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Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Children, Healthy Adults, and Older Adults...

Aug 1, 2019 - Influenza vaccination reduces rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza and symptomatic influenza-like illness in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults. There is no consistent evidence that influenza vaccination reduces school absenteeism in children, parental absenteeism ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p143.html

Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori Infection - Cochrane for ...

Jul 1, 2019 - When compared with serology or stool antigen tests, the urea breath test has the highest diagnostic accuracy to identify H. pylori infection in patients without a history of gastrectomy or recent use of antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p16.html

Prophylactic Vaccination Against Human Papillomavirus to Prevent Cervical Cancer and ...

Jan 1, 2019 - HPV vaccination in women 15 to 26 years of age prevents the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN 3 in women regardless of previous HPV exposure (number needed to treat [NNT] = 39). No serious adverse effects are associated with administration of the HPV ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p15.html

Procalcitonin to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Respiratory Infections - Cochrane ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy, when compared with routine treatments, results in decreased mortality in patients with acute respiratory infections (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 1.4%; number needed to treat [NNT] = 71).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p20.html

Interventions to Facilitate Shared Decision Making to Address Antibiotic Use for Acute ...

Jan 1, 2017 - Interventions to facilitate shared decision making reduce the prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections in the short term (within six weeks of the consultation) without increasing return visits or decreasing patient satisfaction (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p11.html

Interventions Aimed at Increasing Childhood Vaccination Rates - Cochrane for Clinicians...

Nov 1, 2015 - Community discussions, community meetings, and information campaigns may increase immunization uptake in areas with only moderate vaccine use. There is no clear evidence to guide face-to-face educational interventions, and the impact of face-to-face interventions is uncertain in areas ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p775.html

Point-of-Care C-Reactive Protein Testing to Help Guide Treatment of Acute Respiratory ...

Oct 1, 2015 - Point-of-care C-reactive protein (CRP) testing used as an adjunct to a physician's clinical examination can modestly reduce antibiotic use. Measurement of CRP to guide antibiotic prescription does not appear to affect the duration of illness or recovery, although one study suggests that...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1001/p571.html

Optimal Duration of Treatment Regimens for H. pylori Eradication - Cochrane for ...

Dec 1, 2014 - When using proton pump inhibitor (PPI) triple therapy, increasing the duration of treatment from seven to 10 days or from 10 to 14 days significantly increases the eradication of H. pylori. When using other treatment regimens, it is unclear whether increasing duration of treatment ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1201/p766.html

Intranasal Corticosteroids for Acute Bacterial Sinusitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2014 - Compared with patients not treated with intranasal corticosteroids, those who receive them have greater improvement or resolution of symptoms at two to three weeks, regardless of whether antibiotics are used. In a single head-to-head study, patients taking intranasal corticosteroids ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p286.html

Antibiotics for Sore Throat - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Compared with placebo, antibiotics can shorten the duration of sore throat symptoms by about 16 hours and can reduce complications. In countries where the absolute rates of complications are higher, antibiotic therapy is more likely to be effective. The effectiveness of antibiotic ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p23.html

Are Cranberry Products Effective for the Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections? - ...

Dec 1, 2013 - Cranberry products are not effective and should not be recommended for the prevention of UTIs.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1201/p745.html

Corticosteroids for the Treatment of Sore Throat - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jan 1, 2014 - In adults with suspected bacterial pharyngitis who require antibiotic therapy, adding a corticosteroid may increase the likelihood of complete pain resolution at 24 hours. Further study is needed to assess the safety of corticosteroids and whether they can be recommended for presumed ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p14.html

Antiretroviral Preexposure Prophylaxis for Preventing HIV Infection in High-Risk ...

Aug 1, 2013 - For some groups of patients at greater risk of HIV infection (e.g., serodiscordant partners, men who have sex with men and engage in high-risk behaviors, persons with multiple concurrent sex partners, persons who exchange sex for money), preexposure prophylaxis decreased the risk of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0801/p172.html

Oral Antihistamine/Decongestant/Analgesic Combinations for the Common Cold - Cochrane ...

