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Medicine by the numbers

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Combined Hormonal Contraceptives for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding - Cochrane for Clinicians...

Dec 1, 2019 - Combined oral contraceptives decrease the number of women reporting menorrhagia over six months compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction = 36.7%; number needed to treat = 2.7).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p677.html

Elagolix (Orilissa) for Endometriosis Pain - STEPS - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2019 - Elagolix can decrease pain in women with endometriosis, but it is expensive and has adverse effects similar to those of other medications that decrease estrogen levels.

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p502.html

Misoprostol Alone is Associated with High Rate of Successful First-Trimester Abortion -...

Jul 15, 2019 - Misoprostol alone was associated with a nearly 80% success rate in the first trimester of pregnancy on meta-analysis.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p119.html

Aromatase Inhibitors Such as Letrozole (Femara) vs. Clomiphene (Clomid) for Subfertile ...

May 1, 2019 - When treated with letrozole, subfertile women with PCOS who are trying to conceive have increased chances of pregnancy (number needed to treat [NNT] = 11) and live birth (NNT = 10) compared with those treated with clomiphene.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p545.html

Primary Care of Breast Cancer Survivors - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p370.html

Prasterone (Intrarosa) for Dyspareunia - STEPS - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - Prasterone is similarly effective to nonprescription options for treating vaginal dryness and itching associated with menopause and may offer a small benefit in the treatment of dyspareunia.

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p117.html

Mifepristone Pretreatment Improves Success Rate of Misoprostol for Early Pregnancy Loss...

Dec 1, 2018 - In women with early pregnancy loss between five and 12 weeks' gestation, pretreatment with 200 mcg of oral mifepristone before 800 mcg of vaginal misoprostol increases the likelihood of successful expulsion of the gestational sac.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p683a.html

Cervical Cancer: Evaluation and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2018 - Human papillomavirus infection is the precursor for the development of cervical cancer and is detectable in 99.7% of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Early detection of precancerous lesions with Papanicolaou testing remains the primary mechanism for cancer prevention. ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0401/p449.html

Oral NSAIDs for Perineal Pain in the Early Postpartum Period - Medicine by the Numbers ...

May 1, 2017 - Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were able to adequately relieve perineal pain for many postpartum women at four hours and longer.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0501/od1.html

Conjugated Estrogens/Bazedoxifene (Duavee) for Menopausal Symptoms - STEPS - American ...

Feb 15, 2016 - Conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene is effective for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and may be better tolerated than conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone. It will maintain bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and hip, but its effect on fractures is not known. Cardiovascular ...

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0215/p307.html

Options for Women with Unintended Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2015 - Unintended pregnancy refers to unwanted, unplanned, or mistimed pregnancies. One-half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended, and family physicians are often asked to provide counseling, support, and resources for women with unintended pregnancies. Options include ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0415/p544.html

CIN Treatment May Increase Miscarriages but Does Not Affect Fertility - POEMs - ...

Apr 1, 2015 - In this analysis of 15 observational studies (it would be difficult and unethical to do randomized research on this topic), excision using any method for CIN did not affect fertility, although second trimester miscarriages were more likely. A study published at the same time found the ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0401/p490.html

An Update on Emergency Contraception - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2014 - Emergency contraception decreases the risk of unintended pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or after suspected failure of routine contraception (e.g., a condom breaking). Oral methods include combined contraceptive pills (i.e., Yuzpe method), single- or split-dose ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p545.html

The Effects of Combination Contraceptives on Weight - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2012 - Compared with placebo or no intervention, the use of combination contraceptives was not associated with weight gain. Most studies comparing different types of combination contraceptives showed no statistically significant effects on weight.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/1201/p1009.html

Contraceptive Patch and Vaginal Ring vs. Combined Oral Contraceptives - Cochrane for ...

Aug 1, 2009 - Based on moderate quality evidence, contraceptive effectiveness of the vaginal ring or patch is similar to COC. Compliance is better with the patch, but its use is discontinued more often than COCs or the ring because of adverse effects. Vaginal ring and COC users have similar rates of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0801/p232.html

Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs on Oral Contraceptives - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

Sep 1, 2008 - We found no studies that measure, or even estimate, any increase in pregnancy rates in women taking antiepileptic drugs. Antiepileptic drugs known to induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzyme cause decreased sex hormone levels in women taking oral contraceptives, raising the...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p634.html

Levonorgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol (Lybrel) for Continuous Contraception - STEPS - ...

Jan 15, 2008 - Lybrel appears to be as safe and effective as other combined oral contraceptives; however, at this time, there is little published data about this specific product. Other combined monophasic oral contraceptives, some of which cost less than Lybrel, can be used continuously and have been...

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0115/p222.html

Treatment of Menorrhagia - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2007 - Menorrhagia is defined as excessive uterine bleeding occurring at regular intervals or prolonged uterine bleeding lasting more than seven days. The classic definition of menorrhagia (i.e., greater than 80 mL of blood loss per cycle) is rarely used clinically. Women describe the loss or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0615/p1813.html

Risks and Benefits of Combination Contraceptives - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American...

