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Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p281.html

Epistaxis: Outpatient Management - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2018 - Epistaxis is a common emergency encountered by primary care physicians. Up to 60% of the general population experience epistaxis, and 6% seek medical attention for it. More than 90% of cases arise from the anterior nasal circulation, and most treatments can be easily performed in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p240.html

Cerumen Impaction: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - Cerumen production is a normal and protective process for the ear canal. However, cerumen should be removed when it causes symptoms (e.g., hearing loss, itching, pain, tinnitus) or prevents assessment of the external auditory canal, the tympanic membrane, or audiovestibular system. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/p525.html

Management of Epistaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2005 - Family physicians frequently encounter patients with epistaxis (nasal bleeding). In rare cases, this condition may lead to massive bleeding and even death. Although epistaxis can have an anterior or posterior source, it most often originates in the anterior nasal cavity. A directed ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0115/p305.html

Cerumen Impaction - American Family Physician

May 15, 2007 - Cerumen is a naturally occurring, normally extruded product of the external auditory canal. It is usually asymptomatic, but when it becomes impacted it can cause complications such as hearing loss, pain, or dizziness. It also can interfere with examination of the tympanic membrane. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/p1523.html

Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Throat - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2007 - Foreign bodies in the ear, nose, and throat are occasionally seen in family medicine, usually in children. The most common foreign bodies are food, plastic toys, and small household items. Diagnosis is often delayed because the causative event is usually unobserved, the symptoms are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1185.html

Tonsillectomy in Children: AAO-HNS Updates Guideline - Practice Guidelines - American ...

Sep 1, 2019 - The American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (AAO–HNS) has updated its 2011 guideline on tonsillectomy indications and perioperative care in children one to 18 years of age.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p316.html

Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2009 - Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1115/p1117.html

Antibiotics for Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Because of the relatively high rate of reported adverse effects and the high likelihood of resolution of symptoms with supportive care and symptomatic management, the authors recommend selective antibiotic use in patients with acute sinusitis. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/od1.html

Single-Dose Oral Dexamethasone Decreases Sore Throat Pain - POEMs - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2018 - Sore throats are rarely fatal anymore, but there is really no such thing as just a sore throat. Whereas antibiotics have no analgesic activity, a single low dose of a corticosteroid such as oral dexamethasone—0.6 mg per kg for children at least five years of age and up to 10 mg for ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0215/od1.html

Sialorrhea--A Management Challenge - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2004 - Sialorrhea (drooling or excessive salivation) is a common problem in neurologically impaired children (i.e., those with mental retardation or cerebral palsy) and in adults who have Parkinson's disease or have had a stroke. It is most commonly caused by poor oral and facial muscle ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0601/p2628.html

Chronic Sinusitis: Saline Irrigation Helps Somewhat; Steroid Does Not Add More Benefit ...

Feb 1, 2019 - This study showed that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who continue to use a saline nasal wash (NeilMed) will often experience an improvement in symptoms that can be clinically meaningful, but the addition of the corticosteroid budesonide has yet to show an extra benefit.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p188.html

Saline Irrigation for Allergic Rhinitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

May 1, 2019 - asal saline irrigation reduces the severity of allergy symptoms for up to eight weeks vs. no treatment. It is uncertain if adding nasal saline to pharmacologic treatment further improves symptoms over pharmacologic treatment alone.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p544.html

Management of Acute Nasal Fractures - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2004 - In cases of facial trauma, nasal fractures account for approximately 40 percent of bone injuries. Treatment in the primary care setting begins with evaluating the injury, taking an accurate history of the situation in which the injury occurred, and ascertaining how the face and nose ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1001/p1315.html

Corticosteroids for Sore Throat: BMJ Rapid Recommendation - Practice Guidelines - ...

Jun 15, 2018 - The BMJ Rapid Recommendations team, a collaboration between BMJ and the MAGIC group, issued a weak recommendation to give a single dose of oral corticosteroids to most patients with acute sore throat.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p821.html

Antibiotics for Otitis Media in Children - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2018 - This meta-analysis concludes that the risk of a prolonged course of antibiotics was twice as high for children younger than two years with bilateral acute otitis media than for children two years and older with unilateral acute otitis media, indicating that antibiotics might be ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/od3.html

Management of Benign Aphthous Ulcers - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2000 - Aphthous ulcers are a common and painful problem. Benign aphthae tend to be small (less than 1 cm in diameter) and shallow. Aphthous ulcers that occur in conjunction with symptoms of uveitis, genital ulcerations, conjunctivitis, arthritis, fever or adenopathy should prompt a search for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0701/p149.html

Acute Otitis Media in Children - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2017 - What are the effects of treatments (analgesics, antibiotics, and myringotomy) in children with acute otitis media?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p109.html

IDSA Updates Guideline for Managing Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis - Practice ...

