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Abdominal Wall Pain: Clinical Evaluation, Differential Diagnosis, and Treatment - ...

Oct 1, 2018 - Abdominal wall pain is often mistaken for intra-abdominal visceral pain, resulting in expensive and unnecessary laboratory tests, imaging studies, consultations, and invasive procedures. Those evaluations generally are nondiagnostic, and lingering pain can become frustrating to the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p429.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Acute Monoarthritis: Diagnosis in Adults - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2016 - Acute monoarthritis can be the initial manifestation of many joint disorders. The most common diagnoses in the primary care setting are osteoarthritis, gout, and trauma. It is important to understand the prevalence of specific etiologies and to use the appropriate diagnostic modalities....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p810.html

Acute Otitis Media in Children - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2004 - The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recently released an evidence-based practice guideline to help physicians provide the most up-to-date care for children with AOM. The subcommittee that developed the guideline included primary care ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0615/p2896.html

Amenorrhea: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Menstrual patterns can be an indicator of overall health and self-perception of well-being. Primary amenorrhea, defined as the lifelong absence of menses, requires evaluation if menarche has not occurred by 15 years of age or three years post-thelarche. Secondary amenorrhea is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p39.html

Assessing Bleeding Risk in Patients Taking Anticoagulants - Point-of-Care Guides - ...

Oct 1, 2017 - Family physicians are often faced with the dilemma of balancing the benefit of stroke prevention with the risk of major bleeding when deciding on anticoagulation treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation. Over the past 10 years, several decision support tools have been developed ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p465.html

Brief Screening Instruments for Dementia in Primary Care - Point-of-Care Guides - ...

Mar 15, 2009 - In addition to identifying patients who may benefit from pharmacotherapy, early detection of dementia helps families anticipate the patient’s needs and helps physicians identify those in need of additional support.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0315/p497.html

Caregiver Care - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - Eighty percent of adults requiring long-term care currently live at home in the community, and unpaid family caregivers provide 90% of their care. Family caregivers serve as a critical extension of the U.S. health care system, and the demand for family caregivers is expected to increase...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p699.html

Choosing Between Warfarin (Coumadin) and Aspirin Therapy for Patients with Atrial ...

Jun 15, 2005 - Pooled data from randomized trials show that warfarin reduces the risk of stroke from 4.5 percent to 1.4 percent per year in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and no history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0615/p2348.html

Computed Tomography After Minor Head Injury - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2006 - Minor head injury is commonly seen in the primary care and emergency department settings. Minor head injury typically includes brief loss of consciousness or other symptoms of concussion. Several clinical decision rules have been developed and validated to help identify patients who ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2205.html

Delivering Bad or Life-Altering News - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2018 - Delivering serious, bad, or life-altering news to a patient is one of the most difficult tasks physicians encounter. Broadly defined as information that may alter a patient’s view of his or her future, bad news may include information related to a chronic disease (e.g., diabetes ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/p99.html

Determining Prognosis for Patients with Terminal Cancer - Point-of-Care Guides - ...

Aug 15, 2005 - An accurate prognosis enables patients with terminal cancer to make plans, put their affairs in order, and decide how they want to spend the time they have left. A prognosis also may help the primary care physician refer the patient for hospice care at a time when the patient would most...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0815/p668.html

Diagnosing and Treating Patients with Suspected Influenza - Point-of-Care Guides - ...

Nov 1, 2005 - During the winter months, influenza is one of the most common illnesses among patients of primary care physicians, with as many as one in five adults infected each year.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1101/p1789.html

Diagnosing Lumbar Spinal Stenosis - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2009 - Lumbar spinal stenosis is an important cause of pain and disability, and surgery is beneficial for appropriately selected patients. Therefore, it is important for primary care physicians to distinguish patients with spinal stenosis from those with musculoskeletal low back pain, ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1115/p1145.html

Diagnosing Rotator Cuff Tears - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2005 - As with many conditions, single physical examination maneuvers rarely are sensitive enough to rule out disease when absent or specific enough to rule in disease when present. By themselves, these maneuvers increase or decrease the likelihood of disease slightly, and it remains up to the...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0415/p1587.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Streptococcal Pharyngitis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2009 - Common signs and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis include sore throat, temperature greater than 100.4 degrees F (38 degrees C), tonsillar exudates, and cervical adenopathy. Cough, coryza, and diarrhea are more common with viral pharyngitis. Available diagnostic tests include throat...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0301/p383.html

Diagnosis of Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family...

Aug 15, 2008 - Generalized anxiety disorder leads to considerable morbidity and affects approximately 3 percent of patients in primary care practices.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0815/p501.html

Diagnosis of Appendicitis: Part I. History and Physical Examination - Point-of-Care ...

