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Postpartum Hemorrhage: Prevention and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2017 - Postpartum hemorrhage is common and can occur in patients without risk factors for hemorrhage. Active management of the third stage of labor should be used routinely to reduce its incidence. Use of oxytocin after delivery of the anterior shoulder is the most important and effective ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p442.html

Breastfeeding: Common Questions and Answers - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2018 - All major health organizations recommend breastfeeding as the optimal source of infant nutrition, with exclusive breastfeeding recommended for the first six months of life. After six months, complementary foods may be introduced. Most organizations recommend breastfeeding for at least ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0915/p368.html

Identification and Management of Peripartum Depression - American Family Physician

May 15, 2016 - Peripartum depression affects up to one in seven women and is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity if untreated. A history of depression is the strongest risk factor for developing peripartum depression. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0515/p852.html

Management of Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2015 - Most of the nearly 4 million births in the United States annually are normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries. In the first stage of labor, normal birth outcomes can be improved by encouraging the patient to walk and stay in upright positions, waiting until at least 6 cm dilation to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0801/p202.html

Prevention and Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2007 - Postpartum hemorrhage, the loss of more than 500 mL of blood after delivery, occurs in up to 18 percent of births and is the most common maternal morbidity in developed countries. Although risk factors and preventive strategies are dearly documented, not all cases are expected or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0315/p875.html

Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2009 - Continuous electronic fetal monitoring was developed in the 1960s to assist in the diagnosis of fetal hypoxia during labor. Continuous electronic fetal monitoring has been shown to reduce the incidence of neonatal seizures, but there has been no beneficial effect in decreasing cerebral ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1388.html

Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2008 - Vaginal delivery is a natural process that usually does not require significant medical intervention. Management guided by current knowledge of the relevant screening tests and normal labor process can greatly increase the probability of an uncomplicated delivery and postpartum course. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/p336.html

Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Diagnosis and Management - American Family ...

Feb 15, 2006 - Preterm premature rupture of membranes is the rupture of membranes during pregnancy before 37 weeks' gestation. It occurs in 3 percent of pregnancies and is the cause of approximately one third of preterm deliveries. It can lead to significant perinatal morbidity, including respiratory ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0215/p659.html

Labor Analgesia - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2012 - Regional analgesia has become the most common method of pain relief used during labor in the United States. Epidural and spinal analgesia are two types of regional analgesia. With epidural analgesia, an indwelling catheter is directed into the epidural space, and the patient receives a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0301/p447.html

Preterm Labor - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2010 - Preventing preterm delivery remains one of the great challenges in modern medicine. Preterm birth rates continue to increase and accounted for 12.7 percent of all U.S. births in 2005. The etiology of preterm delivery is unclear, but is likely to be complex and influenced by genetics and...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0215/p477.html

Umbilical Cord Blood: A Guide for Primary Care Physicians - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants are used to treat a variety of oncologic, genetic, hematologic, and immunodeficiency disorders. Physicians have an important role in educating, counseling, and offering umbilical cord blood donation and storage options to patients. Parents may ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p661.html

Methods for Cervical Ripening and Induction of Labor - American Family Physician

May 15, 2003 - Induction of labor is common in obstetric practice. According to the most current studies, the rate varies from 9.5 to 33.7 percent of all pregnancies annually. In the absence of a ripe or favorable cervix, a successful vaginal birth is less likely. Therefore, cervical ripening or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0515/p2123.html

Preventing Postpartum Hemorrhage: Managing the Third Stage of Labor - American Family ...