Sep 1, 2013 - The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has updated its 2002 guideline on managing group A streptococcal pharyngitis. The illness primarily occurs in children five to 15 years of age. Patients typically present with sudden onset of a sore throat, pain with swallowing, and fever.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0901/p338.html

ACP/CDC Provide Guidelines on the Use of Antibiotics for Acute Respiratory Tract ...

Dec 15, 2016 - The American College of Physicians (ACP) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guideline on appropriate antibiotic use in the treatment of healthy adults with acute respiratory tract infection outlines one of the medical community's top priorities.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p1016.html

If You Give Amoxicillin/Clavulanate to Six- to 23-Month-Olds with AOM, 10 Days Is ...

Apr 1, 2017 - These authors begin with the assumption that we should treat children who have AOM with amoxicillin/clavulanate. The greatest benefit was in children one to two years of age who had more severe pain and fever. In children with less severe symptoms, observation should still be the ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p457.html

Interventions to Facilitate Shared Decision Making to Address Antibiotic Use for Acute ...

Jan 1, 2017 - Interventions to facilitate shared decision making reduce the prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections in the short term (within six weeks of the consultation) without increasing return visits or decreasing patient satisfaction (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p11.html

Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing for Uncomplicated Acute RTIs - ...

Dec 1, 2016 - What are the effectiveness and adverse consequences of strategies for reducing antibiotic use in adults and children with uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs)?

American Family Physician : Implementing AHRQ Effective Health Care Reviews

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p918.html

Capsaicin for Nonallergic Rhinitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2016 - Intranasal capsaicin is safe and effective for reducing symptoms of nonallergic rhinitis (number needed to treat = 4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 to 22). There is insufficient evidence to compare the effectiveness of capsaicin to other topical or systemic medications.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p217.html

Acute Infective Sore Throat - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

May 15, 2015 - What are the effects of interventions to reduce symptoms of acute infective sore throat?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0515/p689.html

Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Adults: Part II. Treatment - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2004 - Although most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viruses, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is a fairly common complication. Even though most patients with acute rhinosinusitis recover promptly without it, antibiotic therapy should be considered in patients with prolonged or more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1101/p1697.html

AAO-HNSF Releases Guideline on Managing Tinnitus - Practice Guidelines - American ...

Jul 1, 2015 - Tinnitus, the perception of sound without an external source, can be caused by a variety of conditions. Prevalence in the United States is approximately 10% to 15%. It can be categorized as primary (idiopathic and accompanied by or not by sensorineural hearing loss) and secondary ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0701/p65.html

AAO-HNSF Releases Guideline on Tympanostomy Tubes in Children - Practice Guidelines - ...

May 1, 2014 - The American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO–HNSF) has released a guideline on the indications for tube placement in children, as well as perioperative counseling.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0501/p754.html

Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2013 - What are the effects of treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media in adults and children? What are the effects of treatments for cholesteatoma in adults and children?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1115/p694.html

Recurrent Epistaxis in Children - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2014 - What are the effects of treatments for recurrent idiopathic epistaxis in children?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p105.html

Intranasal Corticosteroids for Acute Bacterial Sinusitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2014 - Compared with patients not treated with intranasal corticosteroids, those who receive them have greater improvement or resolution of symptoms at two to three weeks, regardless of whether antibiotics are used. In a single head-to-head study, patients taking intranasal corticosteroids ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p286.html

Antibiotics for Sore Throat - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Compared with placebo, antibiotics can shorten the duration of sore throat symptoms by about 16 hours and can reduce complications. In countries where the absolute rates of complications are higher, antibiotic therapy is more likely to be effective. The effectiveness of antibiotic ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p23.html

Tinnitus - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2014 - What are the effects of treatments for chronic tinnitus?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0315/p471.html

Corticosteroids for the Treatment of Sore Throat - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jan 1, 2014 - In adults with suspected bacterial pharyngitis who require antibiotic therapy, adding a corticosteroid may increase the likelihood of complete pain resolution at 24 hours. Further study is needed to assess the safety of corticosteroids and whether they can be recommended for presumed ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p14.html

Should Children with Acute Otitis Media Routinely be Treated with Antibiotics? No: Most...

