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Medicine by the numbers

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Flexible Sigmoidoscopy or Fecal Occult Blood Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening in...

Aug 1, 2019 - This meta-analysis provides high-quality evidence that flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood testing both reduce the risk of death from colorectal cancer. The study did not provide a clear answer regarding a superior screening modality, so the decision to choose one test over ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/od1.html

Evaluation of Patients with Leukocytosis - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2015 - An elevated white blood cell count has many potential etiologies, including malignant and nonmalignant causes. It is important to use age- and pregnancy-specific normal ranges for the white blood cell count. A repeat complete blood count with peripheral smear may provide helpful ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1201/p1004.html

Primary Care of Breast Cancer Survivors - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p370.html

Evaluation of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2015 - A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common radiologic finding that is often discovered incidentally and may require significant workup to establish a definitive diagnosis. A solitary pulmonary nodule is a well-circumscribed round lesion measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and surrounded by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1215/p1084.html

Oncologic Emergencies: Recognition and Initial Management - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2018 - Most oncologic emergencies can be classified as metabolic, hematologic, structural, or treatment related. Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency that presents as severe electrolyte abnormalities. Stabilization is focused on vigorous rehydration, maintaining urine output, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/p741.html

HPV Vaccine for Prevention of High-Grade Precancerous Cervical Lesions - Medicine by ...

Apr 1, 2019 - Data suggest the benefits of HPV vaccination for reducing precancerous lesions outweigh the potential harms. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/od1.html

Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2017 - Multiple myeloma accounts for 1.6% of all cancer cases and approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. In 2015, an estimated 28,850 new cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed in the United States, and the disease caused more than 11,000 deaths. Patients older ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0315/p373.html

Primary Care of the Prostate Cancer Survivor - American Family Physician

May 1, 2016 - This summary of the American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines targets primary care physicians who coordinate care of prostate cancer survivors with subspecialists. Prostate cancer survivors should undergo prostate-specific antigen screening every six to 12 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0501/p764.html

Bone Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment Principles - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2018 - Primary bone cancers include osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. They account for less than 1% of diagnosed cancers each year and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis is challenging because of late patient presentation, nonspecific ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p205.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Prevention - American Family Physician

May 15, 2018 - Colorectal cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Most colorectal cancers arise from preexisting adenomatous or serrated polyps. The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer can be reduced with screening of average-risk adults 50 to 75 years of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/p658.html

Atypical Moles: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2015 - Atypical moles are benign pigmented lesions. Although they are benign, they exhibit some of the clinical and histologic features of malignant melanoma. They are more common in fair-skinned individuals and in those with high sun exposure. Atypical moles are characterized by size of 6 mm ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p762.html

Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - In the United States, prostate cancer will be diagnosed in one out of seven men in his lifetime. Most cases are localized, and only one in 39 men will die from the disease. Prostate cancer is most often detected using serum prostate-specific antigen testing. The National Comprehensive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p798.html

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillance in Individuals at Increased Risk - ...

Jan 15, 2018 - Individuals at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer include those with a personal or family history of advanced adenomas or colorectal cancer, a personal history of inflammatory bowel disease, or genetic polyposis syndromes. In general, these persons should undergo more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0115/p111.html

Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2017 - Bladder cancer is the sixth most prevalent malignancy in the United States and causes more than 16,000 deaths annually. The most common clinical presentation is asymptomatic hematuria, which should prompt evaluation with cystoscopy, renal function testing, and upper urinary tract ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1015/p507.html

Surveillance of the Adult Cancer Survivor - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2015 - The term cancer survivor refers to anyone living with a diagnosis of cancer. As the U.S. population ages, cancer screening increases, and cancer treatments improve, millions more Americans will be classified as cancer survivors in the future. Although many survivors wish to continue ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0101/p29.html

Prostate Cancer Screening - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2015 - Among American men, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has been used to screen for prostate cancer for more than 25 years, the test has low sensitivity and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1015/p683.html

