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Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors vs. Other Antihypertensive Drug Classes for ...

Nov 1, 2019 - RAS inhibitors, which include angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and renin inhibitors, should not be used as first-line agents.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p540.html

Aromatase Inhibitors Such as Letrozole (Femara) vs. Clomiphene (Clomid) for Subfertile ...

May 1, 2019 - When treated with letrozole, subfertile women with PCOS who are trying to conceive have increased chances of pregnancy (number needed to treat [NNT] = 11) and live birth (NNT = 10) compared with those treated with clomiphene.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p545.html

Use of Amphetamines for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults - Cochrane ...

Sep 1, 2019 - Amphetamines provide a clinician-rated 30% or greater reduction in ADHD symptoms when compared with placebo (number needed to treat = 5).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p278.html

Effectiveness and Safety of Factor Xa Inhibitors in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation -...

Oct 1, 2019 - Treatment of AFib with a factor Xa inhibitor results in a decrease in the combined end point of stroke and embolic events (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97), as well as a decrease in intracranial hemorrhage (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.59) and all-cause mortality (OR = ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p405.html

Medication Management for Chronic Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction - ...

Jul 1, 2019 - Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce hospitalizations for patients with HFpEF. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have not been shown to change the morbidity or mortality in patients with HFpEF.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p17.html

Different Durations of Corticosteroid Therapy for COPD Exacerbations - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2019 - Treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD with a shorter course of systemic corticosteroids (seven or fewer days) is likely to be as effective and safe as treating with longer courses (more than seven days).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p295.html

Alternative Interventions for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Men -...

Jun 1, 2019 - In men with chronic pelvic pain and urinary dysfunction who have not responded to standard medical management, extracorporeal shock wave therapy reduces symptoms and increases quality of life. Acupuncture may also provide benefit to some patients.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p677.html

Pharmacologic Interventions for Apathy in Patients with Alzheimer Disease - Cochrane ...

Jan 1, 2019 - Methylphenidate may improve apathy in select patients with AD (mean difference [MD] = –4.99 on the apathy evaluation scale; 95% confidence interval [CI], –9.55 to –0.43), although the clinical significance associated with these findings remains unclear and the evidence is considered low...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p14.html

Direct Oral Anticoagulants vs. Warfarin to Prevent Stroke and Embolic Events in ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Direct oral anticoagulants are as likely as warfarin to prevent all strokes and systemic embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and CKD stage 3. They do not increase the risk of major bleeding events. The evidence remains insufficient to make recommendations for the use of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p422.html

Deep Venous Thrombosis: Home vs. Inpatient Treatment - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Patients treated at home with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) have lower rates of recurrent VTE than those treated in a hospital.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p642.html

Blood Pressure Targets for Patients with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease - ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Achieving a target BP of 135/85 mm Hg or less does not decrease the risk of total cardiovascular events vs. treating to a target of 140 to 160/90 to 100 mm Hg. Further, treating to the lower BP target does not improve total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p276.html

The Role of Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia - ...

Aug 1, 2018 - There is moderate-quality evidence that PPIs are more effective than placebo at relieving overall symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (number needed to treat [NNT] = 11). Low-quality evidence suggests a small benefit of PPI therapy compared with prokinetics, and little to no ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0801/p152.html

Individual Behavioral Counseling for Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Individual behavioral counseling conducted by a trained therapist provides some benefit when compared with brief counseling and support; however, this benefit is less pronounced in the context of pharmacotherapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p21.html

DPP-4 Inhibitors and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes...

Apr 1, 2018 - There is only limited-quality evidence that at-risk patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists are less likely to progress to diabetes (number needed to treat [NNT] = 23). Serious adverse events were more likely in patients taking GLP-1 receptor agonists than in patients taking placebo ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p437.html

Effectiveness and Safety of Celecoxib for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis - ...

May 1, 2018 - Compared with placebo, celecoxib improves pain (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4) and clinical symptoms (NNT = 7), but it has no effect on physical function in patients with RA.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p573.html

Written Action Plans for Self-Management of COPD Exacerbations - Cochrane for ...

Mar 1, 2018 - Written self-management plans, especially those that include guidance on smoking cessation, increase health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. They also decrease the need for respiratory-related hospital admissions among patients with high or low baseline risk.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p310.html

Injected Corticosteroids for Plantar Heel Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Feb 1, 2018 - There is low-quality evidence that corticosteroid injections slightly reduce heel pain at one month, but they make no significant difference beyond that time. Patients treated with corticosteroid injections were less likely to experience treatment failure—a designation that was defined ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0201/p169.html

Topical NSAIDs for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Topical diclofenac and ketoprofen are slightly more effective than placebo for relieving chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis in adults. Evidence is lacking to determine the effectiveness of topical NSAIDs compared with oral NSAIDs.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p573.html

Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Patients Being Treated for or Recovering from ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Pharmacotherapy alone and pharmacotherapy plus counseling are effective for tobacco cessation among patients being treated for or recovering from alcohol and substance use disorders. Counseling interventions without pharmacotherapy are not effective for tobacco cessation among patients ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p572.html

Yoga for Cancer-Related Symptoms in Women with Breast Cancer - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Oct 1, 2017 - Yoga improves health-related quality of life, reduces sleep disturbances, and decreases fatigue in the short term (up to 12 weeks) among women diagnosed with breast cancer who have completed cancer-related treatment or are receiving cancer treatment compared with no intervention.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p434.html

Pregabalin for Fibromyalgia Pain in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Sep 1, 2017 - There is high-quality evidence that pregabalin in daily dosages of 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg reduces pain associated with fibromyalgia. The most effective dosage seems to be 450 mg daily; this dosage is more effective than placebo at reducing pain by at least 50% (number needed to ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0901/p291.html

Antiplatelet vs. Anticoagulation Therapy for Patients with Heart Failure in Sinus ...

Aug 1, 2017 - Heart failure increases the risk of thrombotic complications, but use of warfarin does not lower all-cause mortality more than aspirin in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in sinus rhythm.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p160.html

Effects of Yoga in Patients with Asthma - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2017 - Regular yoga improves quality of life as measured on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (mean difference = 0.57 units on a seven-point scale; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.77); improves asthma symptoms (standardized mean difference = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.65); and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p159.html

Extended-Release Bupropion for Preventing Seasonal Affective Disorder in Adults - ...

Jan 1, 2017 - When started in the fall, extended-release bupropion, 300 mg once daily, is effective in preventing recurrent symptoms in high-risk adults with a history of SAD (number needed to treat [NNT] = 5), as well as those at lower risk (NNT = 8). Headaches, nausea, and insomnia may limit ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p10.html

Physical Fitness Training for Patients with Stroke - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Jun 1, 2017 - There is moderate-quality evidence that physical fitness training improves disability after stroke. Cardiovascular training that includes only aerobic exercise has a moderate effect on disability (standard mean difference [SMD] = 0.52 on a pooled disability scale), although it is not ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p701.html

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