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Insulin for Glycemic Control in Acute Ischemic Stroke - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2012 - Administering insulin to maintain glycemic control does not improve the rates of mortality or dependency, or the final neurologic outcome after an acute ischemic stroke. Additionally, in randomized controlled trials, patients in the intervention groups (those under tight glycemic ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1008.html

Oral Antihistamine/Decongestant/Analgesic Combinations for the Common Cold - Cochrane ...

Nov 1, 2012 - Combination cold medications, including antihistamine/decongestant/analgesic, antihistamine/decongestant, antihistamine/analgesic, and analgesic/decongestant formulations, provide modest symptom relief in adults and older children, but are not effective in young children. Only the ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1101/p812.html

The Effects of Combination Contraceptives on Weight - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2012 - Compared with placebo or no intervention, the use of combination contraceptives was not associated with weight gain. Most studies comparing different types of combination contraceptives showed no statistically significant effects on weight.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1009.html

Steroids for the Treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion in Children - Cochrane for ...

Feb 1, 2012 - Oral steroid use, alone or in combination with antibiotics, speeds the resolution of otitis media with effusion. However, there is no evidence that oral steroids improve symptoms or affect long-term outcomes, such as hearing loss. Topical nasal steroids have no effect on otitis media ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p235.html

Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2012 - Overall, children up to 12 years of age benefited from school-based obesity prevention interventions; this effect was not demonstrated among adolescents 13 years and older. Although the overall effect size was small, interventions that promoted physical activity, alone or in combination...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0701/p30.html

Are Neuraminidase Inhibitors Effective for Preventing and Treating Influenza in Healthy...

Oct 1, 2012 - Treating previously healthy patients with oseltamivir (Tamiflu) reduces the duration of influenza symptoms by approximately 21 hours, but it does not reduce the risk of hospitalization in this population.1 The data are insufficient to determine whether oseltamivir reduces the ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1001/p624.html

Amphetamines for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2012 - Amphetamines improve ADHD symptom severity but, when compared with placebo, they are associated with increased discontinuation rates because of adverse effects. There does not appear to be a difference among dosages or between the immediate- and sustained-release formulations.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0901/p413.html

Weight Loss for Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2012 - There are insufficient high-quality studies to determine patient-oriented outcomes of weight loss for the treatment of fatty liver disease. Nonetheless, weight loss remains a reasonable goal because it may reduce liver inflammation and improve comorbidities. In two of the studies ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0901/p415.html

Epidural Analgesia for Labor Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2012 - Compared with other types of analgesia or no analgesia, epidurals offered better pain relief, but were associated with a longer second stage of labor and increased risk of instrumental vaginal delivery, maternal fever, and oxytocin (Pitocin) administration. There were no statistically ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0801/p241.html

Antiemetics for Acute Gastroenteritis–Related Vomiting in Children and Adolescents - ...

Jun 1, 2012 - Ondansetron (Zofran) given orally can reduce rates of vomiting, improve short-term tolerance of oral fluids, and reduce short-term rates of hospital admission and the need for intravenous hydration. Metoclopramide (Reglan) and ondansetron can reduce episodes of vomiting when given ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0601/p1054.html

Antidepressants for Agitation and Psychosis in Patients with Dementia - Cochrane for ...

Jan 1, 2012 - There are few high-quality studies examining the effectiveness of antidepressants for treating the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Although there is some evidence to support the use of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) sertraline (Zoloft) and citalopram ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0101/p20.html

Could Selenium Supplementation Prevent Cancer? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jun 1, 2012 - Selenium deficiency is associated with a higher risk of cancer, but selenium supplementation does not decrease that risk.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0601/p1056.html

Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Not Using Insulin - ...

May 1, 2012 - For patients who have had diabetes longer than one year and are not using insulin, evidence suggests that the benefit of self-monitoring of blood glucose in lowering A1C levels is small at six months and disappears by 12 months. Self-monitoring of blood glucose does not improve ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0501/p866.html

Cochrane for Clinicians - Oct 1, 2005 - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - Although no difference in effectiveness has been demonstrated in existing trials, too few patients have been studied to detect small but clinically important differences in pregnancy rates. Low-dose estrogen pills have higher rates of discontinuation and bleeding disturbances.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1224a.html

Interventions to Increase Cervical Cancer Screening Rates - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Mar 1, 2012 - Invitation letters are the most studied method of encouraging cervical cancer screening, and they are effective (relative risk [RR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 1.52).1–3 Invitation letters may be more cost-effective than more intensive recruitment efforts (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p443.html

Financial Incentives for Improving the Quality of Primary Care - Cochrane for ...

Apr 1, 2012 - Financial incentives are associated with minimal, if any, improvements in quality of care provided by primary care physicians. It is uncertain whether financial incentives are cost-effective relative to other types of quality-improvement interventions.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0401/p690.html

Antiretroviral Therapy to Prevent Transmission in HIV-Discordant Couples - Cochrane for...

Mar 1, 2012 - Rates of HIV transmission are at least three times lower in HIV-discordant couples in which the partner with infection is receiving antiretroviral therapy, compared with HIV-discordant couples in which the partner with infection is not receiving therapy. Among HIV-discordant couples in ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p445.html

Management of Constipation in Patients Receiving Palliative Care - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2011 - There is insufficient evidence to recommend one laxative over another for the treatment of constipation in patients receiving palliative care. Methylnaltrexone can increase the frequency of bowel movements at four hours (odds ratio = 7.0; 95% confidence interval, 3.8 to 12.6) and at 24 ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1227.html

Exercise for Treatment of the Vasomotor Symptoms of Menopause - Cochrane for Clinicians...

Feb 1, 2012 - Although menopausal women who exercise are less likely to report vasomotor symptoms than those who do not, there is insufficient evidence that counseling women to exercise is more effective than no treatment or hormone therapy for vasomotor symptoms of menopause.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p237.html

Effect of Mammography on Breast Cancer Mortality - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Dec 1, 2011 - Although mammography can lead to false-positive results, emotional stress, and unnecessary biopsies, it appears to reduce deaths from breast cancer by about 15 percent.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1225.html

Cognitive Interventions for Improving Cognitive Function - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Nov 1, 2011 - Compared with no treatment, cognitive interventions improved cognitive performance in healthy older adults and older adults with mild cognitive impairments. However, there is inadequate evidence to determine which aspects of these interventions are effective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1101/p992.html

Opioid Antagonists for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Nov 1, 2011 - Although it does not improve overall alcohol abstinence rates, the oral formulation of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Revia) is moderately effective in decreasing the amount and frequency of alcohol consumption in patients with alcohol dependence.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1101/p990.html

Statins for Primary Cardiovascular Prevention - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Oct 1, 2011 - Trials to date have found that statins reduce all-cause mortality, composite cardiovascular outcomes, and revascularization. However, most trials included large numbers of persons with known CVD. Clear evidence of the effectiveness of statins to prevent a first cardiovascular event is ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p767.html

Nicotine Receptor Partial Agonists for Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2011 - Compared with placebo, varenicline more than doubles the chances of successful long-term smoking abstinence. In head-to-head trials, varenicline appears to be at least as effective as nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban). The most common adverse effect is nausea, which ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1001/p769.html

GERD Treatment for Chronic Nonspecific Cough in Children and Adults - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2011 - Acid suppressants or prokinetic agents should not be used to treat chronic nonspecific cough in infants or children. There is insufficient evidence to support or discourage use of these agents to treat chronic non-specific cough in adults, even in those with a history of GERD.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p502.html

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