Screening for Cancer: Concepts and Controversies - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2014 - Early detection of cancer is a core task in family medicine, and patients have come to expect screening tests, sometimes out of proportion to what evidence can justify. To understand the controversies surrounding screening and to provide sound advice to patients, family physicians ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/1101/p625.html

Diagnosis and Management of Adnexal Masses - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2016 - Adnexal masses can have gynecologic or nongynecologic etiologies, ranging from normal luteal cysts to ovarian cancer to bowel abscesses. Women who report abdominal or pelvic pain, increased abdominal size or bloating, difficulty eating, or rapid satiety that occurs more than 12 times ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0415/p676.html

Cervical Cancer: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2018 - Human papillomavirus infection is the precursor for the development of cervical cancer and is detectable in 99.7% of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Early detection of precancerous lesions with Papanicolaou testing remains the primary mechanism for cancer prevention. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p449.html

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Treatment Principles, and Screening - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2015 - Lung cancer is classified histologically into small cell and non–small cell lung cancers. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and systemic symptoms such as weight loss and anorexia. High-risk patients who present with symptoms should undergo chest ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0215/p250.html

Esophageal Cancer - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2017 - Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis and high mortality rate, with an estimated 16,910 new cases and 15,910 deaths projected in 2016 in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma account for more than 95% of esophageal cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p22.html

Managing the Adverse Effects of Radiation Therapy - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2010 - Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0815/p381.html

Cancer Screening in Older Patients - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2016 - Although cancer is the second leading cause of death among persons 65 years and older, there is a paucity of clinical trial data about the effectiveness and harms of cancer screening in this population. Given the heterogeneous nature of the older population, cancer screening in these ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0415/p659.html

PSA Screening for Prostate Cancer - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family Physician

May 1, 2015 - Studies show no deaths were prevented and 1 in 5 underwent a prostate biopsy for a false-positive test. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0501/od3.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Basal Cell and Squamous Cell Carcinoma - American Family ...

Jul 15, 2012 - Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0715/p161.html

Breast Cancer Screening Update - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - Breast cancer is the most common non–skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in North American women. Mammography is the only screening test shown to reduce breast cancer–related mortality. There is general agreement that screening should be offered at least biennially ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p274.html

Common Questions About Barrett Esophagus - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2014 - Barrett esophagus is a precancerous metaplasia of the esophagus that is more common in patients with chronic reflux symptoms, although it also occurs in patients without symptomatic reflux. Other risk factors include smoking, male sex, obesity, white race, hiatal hernia, and increasing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p92.html

Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma: A Primary Care Perspective - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2012 - Cutaneous malignant melanoma accounts for 3 to 5 percent of all skin cancers and is responsible for approximately 75 percent of all deaths from skin cancer. Persons with an increased number of moles, dysplastic (also called atypical) nevi, or a family history of the disease are at ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0115/p161.html

Role of the Primary Care Physician in Hodgkin Lymphoma - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2008 - Approximately 8,200 new cases of Hodgkin lymphoma are diagnosed annually in the United States. Common presenting features include painless lymphadenopathy (usually above the diaphragm), cough, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. To decrease late complications, treatment has gradually ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p615.html

Human Papillomavirus: Clinical Manifestations and Prevention - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2010 - Human papillomaviruses cause the most common sexually trans- mitted infection in the world and are responsible for nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Genital human papillomavirus infection can be divided into low-risk infections (causing genital warts) and high-risk infections ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1115/p1209.html

Treatment of Breast Cancer - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2010 - Understanding breast cancer treatment options can help family physicians care for their patients during and after cancer treatment. This article reviews typical treatments based on stage, histology, and biomarkers. Lobular carcinoma in situ does not require treatment. Ductal carcinoma ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0601/p1339.html

Primary Care of the Patient with Cancer - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Care of patients with cancer can be enhanced by continued involvement of the primary care physician. The physician's role may include informing the patient of the diagnosis, helping with decisions about treatment, providing psychological support, treating intercurrent disease, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1207.html

Ovarian Cancer: An Overview - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2009 - Although ovarian cancer may occur at any age, it is more common in patients older than 50 years. Patients often present with nonspecific pelvic or abdominal symptoms. Initial diagnostic tests include transvaginal ultrasonography and serum cancer antigen 125 measurement; however, these ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0915/p609.html

Should Family Physicians Routinely Screen for Lung Cancer in High-Risk Populations? ...