Mar 15, 2008 - Appendicitis is a relatively uncommon, but potentially serious, cause of abdominal pain in the primary care setting. An accurate diagnosis is important to prevent unnecessary surgery and avoid complications.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0315/p828.html

Diagnosis of Appendicitis: Part II. Laboratory and Imaging Tests - Point-of-Care Guides...

Apr 15, 2008 - Although individual signs and symptoms are of limited value in the diagnosis of appendicitis, the Alvarado (also known as the MANTRELS [Migration of pain to the right lower quadrant, Anorexia, Nausea/vomiting, Tenderness in the right lower quadrant, Rebound pain, Elevation of ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0415/p1153.html

Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family ...

May 15, 2010 - Diagnosis of GERD may be clinical (presentation with typical symptoms, such as heartburn); physiologic (evidence of abnormal pH levels in the distal esophagus); anatomic (evidence of esophagitis on endoscopy); or functional (clinical response to antacid medications). However, the ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/p1278.html

Diagnosis of Migraine Headache - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2006 - Headache is a common reason for primary care office visits and is a complaint in more than 1 percent of patient visits. The prevalence of migraine headache in the general population is approximately 6 percent in men and 15 percent in women, peaking at 40 years of age and then declining.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1215/p2087.html

Diagnosis of Streptococcal Pharyngitis - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2014 - Sore throat was the chief symptom in 1.3% of all outpatient office visits in 2010, and is even more common in primary care practice. An Australian study found that among families with at least one child three to 12 years of age, the incidence of sore throat was 33 and 14 episodes per ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p976.html

Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children - Point-of-Care Guides - American ...

Feb 15, 2018 - A recent observational study found that 2.2% of acutely ill children younger than five years met criteria for a UTI when their urine was cultured. However, in the same study, overall clinician impression that a UTI was present (fairly to very certain) identified only 28 out of 60 ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/p273.html

Estimating 10-year Mortality Risk - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2007 - Accurate estimates of patient risk or prognosis can be helpful to a primary care physician.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/p885.html

Estimating the Risk of Ovarian Cancer - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2009 - Every year, 25,000 women in the United States (about one in 3,000 women older than 40 years) receive ovarian cancer diagnoses, and 14,000 die of the disease. Risk factors for ovarian cancer include family history of ovarian cancer, personal history of breast cancer, obesity, not ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0915/p632.html

Evaluating the Patient with a Knee Injury - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2005 - Traditionally, physical examination maneuvers, such as the Lachman test, the pivot shift, the anterior drawer, and the McMurray test, have been recommended for patients with acute or subacute knee injury.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1169.html

Evaluation of Chest Pain in Primary Care Patients - Point-of-Care Guides - American ...

Mar 1, 2011 - Chest pain can be caused by conditions that range from benign and self-limited (e.g., chest wall pain) to serious (e.g., anxiety disorder) or life-threatening (e.g., unstable angina, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism). Accurate identification of life-threatening and serious causes ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0301/p603.html

Evidence-Based Adjustment of Warfarin (Coumadin) Doses - Point-of-Care Guides - ...

May 15, 2005 - A previous Point-of-Care Guides article,1 presented several validated approaches to the initiation of anticoagulation therapy with warfarin. Once a patient is receiving warfarin, it is important to have a systematic approach to the management of anticoagulation and adjustment of ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1979.html

Evidence-Based Initiation of Warfarin (Coumadin) - Point-of-Care Guides - American ...

Feb 15, 2005 - Many physicians continue to use clinical judgment alone as the basis for initiating and adjusting warfarin dosages in patients who require oral anticoagulation. A number of studies have validated approaches to initiation of anticoagulation that provide more rapid anticoagulation with ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0215/p763.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p159.html

Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part II. Counseling Recommendations - ...

Aug 15, 2019 - School-aged children (five to 12 years) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, during health maintenance visits, it is important to counsel families on healthy lifestyle practices. Children should eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p219.html

Initial Evaluation of Hypertension - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2004 - The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recently released its seventh report (JNC 7). This guideline takes a largely evidence-based approach to the development of recommendations. Key changes from the previous guideline ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0315/p1485.html

Pleuritic Chest Pain: Sorting Through the Differential Diagnosis - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - Pleuritic chest pain is characterized by sudden and intense sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the chest when inhaling and exhaling. Pulmonary embolism is the most common serious cause, found in 5% to 21% of patients who present to an emergency department with pleuritic chest pain. A ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p306.html

Polypharmacy: Evaluating Risks and Deprescribing - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Polypharmacy, defined as regular use of at least five medications, is common in older adults and younger at-risk populations and increases the risk of adverse medical outcomes. There are several risk factors that can lead to polypharmacy. Patient-related factors include having multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p32.html

Predicting Benefit of Spinal Manipulation for Low Back Pain - Point-of-Care Guides - ...

