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Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels: Causes and Evaluation - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2017 - Mild, asymptomatic elevations (less than five times the upper limit of normal) of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels are common in primary care. It is estimated that approximately 10% of the U.S. population has elevated transaminase levels. An approach based on the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p709.html

Ingrown Toenail Management - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Ingrown toenails account for approximately 20% of foot problems in primary care. The great toe is most often affected. Ingrown toenails occur most commonly in young men, and nail care habits and footwear are most often contributory factors. No consensus has been reached for the best ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p158.html

Electronic Cigarettes: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2019 - Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular devices designed to heat a liquid solution, often containing nicotine, that generates an inhaled aerosol, or vapor. e-Cigarettes have been marketed as healthier alternatives to traditional cigarettes. Thus, most adult users are current or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0815/p227.html

Dizziness: Approach to Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Dizziness is a common yet imprecise symptom. It was traditionally divided into four categories based on the patient’s history: vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium, and light-headedness. However, the distinction between these symptoms is of limited clinical usefulness. Patients have ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p154.html

Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: When to Consider Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2017 - Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (e.g., in Graves disease, toxic nodular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p710.html

Acute and Chronic Urticaria: Evaluation and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2017 - Urticaria commonly presents with intensely pruritic wheals, sometimes with edema of the subcutaneous or interstitial tissue. It has a lifetime prevalence of about 20%. Although often self-limited and benign, it can cause significant discomfort, continue for months to years, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p717.html

Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2017 - Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an underlying and potentially reversible cause. The prevalence and potential etiologies of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1001/p453.html

Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Summary of the Evidence - American Family...

Aug 1, 2017 - Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p170.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

Acute and Chronic Paronychia - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2017 - Paronychia is inflammation of the fingers or toes in one or more of the three nail folds. Acute paronychia is caused by polymicrobial infections after the protective nail barrier has been breached. Treatment consists of warm soaks with or without Burow solution or 1% acetic acid. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0701/p44.html

Vaginitis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2018 - Vaginitis is defined as any condition with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge, odor, irritation, itching, or burning. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Bacterial vaginosis is implicated in 40% to 50% of cases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0301/p321.html

Acupuncture for Pain - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2019 - Acupuncture has been increasingly used as an integrative or complementary therapy for pain. It is well-tolerated with little risk of serious adverse effects. Traditional acupuncture and nontraditional techniques, such as electroacupuncture and dry needling, often result in reported pain...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p89.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a hot ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p501.html

Mechanical Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2018 - Low back pain is usually nonspecific or mechanical. Mechanical low back pain arises intrinsically from the spine, intervertebral disks, or surrounding soft tissues. Clinical clues, or red flags, may help identify cases of nonmechanical low back pain and prompt further evaluation or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/p421.html

Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Plantar fasciitis is a common problem that one in 10 people will experience in their lifetime. Plantar fasciopathy is an appropriate descriptor because the condition is not inflammatory. Risk factors include limited ankle dorsiflexion, increased body mass index, and standing for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p744.html

Epididymitis: An Overview - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2016 - Inflammation of the epididymis, or epididymitis, is commonly seen in the outpatient setting. Etiology and treatment are based on patient age and the likely causative organisms. Epididymitis presents as the gradual onset of posterior scrotal pain that may be accompanied by urinary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1101/p723.html

Croup: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

May 1, 2018 - Croup is a common respiratory illness affecting 3% of children six months to three years of age. It accounts for 7% of hospitalizations annually for fever and/or acute respiratory illness in children younger than five years. Croup is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction resulting...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p575.html

Acute Bronchitis - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2016 - Cough is the most common illness-related reason for ambulatory care visits in the United States. Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by cough due to acute inflammation of the trachea and large airways without evidence of pneumonia. Pneumonia should be suspected in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1001/p560.html

Lead Poisoning in Children - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2019 - Asymptomatic lead poisoning has become more common in children. Blood lead levels of less than 5 µg per dL are associated with impairments in neurocognitive and behavioral development that are irreversible. Risk factors for lead poisoning include age younger than five years, low ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p24.html

Common Superficial Bursitis - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2017 - Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0215/p224.html

Lice and Scabies: Treatment Update - American Family Physician

May 15, 2019 - Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed with visualization of live lice. Nits (lice eggs or egg casings) alone are not sufficient to diagnose a current infestation. A no-nit ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0515/p635.html

First Trimester Bleeding: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Approximately one-fourth of pregnant women will experience bleeding in the first trimester. The differential diagnosis includes threatened abortion, early pregnancy loss, and ectopic pregnancy. Pain and heavy bleeding are associated with an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p166.html

Hepatitis B: Screening, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2019 - Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partly double-stranded DNA virus that causes acute and chronic liver infection. Screening for hepatitis B is recommended in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and in adolescents and adults at high risk of chronic infection. Hepatitis B vaccination ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p314.html

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection and Evaluation - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Chronic kidney disease affects 47 million people in the United States and is associated with significant health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Because this disease can silently progress to advanced stages, early detection is critical for initiating timely interventions. Multiple ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p776.html

Gastroenteritis in Children - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2019 - Acute gastroenteritis is defined as a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain. In the United States, acute gastroenteritis accounts for 1.5 million office visits, 200,000 hospitalizations, and 300 deaths in children each year. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p159.html

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