Jul 15, 2014 - When offered to the appropriate population in the appropriate context, CT-based lung cancer screening will reduce the number of deaths caused by this difficult disease.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/od2.html

Colonoscopy Surveillance After Polypectomy and Colorectal Cancer Resection - American ...

Apr 1, 2008 - This article describes a joint update of guidelines by the American Cancer Society and the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer delineating evidence-based surveillance recommendations for patients after polypectomy and colorectal cancer resection. Although there are some ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p995.html

Cancer Screening in the Older Patient - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2008 - Although there are clear guidelines that advise at what age to begin screening for various cancers, there is less guidance concerning when it may be appropriate to stop screening. The decision to stop screening must take into account patients' age; overall health and life expectancy; ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1215/p1369.html

Colorectal Cancer: A Summary of the Evidence for Screening and Prevention - American ...

Dec 15, 2008 - Colorectal cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States. The incidence of colorectal cancer can be reduced with increasing efforts directed at mass screening of average-risk adults 50 years and older. Currently, fecal occult blood test and flexible ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1215/p1385.html

Prostate Cancer Screening: The Continuing Controversy - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2008 - Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with a lifetime prevalence of 17 percent. Prostate cancer symptoms generally occur in advanced stages, making early detection desirable. Digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen testing are the most commonly used ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1215/p1377.html

Prophylactic Vaccination Against Human Papillomavirus to Prevent Cervical Cancer and ...

Jan 1, 2019 - HPV vaccination in women 15 to 26 years of age prevents the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN 3 in women regardless of previous HPV exposure (number needed to treat [NNT] = 39). No serious adverse effects are associated with administration of the HPV ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p15.html

Lymphadenopathy and Malignancy - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2002 - The majority of patients presenting with peripheral lymphadenopathy have easily identifiable causes that are benign or self-limited. Among primary care patients presenting with lymphadenopathy, the prevalence of malignancy has been estimated to be as low as 1.1 percent. The critical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1201/p2103.html

Primary Brain Tumors in Adults - American Family Physician

May 15, 2008 - Primary malignant brain tumors account for 2 percent of all cancers in U.S. adults. The most common malignant brain tumor is glioblastoma multiforme, and patients with this type of tumor have a poor prognosis. Previous exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation is the only proven ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0515/p1423.html

Recent Advances in Radiation Therapy - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2008 - Recent advances have improved the effectiveness, decreased the complications, and expanded the implications of radiation therapy. These advances include three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1254.html

Anticoagulation for the Long-term Treatment of VTE in Patients with Cancer - Cochrane ...

Jun 1, 2019 - Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), vitamin K antagonists, and direct oral anticoagulants, when used to prevent recurrent VTE, have a similar impact on all-cause mortality.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/p676.html

Screening for Cervical Cancer: Recommendation Statement - U.S. Preventive Services Task...

Feb 15, 2019 - The USPSTF recommends screening for cervical cancer every 3 years with cervical cytology alone in women aged 21 to 29 years. For women aged 30 to 65 years, the USPSTF recommends screening every 3 years with cervical cytology alone, every 5 years with high-risk human papillomavirus ...

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0215/od1.html

Should Screening Techniques for Colorectal Cancer All Have an 'A' Recommendation? No: ...

