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A Comprehensive Newborn Exam: Part I. General, Head and Neck, Cardiopulmonary - ...

Sep 1, 2014 - A comprehensive newborn examination involves a systematic inspection. A Ballard score uses physical and neurologic characteristics to assess gestational age. Craniosynostosis is caused by premature fusion of the sutures, and 20% of children with this condition have a genetic mutation or...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p289.html

Expanded Newborn Screening: Information and Resources for the Family Physician - ...

Jun 1, 2017 - Each year, 4 to 5 million newborns receive state-mandated screening. Although the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children has identified 34 core conditions that should be incorporated into screening programs, each state manages, funds, and maintains its own ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0601/p703.html

A Comprehensive Newborn Exam: Part II. Skin, Trunk, Extremities, Neurologic - American ...

Sep 1, 2014 - Skin findings are common during the newborn examination. Although these findings are often benign, it is important to visualize the entire skin surface to distinguish these findings and appropriately reassure parents. The chest should be observed for symmetric movement, pectus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p297.html

Newborn Skin: Part I. Common Rashes - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2008 - Rashes are extremely common in newborns and can be a significant source of parental concern. Although most rashes are transient and benign, some require additional work-up. Erythema toxicum neonatorum, acne neonatorum, and transient neonatal pustular melanosis are transient ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0101/p47.html

The Abnormal Fontanel - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2003 - The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0615/p2547.html

Laboratory-Based Prediction Model Can Rule Out Serious Bacterial Infections in Febrile ...

Oct 1, 2019 - In febrile infants up to 60 days of age, the combination of a normal urinalysis result, an absolute neutrophil count of less than 4,090 per mL (4.1 × 109 per L), and a serum procalcitonin level of less than 1.71 ng per mL is accurate at ruling out serious bacterial infections.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p440.html

Newborn Skin: Part II. Birthmarks - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2008 - Birthmarks in newborns are common sources of parental concern. Although most treatment recommendations are based on expert opinion, limited evidence exists to guide management of these conditions. Large congenital melanocytic nevi require evaluation for removal, whereas smaller nevi may...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0101/p56.html

Pulse Oximetry Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects in Newborns - Cochrane ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Pulse oximetry is an accurate screening test for critical congenital heart defects in newborns. Pulse oximetry is simple to use, widely available, and has moderate sensitivity (76.3%) and good specificity (99.9%). However, the prevalence of critical congenital heart defects is low, and ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p421.html

Young Febrile Infants: Step-by-Step Evaluation - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family...

Jan 1, 2018 - A fever without an obvious source in an infant younger than three months is highly concerning. Although some infants have a potentially life-threatening invasive bacterial infection, such as meningitis, bacteremia, or sepsis, most have less serious conditions, such as a viral syndrome.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0101/p45.html

Expanded Newborn Screening: Information and Resources for the Family Physician - ...

Apr 1, 2008 - Family physicians treat an increasing number of children with metabolic disorders identified through newborn screening, and they are often the first line of defense in responding to an abnormal screening result. How the family physician chooses to interpret information from the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p987.html

Fever in Well-Appearing Children Younger Than Two Years: A Clinical Policy from the ...

Apr 15, 2017 - The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) has released a clinical policy addressing issues in children younger than two years who visit the emergency department with fever, but who appear well.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p524.html

Universal Newborn Hearing Screening - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Congenital hearing loss is estimated to affect one in every 1,000 newborns. Causes of hearing loss can be conductive, sensorineural, mixed, or central. Known risk factors for congenital hearing loss include cytomegalovirus infection and premature birth necessitating a stay in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1349.html

Step-by-Step Approach to Ruling Out Infant Infection Is Accurate - POEMs - American ...

Dec 1, 2016 - The Step-by-Step approach, using a basic physical examination and readily available urine and blood tests (without lumbar puncture; see the Synopsis section), can successfully identify low-risk infants younger than 90 days who will not need empiric antibiotic treatment and lumbar ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1201/p933.html

Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Infancy and Early Childhood: An Update - American Family...

Jun 1, 2006 - Recent innovations in medical technology have changed newborn screening programs in the United States. The widespread use of tandem mass spectrometry is helping to identify more inborn errors of metabolism. Primary care physicians often are the first to be contacted by state and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1981.html

Evaluation of Newborns with Preauricular Skin Lesions - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

May 15, 2012 - All newborns should be screened for hearing loss, whether or not they have preauricular skin lesions. Newborns with these anomalies may be at increased risk of hearing impairment.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0515/p993.html

Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Treatment of DDH in Infants Up to Six Months of Age: ...

Jun 15, 2015 - The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) has provided guidance, based on limited and moderate evidence, on diagnosing and nonsurgical treatments for developmental dysplasia of the hip in infants up to six months of age.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0615/p882.html

Evaluation and Management of Apparent Life-Threatening Events in Children - American ...

Jun 15, 2005 - Apparent life-threatening event syndrome predominantly affects children younger than one year. This syndrome is characterized by a frightening constellation of symptoms in which the child exhibits some combination of apnea, change in color, change in muscle tone, coughing, or gagging. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0615/p2301.html

Failure to Pass Meconium: Diagnosing Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction - American Family ...

Nov 1, 1999 - Timely passage of the first stool is a hallmark of the well-being of the newborn infant. Failure of a full-term newborn to pass meconium in the first 24 hours may signal intestinal obstruction. Lower intestinal obstruction may be associated with disorders such as Hirschsprung's disease,...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1101/p2043.html

Updated AAP Guidelines on Newborn Screening and Therapy for Congenital Hypothyroidism -...

Aug 1, 2007 - Guidelines on newborn screening and therapy for congenital hypothyroidism have been released by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Congenital hypothyroidism can cause mental retardation unless thyroid therapy is initiated within two weeks of birth.

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/p439.html

The Newborn Examination: Part I. Emergencies and Common Abnormalities Involving the ...

Jan 1, 2002 - The routine newborn assessment should include an examination for size, macrocephaly or microcephaly, changes in skin color, signs of birth trauma, malformations, evidence of respiratory distress, level of arousal, posture, tone, presence of spontaneous movements, and symmetry of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0101/p61.html

Screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Newborns - Cochrane for Clinicians ...

Jan 1, 2013 - Although screening increases the proportion of newborns who are treated for DDH, there is insufficient evidence that targeted or universal ultrasound screening improves long-term orthopedic outcomes.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p10.html

The Newborn Examination: Part II. Emergencies and Common Abnormalities Involving the ...

Jan 15, 2002 - Careful examination of the neonate at delivery can detect anomalies, birth injuries, and disorders that may compromise successful adaptation to extrauterine life. A newborn with one anatomic malformation should be evaluated for associated anomalies. If a newborn is found to have an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0115/p265.html

Issues in Newborn Screening for Phenylketonuria - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 1999 - The blood sample for phenylketonuria (PKU) screening should be obtained at least 12 hours after the infant's birth. Newborn screening for PKU has largely eliminated mental retardation caused by this disease. If the first phenylalanine test demonstrates positive results, a repeat test ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1001/p1462.html

Bilirubin Screening in Newborns: What Should We Do? - Editorials - American Family ...

Aug 15, 2010 - A more aggressive approach to screening for hyperbilirubinemia does not have good evidence to support it, nor is it justified to abandon what we have been taught just because there is insufficient evidence at this time. In this case, a middle ground is best: continuing current practice ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p336.html

Screening of Infants for Hyperbilirubinemia to Prevent Chronic Bilirubin ...

Aug 15, 2010 - The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend screening infants for hyperbilirubinemia to prevent chronic bilirubin encephalopa.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p408.html

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