Nov 1, 2012 - Combination cold medications, including antihistamine/decongestant/analgesic, antihistamine/decongestant, antihistamine/analgesic, and analgesic/decongestant formulations, provide modest symptom relief in adults and older children, but are not effective in young children. Only the ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1101/p812.html

Steroids for the Treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion in Children - Cochrane for ...

Feb 1, 2012 - Oral steroid use, alone or in combination with antibiotics, speeds the resolution of otitis media with effusion. However, there is no evidence that oral steroids improve symptoms or affect long-term outcomes, such as hearing loss. Topical nasal steroids have no effect on otitis media ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p235.html

Are Neuraminidase Inhibitors Effective for Preventing and Treating Influenza in Healthy...

Oct 1, 2012 - Treating previously healthy patients with oseltamivir (Tamiflu) reduces the duration of influenza symptoms by approximately 21 hours, but it does not reduce the risk of hospitalization in this population.1 The data are insufficient to determine whether oseltamivir reduces the ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1001/p624.html

Antiretroviral Therapy to Prevent Transmission in HIV-Discordant Couples - Cochrane for...

Mar 1, 2012 - Rates of HIV transmission are at least three times lower in HIV-discordant couples in which the partner with infection is receiving antiretroviral therapy, compared with HIV-discordant couples in which the partner with infection is not receiving therapy. Among HIV-discordant couples in ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p445.html

Acellular Vaccines for Preventing Pertussis in Children - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2011 - Multicomponent (i.e., three or more) acellular vaccines are as effective as whole-cell vaccines at preventing pertussis and mild pertussis disease (e.g., cold symptoms, cough without classic whoop or cough paroxysms) in children. Adverse effects are similar to those from placebo and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p504.html

Short Course of Antibiotics for Acute Otitis Media Treatment - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Jan 1, 2011 - Antibiotic courses between two and seven days in duration are associated with a slightly higher risk of treatment failure than longer courses (number needed to treat = 33), but also a somewhat lower risk of adverse gastrointestinal effects (number needed to harm = 29). Ceftriaxone ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0101/p37.html

Chest Physiotherapy for Pneumonia in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family...

Dec 1, 2010 - There is little evidence to support the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy for adults with pneumonia. In two small studies by the same investigator, only osteopathic manipulation was shown to improve some outcomes (i.e., length of stay and duration of antibiotic therapy).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1201/p1340.html

Influenza Vaccination of Health Care Personnel Working with Older Patients - Cochrane ...

Oct 1, 2010 - Currently, there is no high-quality evidence to support the immunization of health care personnel in long-term care facilities to reduce the spread of seasonal influenza to older residents. Immunization of personnel did reduce influenza-like illness and all-cause mortality in the ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1001/p763.html

Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Influenza Treatment and Prevention in Healthy Adults - ...

Aug 1, 2010 - Although neuraminidase inhibitors can reduce the risk of contracting symptomatic, confirmed influenza and reduce the time to recovery for those with laboratory-confirmed influenza, they are not effective for reducing the risk of influenza-like illness or asymptomatic influenza infection...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0801/p242.html

Prophylaxis for Invasive Dental Procedures in At-Risk Patients - Cochrane for ...

Nov 1, 2009 - A single observational study found no evidence that antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of bacterial endocarditis in high-risk patients about to undergo an invasive dental procedure. It is also uncertain if the potential harms and costs of antibiotics outweigh any benefit. ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1101/p939.html

Vaccines for Postexposure Prophylaxis Against Varicella (Chicken Pox) - Cochrane for ...

Sep 1, 2009 - Varicella vaccine appears to be effective in preventing or modifying the severity of the disease in healthy unvaccinated children if administered within three days of exposure. Data are insufficient to support or refute the use of the vaccine as postexposure prophylaxis in adults and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0901/p455.html

Antibiotics for Acute Maxillary Sinusitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

May 1, 2009 - Although there is some evidence that antibiotics are effective in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis, this benefit is modest. Most patients with acute sinusitis improve within two weeks without antibiotics. The potential risk of adverse effects from antibiotics may outweigh ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0501/p757.html

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