May 15, 2017 - The AAFP will continue to evaluate different screening tests as more research becomes available, but currently can endorse only those options that have the strongest evidence that benefits exceed harms.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p618.html

Esophageal Cancer: A Review and Update - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2006 - Although significant advancements have been made in the treatment of esophageal cancer, this aggressive malignancy commonly presents as locally advanced disease with a poor prognosis. Despite improvements in the detection of premalignant pathology, newer preventative strategies, and the...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2187.html

Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2006 - Although only 32,000 new cases of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas occur in the United States each year, it is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in this country. The overall five-year survival rate is 4 percent, and localized, resectable disease has only a 17 percent survival ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p485.html

Assessing Breast Cancer Risk in Women - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2008 - Understanding modifiable and nonmodifiable factors that increase or decrease breast cancer risk allows family physicians to counsel women appropriately. Nonmodifiable factors associated with increased breast cancer risk include advanced age, female sex, family history of breast cancer, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1215/p1361.html

Cancer - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on cancer and related issues, including various types (breast, cervical, childhood, colorectal, lung, oral, ovarian, prostate, skin, testicular, and other types of cancer). This collection features AFP content on cancer and related issues, including ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=31

Lifestyle Interventions to Reduce Cancer Risk and Improve Outcomes - American Family ...

Jun 1, 2008 - There are more than one half million cancer deaths in the United States each year, and one third of these deaths are attributed to suboptimal diet and physical activity practices. Maintaining a healthy weight, staying physically active throughout life, and consuming a healthy diet can ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0601/p1573.html

Screening for Cancer: Evaluating the Evidence - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2001 - Many patients expect to undergo screening tests for cancer. In evaluating screening procedures, physicians must take into account the known effects of lead time, length and screening biases, all of which can result in an overestimation of the benefits of screening. The gold standard by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0201/p513.html

Retinoblastoma - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2006 - Retinoblastoma, a neuroblastic tumor, is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. Patients usually present with leukokoria (white reflex or white pupil), detected in primary care. The mean age at diagnosis is 12 months for bilateral tumors and 24 months for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1039.html

Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer: Evaluating the Evidence - American Family Physician

May 15, 2005 - Controversy surrounds the management options for localized prostate cancer-conservative management, prostatectomy, and radiation. Choosing among these options is difficult because of long-term side effects that include sexual, urinary, and bowel dysfunction. Some recent studies suggest ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0515/p1915.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Testicular Cancer - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2008 - Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men 20 to 35 years of age and has an annual incidence of four per 100,000. If diagnosed early, the cure rate is nearly 99 percent. Risk factors for testicular cancer include cryptorchidism (i.e., undescended testicles), family history, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/p469.html

Evaluation and Management of the AGUS Papanicolaou Smear - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2001 - Atypical glandular cells on Papanicolaou smears are an unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The Bethesda system classifies atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) as glandular cells that demonstrate nuclear atypia appearing to exceed reactive or reparative ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0601/p2239.html

Gastric Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2004 - Although the overall incidence of gastric cancer has steadily declined in the United States, it is estimated that more than 12,000 persons died from gastric cancer in 2003. The incidence of distal stomach tumors has greatly declined, but reported cases of proximal gastric carcinomas, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1133.html

Screening Mammography: The Goal Is Changing - Editorials - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2013 - Screening mammography is one of an increasing number of clinical issues that will require rethinking the clinical mission and restructuring clinical practice to help patients make informed choices.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0215/p246.html

Screening for Breast Cancer: Current Recommendations and Future Directions - American ...

