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Exercise Stress Testing: Indications and Common Questions - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2017 - Exercise stress testing is a validated diagnostic test for coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients, and is used in the evaluation of patients with known cardiac disease. Testing of asymptomatic patients is generally not indicated. It may be performed in select deconditioned ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p293.html

Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an underlying and potentially reversible cause. The prevalence and potential etiologies of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p453.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Current Treatment - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Acute coronary syndrome continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Family physicians need to identify and mitigate risk factors early, as well as recognize and respond to acute coronary syndrome events quickly in any clinical setting. Diagnosis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p232.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

Severe Asymptomatic Hypertension: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Hypertension affects one-third of Americans and is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal disease, and death. Severe asymptomatic hypertension is defined as severely elevated blood pressure (180 mm Hg or more systolic, or 110 mm Hg or more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p492.html

Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Diagnosis and Management - American ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, also referred to as diastolic heart failure, causes almost one-half of the 5 million cases of heart failure in the United States. It is more common among older patients and women, and results from abnormalities of active ventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p582.html

Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2019 - Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 12% to 20% of Americans 60 years and older. The most significant risk factors for PAD are hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and smoking; the presence of three or more factors confers a 10-fold...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p362.html

Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Stable coronary artery disease refers to a reversible supply/demand mismatch related to ischemia, a history of myocardial infarction, or the presence of plaque documented by catheterization or computed tomography angiography. Patients are considered stable if they are asymptomatic or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p376.html

Venous Ulcers: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Venous ulcers are the most common type of chronic lower extremity ulcers, affecting 1% to 3% of the U.S. population. Venous hypertension as a result of venous reflux (incompetence) or obstruction is thought to be the primary underlying mechanism for venous ulcer formation. Risk factors ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p298.html

Varicose Veins: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2019 - Varicose veins are twisted, dilated veins most commonly located on the lower extremities. The exact pathophysiology is debated, but it involves a genetic predisposition, incompetent valves, weakened vascular walls, and increased intravenous pressure. Risk factors include family history ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p682.html

High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2018 - High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked. Children should be screened for elevated blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age or at every visit if risk factors are present. In children younger than 13 years, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1015/p486.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Hyperlipidemia: Drugs for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Adults - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2017 - Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the U.K. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) indicate that lipid-lowering drugs have benefit for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p78.html

Diets for Health: Goals and Guidelines - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2018 - Diet is the single most significant risk factor for disability and premature death. Patients and physicians often have difficulty staying abreast of diet trends, many of which focus primarily on weight loss rather than nutrition and health. Recommending an eating style can help patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p721.html

Palpitations: Evaluation in the Primary Care Setting - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Palpitations are a common problem in the ambulatory primary care setting, and cardiac causes are the most concerning etiology. Psychiatric illness, adverse effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and substance use should also be considered. Distinguishing cardiac from ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p784.html

Cardiomyopathy: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2017 - The definition and classification of cardiomyopathy have evolved considerably in recent years. Cardiomyopathy can be separated into primary (genetic, mixed, or acquired) and secondary categories, which result in varied phenotypes including dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1115/p640.html

Heart Failure Due to Reduced Ejection Fraction: Medical Management - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2017 - Heart failure is an increasingly common condition resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. For patients who have heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, randomized clinical trials demonstrate consistent mortality benefit from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p13.html

Perioperative Cardiovascular Medication Management in Noncardiac Surgery: Common ...

May 15, 2017 - Several medications have been used perioperatively in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery in an attempt to improve outcomes. Antiplatelet therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular events should generally be discontinued seven to 10 days before surgery to avoid increasing the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p645.html

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