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Medicine by the numbers

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Treatment of the Common Cold - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2019 - Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p281.html

Otitis Media: Rapid Evidence Review - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis in childhood acute sick visits. By three years of age, 50% to 85% of children will have at least one episode of AOM. Symptoms may include ear pain (rubbing, tugging, or holding the ear may be a sign of pain), fever, irritability, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0915/p350.html

Antibiotics for Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Because of the relatively high rate of reported adverse effects and the high likelihood of resolution of symptoms with supportive care and symptomatic management, the authors recommend selective antibiotic use in patients with acute sinusitis. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/od1.html

Audiometry Screening and Interpretation - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2013 - The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p41.html

Acute Otitis Externa: An Update - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2012 - Acute otitis externa is a common condition involving inflammation of the ear canal. The acute form is caused primarily by bacterial infection, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus the most common pathogens. Acute otitis externa presents with the rapid onset of ear canal...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1055.html

Current Concepts in Adult Acute Rhinosinusitis - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2016 - Acute rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions that physicians treat in ambulatory care. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by viral upper respiratory infections. A meta-analysis based on individual patient data found that common clinical signs and symptoms were ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0715/p97.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2017 - Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep infection of the head and neck, occurring primarily in young adults. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical presentation and examination. Symptoms and findings generally include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, and a hot ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0415/p501.html

Diagnostic Approach to Patients with Tinnitus - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2014 - Tinnitus, a common symptom encountered in family medicine, is defined as the perception of noise in the absence of an acoustic stimulus outside of the body. Because tinnitus is a symptom and not a disease, its underlying cause must be determined to best help patients. Although tinnitus ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0115/p106.html

Hoarseness in Adults - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2017 - Hoarseness is a common presentation in primary care practices. Combined with other voice-related changes, it falls under the umbrella diagnosis of dysphonia. Hoarseness has a number of causes, ranging from simple inflammatory processes to less common psychiatric disorders to more ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1201/p720.html

Antibiotics for Otitis Media in Children - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family ...

Jun 15, 2018 - This meta-analysis concludes that the risk of a prolonged course of antibiotics was twice as high for children younger than two years with bilateral acute otitis media than for children two years and older with unilateral acute otitis media, indicating that antibiotics might be ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/od3.html

Epistaxis: Outpatient Management - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2018 - Epistaxis is a common emergency encountered by primary care physicians. Up to 60% of the general population experience epistaxis, and 6% seek medical attention for it. More than 90% of cases arise from the anterior nasal circulation, and most treatments can be easily performed in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0815/p240.html

Common Tongue Conditions in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2010 - Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0301/p627.html

Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - American Family Physician

May 1, 2011 - Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common conditions for which patients seek medical care. Subtypes of rhinosinusitis include acute, subacute, recurrent acute, and chronic. Acute rhinosinusitis is further specified as bacterial or viral. Most cases of acute rhinosinusitis are caused by ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0501/p1057.html

Smell and Taste Disorders in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2013 - Smell and taste disorders can be challenging to diagnose because of the large number of potential etiologies. Patients are often unable to provide a clear history of symptoms, because they frequently cannot distinguish between difficulties with smell and taste. Standardized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/p852.html

Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Throat - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2007 - Foreign bodies in the ear, nose, and throat are occasionally seen in family medicine, usually in children. The most common foreign bodies are food, plastic toys, and small household items. Diagnosis is often delayed because the causative event is usually unobserved, the symptoms are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1015/p1185.html

Ear and Hearing Disorders - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on ear and hearing disorders and related issues, including hearing loss, otitis externa, otitis media, and tinnitus. This collection features AFP content on ear and hearing disorders and related issues, including hearing loss, otitis ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=98

Hearing Loss in Older Adults - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2012 - Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1150.html

Common Dental Infections in the Primary Care Setting - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2008 - Family physicians commonly encounter patients with dental infections, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Dental caries is caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin; it can be detected by an oral examination that shows stained pits or fissures on the tooth ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0315/p797.html

Cerumen Impaction - American Family Physician

May 15, 2007 - Cerumen is a naturally occurring, normally extruded product of the external auditory canal. It is usually asymptomatic, but when it becomes impacted it can cause complications such as hearing loss, pain, or dizziness. It also can interfere with examination of the tympanic membrane. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0515/p1523.html

Common Oral Conditions in Older Persons - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2008 - Older persons are at risk of chronic diseases of the mouth, including dental infections (e.g., caries, periodontitis), tooth loss, benign mucosal lesions, and oral cancer. Other common oral conditions in this population are xerostomia (dry mouth) and oral candidiasis, which may lead to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p845.html

Peritonsillar Abscess: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2002 - Peritonsillar abscess, the most common deep infection of the head and neck that occurs in adults, is typically formed by a combination of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The presenting symptoms include fever, throat pain, and trismus. Ultrasonography and computed tomographic scanning ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0101/p93.html

Peritonsillar Abscess - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2008 - Peritonsillar abscess remains the most common deep infection of the head and neck. The condition occurs primarily in young adults, most often during November to December and April to May, coinciding with the highest incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and exudative tonsillitis. A ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0115/p199.html