Jun 1, 2007 - Breast cancer is one of the most significant health concerns in the United States. Recent reviews have questioned the value of traditional breast cancer screening methods. Breast self-examination has been shown not to improve cancer-specific or all-cause mortality in large studies, but ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0601/p1660.html

Lung Cancer: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2007 - Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with an average five-year survival rate of 15 percent. Smoking remains the predominant risk factor for lung cancer. Lung cancers are categorized as small cell carcinoma or non-small cell carcinoma (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0101/p56.html

Carcinoid Tumors - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2006 - Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine neoplasms that often are indolent and may not become clinically apparent until there has been metastatic spread or evidence of carcinoid syndrome. Recent evidence has revealed that the overall incidence of carcinoid tumors has been ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0801/p429.html

The 2001 Bethesda System Terminology - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2003 - The 2001 Bethesda System for reporting cervical or vaginal cytologic diagnoses is an incremental change in the uniform terminology introduced in 1988 and revised in 1991. The 2001 Bethesda System includes specific statements about specimen adequacy, general categorization, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1115/p1992.html

Diagnosis and Management of the Adnexal Mass - American Family Physician

May 15, 1998 - Adnexal masses are frequently found in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. In premenopausal women, physiologic follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts are the most common adnexal masses, but the possibility of ectopic pregnancy must always be considered. Other masses in this age ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0515/p2471.html

Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer - Putting Prevention into Practice - ...

Jul 15, 2018 - A 25-year-old Irish American woman presents for a wellness visit for herself and her two young children, a two-year-old boy and a seven-month-old girl. All three have fair skin, red hair, and freckles. She reports that she is looking forward to an upcoming family vacation to the ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0715/p105.html

Cutaneous Melanoma: Update on Prevention, Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment - ...

Jul 15, 2005 - Melanoma is an increasingly common malignancy, and it affects a younger population than most cancers. Risk factors for melanoma include white race, sun sensitivity, family history of melanoma, and melanocytic nevi. Sunburn and intermittent sun exposure appear to increase the risk of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0715/p269.html

Vulvar Cancer - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2002 - Vulvar cancer was reported in 3,200 women in 1998, resulting in 800 deaths. Recent evidence suggests that vulvar cancer comprises two separate diseases. The first type may develop from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia caused by human papillomavirus infection and is increasing in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1001/p1269.html

How to Counsel Men About PSA Screening - Editorials - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2016 - For family physicians to put PSA screening guidance into practice, they must elicit patients' preferences and provide accurate, understandable information about the benefits and harms.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p782.html

ACS/ASCCP/ASCP Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cervical Cancer - Editorials - ...

Sep 15, 2012 - The American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) recently published updated recommendations for the early detection of cervical cancer. The guidelines are based on a systematic ...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0915/p501.html

Nasopharyngeal Cancer and the Southeast Asian Patient - American Family Physician

May 1, 2001 - Because of a documented increased incidence, nasopharyngeal cancer should be considered when signs or symptoms of ear, nose and throat disease are present in patients from southern China (in particular, Hong Kong and the province of Guangdong) or Southeast Asia. Environmental factors, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0501/p1776.html

Screening for Ovarian Cancer - Putting Prevention into Practice - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2018 - A 61-year-old woman presents to your office for a well-woman examination. She had a normal Papanicolaou (Pap) test last year and has no medical problems. She quit smoking 10 years ago, reports a family history significant only for cardiovascular disease, and is sexually active with her ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p813.html

Diethylstilbestrol Exposure - American Family Physician

May 15, 2004 - Diethylstilbestrol is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen that was used to prevent miscarriage and other pregnancy complications between 1938 and 1971 in the United States. In 1971, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a warning about the use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0515/p2395.html

New Tests for Cervical Cancer Screening - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2001 - The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has been used to screen women for cervical cancer since 1940. Recently, a number of new technologies have been developed to improve the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. However, there is substantial controversy about whether the new tests ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0901/p780.html

Screening for Breast Cancer - Putting Prevention into Practice - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - S.O. is a 47-year-old woman who presents to your office for a well-woman visit. She is healthy, takes no medications, and has no health concerns. She has never been diagnosed with breast cancer, nor have any of her first-degree relatives. Her digital mammography two years ago was ...

