulatory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p435.html

Current Concepts in Concussion: Initial Evaluation and Management - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Mild traumatic brain injury, also known as concussion, is common in adults and youth and is a major health concern. Concussion is caused by direct or indirect external trauma to the head resulting in shear stress to brain tissue from rotational or angular forces. Concussion can affect a...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p426.html

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