Oct 1, 2013 - The evidence supports the use of antibiotics only in certain clinical situations and avoidance of antibiotics in certain children with AOM.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/od2.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Eustachian Tube Dysfunction - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

Jun 15, 2013 - There are no medications that improve patient-oriented outcomes in children or adults with eustachian tube dysfunction. Oral corticosteroids, with or without antibiotics, improve pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry findings in the short term, but these agents have no long-term benefit.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/p883.html

Should Children with Acute Otitis Media Routinely Be Treated with Antibiotics? Yes: ...

Oct 1, 2013 - The demonstrated benefits of antibiotic use are an average of one less day of pain and fever, which is about evenly offset by the risk of adverse effects. Benefits warrant discussion with parents for shared decision making regarding treatment.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/od1.html

Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Obstructive sleep apnea should be suspected in patients who are overweight snore loudly, and have chronic daytime sleepiness. The diagnosis of sleep apnea may be confirmed by sleep laboratory studies. Patients' symptoms and the frequency of respiratory events on laboratory testing are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p561.html

Treatment of Otitis Media with Perforated Tympanic Membrane - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries...

Apr 15, 2009 - Acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation in children should be treated with an oral antibiotic.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0415/p650.html

Caring for Older Patients Who Have Significant Hearing Loss - Curbside Consultation - ...

Mar 1, 2013 - This scenario illustrates issues related to end-of-life care and placement in a long-term care facility for older individuals with significant hearing loss. An analysis of data from the 1999 to 2006 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and statistics from the ...

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p360.html

Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Hoarseness - Practice Guidelines - ...

May 15, 2010 - The American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has released evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation and management of hoarseness. The goals of the guidelines are to improve diagnostic accuracy; reduce inappropriate medication and imaging use; and promote ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0515/p1292.html

Steroids for the Treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion in Children - Cochrane for ...

Feb 1, 2012 - Oral steroid use, alone or in combination with antibiotics, speeds the resolution of otitis media with effusion. However, there is no evidence that oral steroids improve symptoms or affect long-term outcomes, such as hearing loss. Topical nasal steroids have no effect on otitis media ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p235.html

Acute Otitis Media: Part II. Treatment in an Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance - ...

Apr 15, 2000 - Antibiotic resistance is increasing among the pathogens that commonly cause acute otitis media. This development may merit changes in the traditional antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media. Risk factors for resistant pathogens include recent antibiotic treatment of acute otitis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0415/p2410.html

Antibiotics for Acute Otitis Media in Young Children: The Case of the Shifting End ...

Jan 15, 2012 - A discussion of why the conclusion of a high-profile study, which suggests that antibiotics are beneficial in children six to 23 months of age with acute otitis media, is incorrect.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0115/p104.html

Diagnosis and Management of Cerumen Impaction - Practice Guidelines - American Family ...

Nov 1, 2009 - Cerumen, or earwax, is normally expelled from the ear canal by a self-cleaning mechanism assisted by jaw movement. Physicians should diagnose impaction only when an accumulation of cerumen is associated with symptoms (e.g., otalgia, tinnitus, vertigo) or prevents necessary assessment of...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1101/p1011.html

Short Course of Antibiotics for Acute Otitis Media Treatment - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Jan 1, 2011 - Antibiotic courses between two and seven days in duration are associated with a slightly higher risk of treatment failure than longer courses (number needed to treat = 33), but also a somewhat lower risk of adverse gastrointestinal effects (number needed to harm = 29). Ceftriaxone ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p37.html

Antibiotics for Acute Maxillary Sinusitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

May 1, 2009 - Although there is some evidence that antibiotics are effective in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis, this benefit is modest. Most patients with acute sinusitis improve within two weeks without antibiotics. The potential risk of adverse effects from antibiotics may outweigh ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0501/p757.html

Sinusitis (Acute) - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2009 - What are the effects of treatments in persons with clinically diagnosed or radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0215/p320.html

Procalcitonin-Guided Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infections - Point-of-Care Guides -...

Sep 15, 2008 - Procalcitonin is a precursor to calcitonin. The final step in the synthesis of calcitonin is inhibited by cytokines and endotoxin released during bacterial infections; therefore, procalcitonin levels are selectively elevated in patients with bacterial infections.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0915/p756.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Apr 1, 2007 - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2007 - Children with otitis media with effusion do not benefit from decongestants or antihistamines. Common adverse effects of these therapies are gastrointestinal upset, irritability, drowsiness, and dizziness (number needed to harm = 9).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0401/p1001.html

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