Dec 1, 2006 - The risks of using oral combination contraceptives include: a three- to sixfold increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) apparent by the fourth month of use and highest between six and 12 months of use; a two- to sixfold increase in the risk of ischemic stroke among ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1201/p1915.html

Initiating Hormonal Contraception - American Family Physician

Jul 1, 2006 - Most women can safely begin taking hormonal birth control products immediately after an office visit, at any point in the menstrual cycle. Because hormonal contraceptives do not accelerate cervical neoplasia or interfere with cervical cytology, women who have not had a recent ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p105.html

Nonhormonal Therapies for Hot Flashes in Menopause - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2006 - Numerous reports in the medical literature and popular media have discussed the effectiveness of various nonhormonal agents in reducing menopausal hot flash symptoms. Data for these therapies are limited, and most of the studies have been conducted in women with a history of breast ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0201/p457.html

Management of Histologic Abnormalities of the Cervix - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2006 - The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology sponsored a consensus conference in 2001 to develop evidence-based guidelines for women with histologic abnormalities of the cervix. The options for management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, 2, and 3 are ranked ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p105.html

IVF Therapy for Unexplained Infertility - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2006 - Although IVF is used routinely for the treatment of unexplained infertility, there is limited evidence to show that it is more effective than expectant management, and there is insufficient evidence to recommend it as an alternative to other therapies such as clomiphene citrate ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0101/p63.html

Ethinyl Estradiol/Levonorgestrel (Seasonale) for Oral Contraception - STEPS - American ...

Apr 15, 2005 - Women using ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel can expect similar or improved effectiveness and fewer menstrual cycles. Due in part to an increased incidence of unexpected bleeding in the first six months of use, a greater percentage of women will discontinue this regimen than will those ...

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0415/p1581.html

Dysmenorrhea - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2005 - Dysmenorrhea is the leading cause of recurrent short-term school absence in adolescent girls and a common problem in women of reproductive age. Risk factors for dysmenorrhea include nulliparity, heavy menstrual flow, smoking, and depression. Empiric therapy can be initiated based on a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0115/p285.html

Emergency Contraception - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2004 - Women can use emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy after known or suspected failure of birth control or after unprotected intercourse. Many patients do not ask for emergency contraception because they do not know of its availability. Emergency contraception has been an off-label...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0815/p707.html

Vaginal Estrogen Preparations for Relief of Atrophic Vaginitis - Cochrane for ...

May 1, 2004 - Vaginal estrogen preparations are safe and effective as short-term treatment in patients with vaginal atrophy who are not candidates for systemic hormone therapy. Compared with estradiol products, conjugated equine estrogen creams may be associated with a higher incidence of adverse ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0501/p2111.html

New Contraceptive Options - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2004 - Almost one half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended. Primary reasons for the high rate of unplanned pregnancy include dissatisfaction with or underuse of effective contraceptive methods and poor compliance with contraceptive methods that require daily adherence. Several ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0215/p853.html

New Contraceptive Options: Patient Adherence and Satisfaction - Editorials - American ...

Feb 15, 2004 - ...thought that the instructions for vaginal ring use and storage were simple, and 93 percent were pleased with cycle control. In the small number of women who disliked or discontinued using the vaginal ring, primary reasons were interference with intercourse and ring expulsion....

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0215/p811.html

What Is the Best Way to Treat Trichomoniasis in Women? - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Oct 1, 2001 - Nitroimidazoles (such as metronidazole [Flagyl]) are the most effective treatment for parasitological cure of trichomoniasis. Single-dose treatment is as effective as longer term treatment but increases side effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1001/p1241.html

Emergency Postcoital Contraception - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2000 - Emergency postcoital contraception, a method used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse, is a highly effective but underutilized birth control option. Two hormone regimens, ethinyl estradiol (100 microg) with levonorgestrel (0.5 mg) or high-dose levonorgestrel (0.75 ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1115/p2287.html

Emergency Contraception: Still Not Too Late - Editorials - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2000 - ...CAROLINE WELLBERY, M.D., Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Nov 15;62(10):2222-2226. Related Article Related Editorial Emergency contraception is an effective, if underused, means of preventing pregnancy when unprotected intercourse...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1115/p2222.html

Using Progestins in Clinical Practice - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2000 - Progestational agents have many important functions, including regulation of the menstrual cycle, treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, prevention of endometrial cancer and hyperplastic precursor lesions, and contraception. Because of the reported side effects of synthetic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/1015/p1839.html

Uterine Fibroid Embolization - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2000 - Interventional radiologists have performed uterine artery embolization to treat women with emergency uterine bleeding since the 1970s. In this procedure, the physician guides a small angiographic catheter into the uterine arteries and injects a stream of tiny particles that decreases ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0615/p3601.html

Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2000 - Vulvovaginal candidiasis is considered recurrent when at least four specific episodes occur in one year or at least three episodes unrelated to antibiotic therapy occur within one year. Although greater than 50 percent of women more than 25 years of age develop vulvovaginal candidiasis ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0601/p3306.html

Practical Use of the Pessary - American Family Physician

May 1, 2000 - The pessary is an effective tool in the management of a number of gynecologic problems. The pessary is most commonly used in the management of pelvic support defects such as cystocele and rectocele. Pessaries can also be used in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. The wide ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0501/p2719.html

Update on Oral Contraceptive Pills - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 1999 - Oral contraceptive pills are widely used and are generally safe and effective for many women. The World Health Organization has developed a risk classification system to help physicians advise patients about the safety of oral contraceptive pills. The choice of pill formulation is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1101/p2073.html

Appropriate Use of the Intrauterine Device - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 1998 - The intrauterine device, a common form of birth control in the early 1970s, is now avoided by American physicians and women because of concern about complications. This concern is largely the result of the problems reported with use of an intrauterine device that is no longer ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/1201/p2077.html

Office Management of Bartholin Gland Cysts and Abscesses - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 1998 - Bartholin gland cysts and abscesses are common problems in women of reproductive age. Although the cysts are usually asymptomatic, they may become enlarged or infected and cause significant pain. Often the clinician is tempted simply to lance the cyst or abscess, since this technique ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1611.html

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