Mar 15, 2006 - Postpartum hemorrhage is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Most postpartum hemorrhages are caused by uterine atony and occur in the immediate postpartum period. Expectant or physiologic management of the third stage of labor has been compared with active ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1025.html

Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Newborn - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2005 - Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Universal screening for GBS among women at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation is more effective than administration of intrapartum antibiotics based on risk factors. Lower vaginal and rectal cultures for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0301/p903.html

Examination of the Placenta - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 1998 - A one-minute examination of the placenta performed in the delivery room provides information that may be important to the care of both mother and infant. The findings of this assessment should be documented in the delivery records. During the examination, the size, shape, consistency ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0301/p1045.html

Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2008 - The second stage of labor is a dynamic event that may require assistance when maternal efforts fail to effect delivery or when there are nonreassuring fetal heart tones. Therefore, knowing how to perform an operative vaginal delivery with forceps or vacuum is vital for family physicians...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/p953.html

Discharge Procedures for Healthy Newborns - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2006 - Physicians should use a checklist to facilitate discussions with new parents before discharging their healthy newborn from the hospital. The checklist should include information on breastfeeding, warning signs of illness, and ways to keep the child healthy and safe. Physicians can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0301/p849.html

Dystocia in Nulliparous Women - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2007 - Dystocia is common in nulliparous women and is responsible for more than 50 percent of primary cesarean deliveries. Because cesarean delivery rates continue to rise, physicians providing maternity care should be skilled in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of dystocia. If labor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0601/p1671.html

Management of Pregnancy Beyond 40 Weeks' Gestation - American Family Physician

May 15, 2005 - A post-term or prolonged pregnancy is one that reaches 42 weeks' gestation; approximately 5 to 10 percent of pregnancies are post-term. Studies have shown a reduction in the number of pregnancies considered post-term when early ultrasound dating is performed. Maternal and fetal risks ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1935.html

The Nature and Management of Labor Pain: Part I. Nonpharmacologic Pain Relief - ...

Sep 15, 2003 - Pain in labor is a nearly universal experience for childbearing women. A recent evidence-based symposium on the nature and management of labor pain brought together family physicians, obstetricians, midwives, obstetric anesthesiologists, and childbirth educators to discuss a series of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1109.html

Returning to Work While Breastfeeding - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2003 - Mothers who work outside the home initiate breastfeeding at the same rate as mothers who stay at home. However, the breastfeeding continuance rate declines sharply in mothers who return to work. While the work environment may be less than ideal for the breastfeeding mother, obstacles ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1201/p2201.html

Epidural Analgesia During Labor - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 1998 - Epidural analgesia is a commonly employed technique of providing pain relief during labor. The number of parturients given intrapartum epidural analgesia is reported to be over 50 percent at many institutions in the United States. The procedure has few contraindications, the primary ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1115/p1785.html

Management of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2001 - Fetal macrosomia, arbitrarily defined as a birth weight of more than 4,000 g (8 lb, 13 oz) complicates more than 10 percent of all pregnancies in the United States. It is associated with increased risks of cesarean section and trauma to the birth canal and the fetus. Fetal macrosomia is...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0115/p302.html

Preterm Labor: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

May 15, 1998 - Preterm labor and delivery are among the most challenging obstetric complications encountered by the family physician. In the United States, preterm delivery affects approximately one in 10 births and is the cause of at least 75 percent of neonatal deaths, excluding those related to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0515/p2457.html

Prevention of Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Infection - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 1998 - Neonatal group B streptococcal infection is the primary cause of neonatal morbidity related to infection. It can often be prevented by identifying and treating pregnant women who carry group B streptococci or who are at highest risk of transmitting the bacteria to newborns. Increasing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0601/p2713.html

Transcervical Amnioinfusion - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 1998 - Amnioinfusion is being used to treat intrapartum problems known to be associated with fetal compromise, including prophylactic treatment of oligohydramnios during labor and after premature rupture of the membranes, treatment of severe variable decelerations during labor and reducing the...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0201/p504.html

Postpartum Major Depression: Detection and Treatment - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 1999 - Postpartum major depression occurs in approximately one of 10 childbearing women and is considerably underdiagnosed. If left untreated, the disorder can have serious adverse effects on the mother and her relationship with significant others, and on the child's emotional and psychologic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0415/p2247.html

Promoting and Supporting Breast-Feeding - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2000 - The family physician can significantly influence a mother's decision to breast-feed. Prenatal support, hospital management and subsequent pediatric and maternal visits are all-important components of breast-feeding promotion. Prenatal encouragement increases breast-feeding rates and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2093.html

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