Smell and Taste Disorders: A Primary Care Approach - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2000 - Smell and taste disorders are common in the general population, with loss of smell occurring more frequently. Although these disorders can have a substantial impact on quality of life and may represent significant underlying disease, they are often overlooked by the medical community. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0115/p427.html

Universal Newborn Hearing Screening - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Congenital hearing loss is estimated to affect one in every 1,000 newborns. Causes of hearing loss can be conductive, sensorineural, mixed, or central. Known risk factors for congenital hearing loss include cytomegalovirus infection and premature birth necessitating a stay in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1349.html

A Practical Guide to Infant Oral Health - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Early childhood caries is the most common chronic disease in young children and may develop as soon as teeth erupt. Bacteria, predominately mutans streptococci, metabolize simple sugars to produce acid that demineralizes teeth, resulting in cavities. Physicians should examine children's...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2113.html

Interventions to Facilitate Shared Decision Making to Address Antibiotic Use for Acute ...

Jan 1, 2017 - Interventions to facilitate shared decision making reduce the prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections in the short term (within six weeks of the consultation) without increasing return visits or decreasing patient satisfaction (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p11.html

Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Primary Care - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Obstructive sleep apnea should be suspected in patients who are overweight snore loudly, and have chronic daytime sleepiness. The diagnosis of sleep apnea may be confirmed by sleep laboratory studies. Patients' symptoms and the frequency of respiratory events on laboratory testing are ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p561.html

Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Respiratory Infections - FPIN's ...

Jul 1, 2016 - A procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy algorithm should be used to decrease antibiotic use in adults with acute respiratory infections. The use of a procalcitonin-guided therapy algorithm reduces antibiotic use by 3.47 days without increasing morbidity or mortality in adults with ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0701/p53.html

Capsaicin for Nonallergic Rhinitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2016 - Intranasal capsaicin is safe and effective for reducing symptoms of nonallergic rhinitis (number needed to treat = 4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 to 22). There is insufficient evidence to compare the effectiveness of capsaicin to other topical or systemic medications.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p217.html

Viral Croup - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2004 - Viral croup is the most common form of airway obstruction in children six months to six years of age. The frightening nature of croup often prompts parents and caregivers to seek physician consultation. For children with mild croup, symptomatic care and mist therapy may be all that is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0201/p535.html

Corticosteroids for the Treatment of Sore Throat - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jan 1, 2014 - In adults with suspected bacterial pharyngitis who require antibiotic therapy, adding a corticosteroid may increase the likelihood of complete pain resolution at 24 hours. Further study is needed to assess the safety of corticosteroids and whether they can be recommended for presumed ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p14.html

Antibiotics for Sore Throat - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2014 - Compared with placebo, antibiotics can shorten the duration of sore throat symptoms by about 16 hours and can reduce complications. In countries where the absolute rates of complications are higher, antibiotic therapy is more likely to be effective. The effectiveness of antibiotic ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0701/p23.html

Burning Mouth Syndrome - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2002 - Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue or other oral sites, usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. Burning mouth ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0215/p615.html

Should Children with Acute Otitis Media Routinely be Treated with Antibiotics? No: Most...

Oct 1, 2013 - The evidence supports the use of antibiotics only in certain clinical situations and avoidance of antibiotics in certain children with AOM.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1001/od2.html

Antibiotics for Acute Otitis Media in Young Children: The Case of the Shifting End ...

Jan 15, 2012 - A discussion of why the conclusion of a high-profile study, which suggests that antibiotics are beneficial in children six to 23 months of age with acute otitis media, is incorrect.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0115/p104.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Swallowing Impairments - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2000 - Swallowing disorders are common, especially in the elderly, and may cause dehydration, weight loss, aspiration pneumonia and airway obstruction. These disorders may affect the oral preparatory, oral propulsive, pharyngeal and/or esophageal phases of swallowing. Impaired swallowing, or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0415/p2453.html

Steroids for the Treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion in Children - Cochrane for ...

Feb 1, 2012 - Oral steroid use, alone or in combination with antibiotics, speeds the resolution of otitis media with effusion. However, there is no evidence that oral steroids improve symptoms or affect long-term outcomes, such as hearing loss. Topical nasal steroids have no effect on otitis media ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p235.html

Chronic Sinusitis: Saline Irrigation Helps Somewhat; Steroid Does Not Add More Benefit ...

Feb 1, 2019 - This study showed that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who continue to use a saline nasal wash (NeilMed) will often experience an improvement in symptoms that can be clinically meaningful, but the addition of the corticosteroid budesonide has yet to show an extra benefit.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p188.html

Caring for Older Patients Who Have Significant Hearing Loss - Curbside Consultation - ...

Mar 1, 2013 - This scenario illustrates issues related to end-of-life care and placement in a long-term care facility for older individuals with significant hearing loss. An analysis of data from the 1999 to 2006 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and statistics from the ...