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p143.html

Neurologic Complications of Prostate Cancer - American Family Physician

May 1, 2002 - Neurologic complications continue to pose problems in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. From 15 to 30 percent of metastases are the result of prostate cancer cells traveling through Batson's plexus to the lumbar spine. Metastatic disease in the lumbar area can cause spinal cord ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0501/p1834.html

Early Detection and Treatment of Skin Cancer - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2000 - The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. Squamous cell cancers may be preceded by actinic keratoses-premalignant lesions that are treated with cryotherapy, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0715/p357.html

Mammography Screening for Breast Cancer: Recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services...

Sep 15, 2010 - The November 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation for breast cancer screening, while sparking much controversy, was not a radical departure from the previous 2002 recommendation. The USPSTF approached the recommendation update with the basic questions of what...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0915/p602.html

Vitamin D Is Not Effective as Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease or Cancer - ...

Sep 15, 2019 - Vitamin D supplementation does not prevent cardiovascular events or cancer in mostly nondiabetic adults (men 50 years and older, women 55 years and older).

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p374.html

Prevention and Early Detection of Malignant Melanoma - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2000 - In addressing the problem of malignant melanoma, family physicians should emphasize primary prevention. This includes educating patients about the importance of avoiding excessive sun exposure and preventing sunburns, and advising them about the importance of prompt self-referral for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1115/p2277.html

Does Screening Mammography Lead to Overdiagnosis of Invasive Breast Cancer? - AFP ...

Mar 15, 2013 - Implementation of a universal mammographic screening program leads to an increase in the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer, because of improved detection of clinically significant cancer and overdiagnosis.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0315/p408.html

Care of Cancer Survivors - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2005 - Cancer survivors are at increased risk for recurrence of their original malignancy; development of second primary malignancies; and medical, developmental, and psychologic problems resulting from cancer therapy, genetic predisposition to cancer, and other risk factors. Surveillance ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0215/p699.html

Breast Cancer in Older Women - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 1998 - The American Geriatric Society currently recommends screening mammography for women up to 85 years of age whose life expectancy is three years or longer. The value of clinical breast examinations in older women needs further study. Total mastectomy and partial mastectomy with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1001/p1163.html

Interventional Radiology in Cancer Patients - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2000 - Procedures performed by an interventional radiology specialist are becoming increasingly important in the management of patients with cancer. Although general interventional radiology procedures such as angiography and angioplasty are used in patients with and without cancer, certain ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0701/p95.html

Recognition of Common Childhood Malignancies - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2000 - Although cancer has an annual incidence of only about 150 new cases per 1 million U.S. children, it is the second leading cause of childhood deaths. Early detection and prompt therapy have the potential to reduce mortality. Leukemias, lymphomas and central nervous system tumors account ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2144.html

Osteosarcoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family...

Mar 15, 2002 - The treatment of osteosarcoma requires a multidisciplinary approach involving the family physician, orthopedic oncologist, medical oncologist, radiologist and pathologist. Osteosarcoma is a mesenchymally derived, high-grade bone sarcoma. It is the third most common malignancy in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0315/p1123.html

Update on Colorectal Cancer - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2000 - An estimated 129,400 new cases of colorectal cancer occurred in the United States during 1999. The lifetime risk of developing this cancer is 2.5 to 5 percent in the general population but two to three times higher in persons who have a first-degree relative with colon cancer or an ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0315/p1759.html

One in Five Patients Overdiagnosed with Lung Cancer Screening - POEMs - American Family...

Jul 15, 2014 - In patients screened for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), more than 18% of all lung cancers found are slow-growing and will not cause symptoms or harm during an average 6.4 years of follow-up. This risk of overdiagnosis should be part of the discussion regarding ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0715/p112.html

Effect of Mammography on Breast Cancer Mortality - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Dec 1, 2011 - Although mammography can lead to false-positive results, emotional stress, and unnecessary biopsies, it appears to reduce deaths from breast cancer by about 15 percent.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1225.html

Cervical Cancer - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2000 - Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer. A preponderance of evidence supports a causal link between human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia. The presence of high-risk human papillomavirus genital subtypes increases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0301/p1369.html

