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A Comprehensive Newborn Exam: Part I. General, Head and Neck, Cardiopulmonary - ...

Sep 1, 2014 - A comprehensive newborn examination involves a systematic inspection. A Ballard score uses physical and neurologic characteristics to assess gestational age. Craniosynostosis is caused by premature fusion of the sutures, and 20% of children with this condition have a genetic mutation or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p289.html

A Comprehensive Newborn Exam: Part II. Skin, Trunk, Extremities, Neurologic - American ...

Sep 1, 2014 - Skin findings are common during the newborn examination. Although these findings are often benign, it is important to visualize the entire skin surface to distinguish these findings and appropriately reassure parents. The chest should be observed for symmetric movement, pectus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p297.html

A Practical Approach to Neonatal Jaundice - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Kernicterus and neurologic sequelae caused by severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are preventable conditions. A structured and practical approach to the identification and care of infants with jaundice can facilitate prevention, thus decreasing rates of morbidity and mortality. Primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1255.html

A Practical Approach to Uncomplicated Seizures in Children - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2000 - Uncomplicated seizures and epilepsy are common in infants and children. Family physicians should be aware of certain epilepsy syndromes that occur in children, such as febrile seizures, benign focal epilepsy of childhood, complex partial epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and video ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0901/p1109.html

A Practical Guide to Infant Oral Health - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Early childhood caries is the most common chronic disease in young children and may develop as soon as teeth erupt. Bacteria, predominately mutans streptococci, metabolize simple sugars to produce acid that demineralizes teeth, resulting in cavities. Physicians should examine children's...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2113.html

A Systematic Approach to the Evaluation of a Limping Child - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2015 - A limp is defined as a deviation from a normal age-appropriate gait pattern resulting in an uneven, jerky, or laborious gait. It can be caused by pain, weakness, or deformity as a result of a variety of conditions. Transient synovitis is the most common diagnosis. Other causes of acute ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1115/p908.html

Acute Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p830.html

Acute Abdominal Pain in Children - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2003 - Acute abdominal pain in children presents a diagnostic dilemma. Although many cases of acute abdominal pain are benign, some require rapid diagnosis and treatment to minimize morbidity. Numerous disorders can cause abdominal pain. The most common medical cause is gastroenteritis, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0601/p2321.html

Adolescent Health Screening and Counseling - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2012 - Serious health problems, risky behavior, and poor health habits persist among adolescents despite access to medical care. Most adolescents do not seek advice about preventing leading causes of morbidity and mortality in their age group, and physicians often do not find ways to provide ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1215/p1109.html

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2014 - Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of scoliosis, affecting approximately 2% to 4% of adolescents. The incidence of scoliosis is about the same in males and females; however, females have up to a 10-fold greater risk of curve progression. Although most youths with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0201/p193.html

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Radiologic Decision-Making - American Family Physician

May 1, 2002 - Adolescent onset of severe idiopathic scoliosis has traditionally been evaluated using standing posteroanterior radiographs of the full spine to assess lateral curvature with the Cobb method. The most tilted vertebral bodies above and below the apex of the spinal curve are used to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0501/p1817.html

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Review and Current Concepts - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2001 - Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is present in 2 to 4 percent of children between 10 and 16 years of age. It is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine greater than 10 degrees accompanied by vertebral rotation. It is thought to be a multigene dominant condition with variable ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0701/p111.html

Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse: Recognition and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2008 - Substance abuse in adolescents is undertreated in the United States. Family physicians are well positioned to recognize substance use in their patients and to take steps to address the issue before use escalates. Comorbid mental disorders among adolescents with substance abuse include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0201/p331.html

Adolescent Substance Use and Misuse: Recognition and Management - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2019 - Adolescent use of illicit substances imposes an enormous burden on individuals, families, and communities. The types of illicit substances adolescents are using have changed drastically over the past decade with decreases in alcohol use (including binge alcohol use) offset by increases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p689.html

Amblyopia - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2007 - Amblyopia, a decrease in visual acuity, is a major public health problem with a prevalence of 1 to 4 percent in the United States. It is thought to develop early in life during the critical period of visual development. Early recognition of amblyogenic risk factors such as strabismus, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0201/p361.html

Anemia in Children - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2001 - Anemia in children is commonly encountered by the family physician. Multiple causes exist, but with a thorough history, a physical examination and limited laboratory evaluation a specific diagnosis can usually be established. The use of the mean corpuscular volume to classify the anemia...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1015/p1379.html

Anticipatory Guidance in Infant Oral Health: Rationale and Recommendations - American ...

Jan 1, 2000 - If appropriate measures are applied early enough, it may be possible to totally prevent oral disease. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recommends that infants be scheduled for an initial oral evaluation within six months of the eruption of the first primary tooth but by no ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0101/p115.html

Antiviral Drugs in Healthy Children - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 1998 - Several antiviral agents are available to treat viral illnesses in healthy children. In some children, treatment with acyclovir is an alternative to vaccination for the treatment and prevention of chickenpox. Acyclovir also can be useful in the treatment or prevention of herpes simplex ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0301/p1073.html

Apophysitis and Osteochondrosis: Common Causes of Pain in Growing Bones - American ...

May 15, 2019 - Apophysitis and osteochondrosis are common causes of pain in growing bones but have differing etiologies and required management. Apophysitis results from a traction injury to the cartilage and bony attachment of tendons in children and adolescents. Most often it is an overuse injury in...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/p610.html

Appropriate Use of Antibiotics for URIs in Children: Part I. Otitis Media and Acute ...

Oct 1, 1998 - Five conditions--otitis media, acute sinusitis, cough, pharyngitis and the common cold--account for most of the outpatient use of antibiotics in the United States. The first part of this two-part article presents guidelines that encourage physicians to make an appropriate distinction ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1001/p1113.html

Appropriate Use of Antibiotics for URIs in Children: Part II. Cough, Pharyngitis and ...

Oct 15, 1998 - This article summarizes the principles of judicious antimicrobial therapy for three of the five conditions--cough, pharyngitis, the common cold--that account for most of the outpatient use of these drugs in the United States. The principles governing the other two conditions, otitis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1015/p1335.html

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Management - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2001 - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is a neurophysiologic disorder defined in behavioral terms and associated with significant morbidity in the realms of social and academic success,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1015/p1355.html

Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2016 - Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1215/p972.html

Autism: A Medical Primer - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2002 - Autistic disorder, a pervasive developmental disorder resulting in social, language, or sensorimotor deficits, occurs in approximately seven of 10,000 persons. Early detection and intervention significantly improve outcome, with about one third of autistic persons achieving some degree ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1101/p1667.html

Bilious Vomiting in the Newborn: Rapid Diagnosis of Intestinal Obstruction - American ...

May 1, 2000 - Bilious vomiting in newborns is an urgent condition that requires the immediate involvement of a team of pediatric surgeons and neonatologists for perioperative management. However, initial detection, evaluation and treatment are often performed by nurses, family physicians and general ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0501/p2791.html

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