American Family Physician : Curbside Consultation

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0301/p360.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Eustachian Tube Dysfunction - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

Jun 15, 2013 - There are no medications that improve patient-oriented outcomes in children or adults with eustachian tube dysfunction. Oral corticosteroids, with or without antibiotics, improve pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry findings in the short term, but these agents have no long-term benefit.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/p883.html

Dexamethasone May Reduce Sore Throat Symptoms in Adults at 48 Hours - POEMs - American ...

Aug 15, 2017 - A single dose of oral dexamethasone is no more effective than placebo in resolving acute sore throat symptoms at 24 hours in adults who do not receive immediate antibiotic therapy. However, among a multitude of exploratory secondary outcomes, the authors found that, compared with ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p260a.html

Intranasal Corticosteroids for Acute Bacterial Sinusitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Sep 1, 2014 - Compared with patients not treated with intranasal corticosteroids, those who receive them have greater improvement or resolution of symptoms at two to three weeks, regardless of whether antibiotics are used. In a single head-to-head study, patients taking intranasal corticosteroids ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0901/p286.html

Treatment of Otitis Media with Perforated Tympanic Membrane - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries...

Apr 15, 2009 - Acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation in children should be treated with an oral antibiotic.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0415/p650.html

Antibiotics for Acute Maxillary Sinusitis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

May 1, 2009 - Although there is some evidence that antibiotics are effective in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis, this benefit is modest. Most patients with acute sinusitis improve within two weeks without antibiotics. The potential risk of adverse effects from antibiotics may outweigh ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0501/p757.html

Fighting the Silent Epidemic of Poor Oral Health - Editorials - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2007 - ...have limited access to dental professionals. For every child without health insurance, there are three who lack dental insurance, and the number of dentally uninsured Americans totals more than 100 million.8 Three out of four dentists do not treat patients with Medicaid insurance;...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0215/p475.html

Oral Health in Primary Care Medicine: Practice and Policy Challenges - Editorials - ...

Dec 1, 2004 - ...Oral Health in Primary Care Medicine: Practice and Policy Challenges PAUL S. CASAMASSIMO, D.D.S., M.S. Columbus Children’s Hospital Columbus, Ohio Am Fam Physician. 2004 Dec 1;70(11):2074-2076. Related Article In this issue of American Family Physician, Douglass and associates1...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2074.html

Clinical Diagnosis and Evaluation of Sinusitis in Adults - Editorials - American Family...

Dec 1, 2007 - ...MARTIN C. MAHONEY, MD, PhD, State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York RICHARD M. ROSENFELD, MD, MPH, Long Island College Hospital and State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York Am Fam...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1620.html

Treatments for Persistent Otitis Media with Effusion - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

Feb 1, 2005 - Treatments such as antibiotics, steroids, antihistamines/decongestants, and mucolytics afford no long-term benefit in the treatment of patients with otitis media with effusion (OME).

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0201/p529.html

AAP, AAFP Release Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media - ...

Jun 1, 2004 - Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated acute otitis media (AOM) in children between two months and 12 years of age are available from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP).

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0601/p2713.html

Strep Throat - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2003 - The probability of GABHS pharyngitis as the cause of sore throat is greatest in children younger than 15 years, especially those younger than 10.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0901/p937.html

A Joint Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Otitis Media - Editorials - American ...

Jun 1, 2004 - ...LARRY CULPEPPER, M.D., M.P.H., Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts MARTIN C. MAHONEY, M.D., PH.D., State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York Am Fam Physician. 2004 Jun 1;69(11):2537-2540. Related Content An evidence-based clinical practice...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0601/p2537.html

Principles of Appropriate Antibiotic Use: Part II. Nonspecific Upper Respiratory Tract ...

Aug 1, 2001 - Widespread use of antibiotics in agriculture, increased antibiotic use in children and excessive use of antibiotics in adults have caused an increase in antibiotic-resistant organisms in the past decade. To address this issue, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has ...

American Family Physician : Practice Guidelines

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0801/p510.html

Should We Prescribe Antibiotics for Acute Otitis Media? - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Aug 1, 2001 - Based on this review and the systematic reviews of Rosenfeld and Kozyrskyj, antibiotics appear to play a small but potentially useful role in the treatment of acute otitis media in children. Antibiotics produce a reduction in pain at two to seven days but have no effect on tympanometry,...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0801/p469.html

Acute Otitis Media - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2002 - What are the effects of treatments and preventive interventions for acute otitis media?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0201/p467.html

How Should We Treat Acute Maxillary Sinusitis? - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Sep 1, 2001 - If acute maxillary sinusitis is defined as positive radiographs or positive sinus aspiration cultures, limited evidence indicates that therapy with either amoxicillin or penicillin for seven to 14 days is modestly effective.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0901/p837.html

Recurrent Tonsillitis - Clinical Evidence Handbook - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2002 - Is tonsillectomy effective in severe tonsillitis in children and adults?

American Family Physician : Clinical Evidence Handbook

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1101/p1735.html

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