Prostate Cancer Screening: More Harm Than Good? - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 1998 - The American Cancer Society and other national medical organizations emphasize the need for routine screening for prostate cancer in men over the age of 50. The serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay is the test most commonly recommended for the purpose of screening. However, when ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0801/p432.html

Neurological Complications of Systemic Cancer - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 1999 - Neurologic complications occur frequently in patients with cancer. After routine chemotherapy, these complications are the most common reason for hospitalization of these patients. Brain metastases are the most prevalent complication, affecting 20 to 40 percent of cancer patients and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0215/p878.html

CIN Treatment May Increase Miscarriages but Does Not Affect Fertility - POEMs - ...

Apr 1, 2015 - In this analysis of 15 observational studies (it would be difficult and unethical to do randomized research on this topic), excision using any method for CIN did not affect fertility, although second trimester miscarriages were more likely. A study published at the same time found the ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p490.html

Routine Aspirin or Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs for the Primary Prevention of ...

Jul 1, 2007 - This statement summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations on routine aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the primary prevention of colorectal cancer and the supporting scientific evidence.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0701/p109.html

Screening for Ovarian Cancer - Putting Prevention into Practice - American Family ...

May 15, 2013 - Case study: A 55-year-old woman presents for a routine well-woman examination. She states that she is worried about ovarian cancer because one of her friends was recently diagnosed. She has no family history of breast, ovarian, or colon cancer.

American Family Physician : Putting Prevention into Practice

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0515/p709.html

Pioglitazone Exposure Increases Bladder Cancer Risk - POEMs - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2014 - This review of all available data found a significantly increased risk of bladder cancer among adults with type 2 diabetes treated with pioglitazone. Pioglitazone also significantly increases the risk of heart failure, and there is minimal, if any, patient-oriented evidence of benefit ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p136.html

Sunscreen Use for Skin Cancer Prevention - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American Family ...

Oct 15, 2010 - Daily sunscreen use reduces the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma but not the incidence of basal cell carcinoma.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p989.html

Exercise for the Management of Cancer-Related Fatigue - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2009 - Aerobic and resistance-training exercise programs lead to decreased overall fatigue and an improved quality of life during and after treatment of cancer.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1001/p689.html

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy: Screening for Colorectal Cancer - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 1999 - ...3). Typically, two of these semilunar folds are located on the patient's left side, and one is located on the right side. However, the number and location of these folds may vary.12 View/Print Figure FIGURE 3. Rectal folds. FIGURE 3. Rectal folds. The translucency of the rectal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0315/p1537.html

Quadrivalent HPV Recombinant Vaccine (Gardasil) for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer -...

Aug 15, 2007 - The HPV vaccine is safe and effective in preventing genital warts and cervical changes that may lead to cervical cancer, and it is recommended as part of the vaccination series in females 11 to 12 years of age. It can be given to females as young as 9 or 10 years of age, and catch-up ...

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0815/p573.html

When Is the Right Time to Repeat Colonoscopy? - Editorials - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2008 - ...VIKRAM BOOLCHAND, MD, University of Arizona College of Medicine Tucson, Arizona Am Fam Physician. 2008 Apr 1;77(7):924-926. Related Article Post-polypectomy and post-cancer resection surveillance are the most common indications for performing colonoscopy.1 A summary of the new...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p924.html

Screening Mammography for Reducing Breast Cancer Mortality - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries ...

Jan 15, 2012 - Screening mammography reduces breast cancer mortality in women 40 to 49 years of age who have an average risk of breast cancer.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0115/p176.html

Screening for Breast Cancer: What to Do with the Evidence - Editorials - American ...

Jun 1, 2007 - ...RUSSELL HARRIS, MD, MPH, University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Am Fam Physician. 2007 Jun 1;75(11):1623-1626. Related Article Related Practice Guideline For many of the conditions we encounter in primary care, there is insufficient evidence...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0601/p1623.html

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