Feb 15, 2009 - Two systematic reviews found that spinal manipulation is superior to sham therapy or placebo in patients with acute low back pain, and has effectiveness similar to analgesics, physical therapy, or usual care by a primary care physician.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0215/p318.html

Predicting Delirium in Hospitalized Older Patients - Point-of-Care Guides - American ...

Nov 15, 2007 - Delirium is a common complication in hospitalized older patients, particularly in those in the intensive care unit.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1115/p1527.html

Predicting Four-Year Mortality Risk in Older Adults - Point-of-Care Guides - American ...

Aug 15, 2006 - Survival prognoses for older adults may help patients and physicians make decisions about screening, treatment, and advance directives.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0815/p633.html

Predicting Hip Fracture Risk in Older Women - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2007 - Approximately one in six women will have a hip fracture during her lifetime, and approximately one in 35 of all women will die of complications from hip fracture.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/p273.html

Predicting Hospital Readmission - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2016 - In 2007, the Medicare Payment Advisory Committee reported that 18% of hospital admissions resulted in a readmission, of which 76% were potentially avoidable.1 The development of a clinical decision rule to identify patients at risk of readmission could aid in directing interventions and...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0815/p307.html

Predicting Mortality Risk in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery - Point-of-Care ...

Jan 15, 2008 - Bariatric surgery has become increasingly common in the United States. Recent randomized controlled trials have shown that mortality is modestly reduced 11 years after bariatric surgery (absolute risk = 5.0 versus 6.3 percent; P = .04; number needed to treat = 77).2 The overall ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0115/p220.html

Predicting Mortality Risk in Patients with Acute Exacerbations of Heart Failure - ...

Apr 15, 2007 - Accurate risk stratification in patients with heart failure can help physicians choose the most appropriate place for hospitalization (general hospital ward or intensive care unit) and the intensity of care needed.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1231.html

Predicting Pneumonia in Adults with Respiratory Illness - Point-of-Care Guides - ...

Aug 15, 2007 - Identifying patients with pneumonia (defined as acute respiratory illness with an infiltrate seen on a chest radiograph) is important.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0815/p560.html

Predicting Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family ...

May 15, 2007 - Postoperative nausea and vomiting are uncomfortable for patients, can prolong hospitalization, and can lead to more serious complications, including aspiration pneumonia.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/p1537.html

Predicting Postoperative Pulmonary Complications - Point-of-Care Guides - American ...

Jun 15, 2007 - Pneumonia and respiratory failure are among the most common serious complications following surgery.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0615/p1837.html

Predicting Prognoses in Patients with Acute Stroke - Point-of-Care Guides - American ...

Jun 15, 2008 - A number of clinical decision models and scoring systems have been developed and validated to assist physicians in assessing the prognosis of patients with acute stroke.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0615/p1719.html

Predicting Prognosis in Patients with End-stage Liver Disease - Point-of-Care Guides - ...

Nov 15, 2006 - Two scoring systems are widely used to predict prognosis in patients with end-stage liver disease: the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1115/p1762.html

Predicting Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk in Adults with Undifferentiated Arthritis - ...

May 15, 2008 - Early use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) markedly reduces inflammation and joint destruction associated with RA.1,2 Therefore, with early diagnosis of RA and appropriate use of DMARDs, there is a window of opportunity to change the clinical course of this disabling ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0515/p1451.html

Predicting Short-term Risk of Stroke After TIA - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family...

Sep 15, 2006 - Five to 10 percent of patients presenting with TIA will have a stroke within the following week. Because guidelines do not mandate hospitalization for patients who have had a TIA or suspected TIA,4,5 validated clinical prediction rules may be used to identify patients who should ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/p1001.html

Predicting the Likelihood of Bacterial Meningitis in Children - Point-of-Care Guides - ...

Feb 15, 2007 - Although the incidence of bacterial meningitis has dropped with increased immunization against Haemophilus influenzae, meningitis remains a devastating illness. For every child with meningeal signs and symptoms who is diagnosed with bacterial meningitis after lumbar puncture, many more ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p533.html

Predicting the Likelihood of Successful Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery - ...

Oct 15, 2007 - The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend that pregnant women with a single previous cesarean delivery and a low-transverse incision be offered a trial of labor.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1192.html

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