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Medicine by the numbers

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Allopurinol Hypersensitivity Assay HLA-B*58:01 Genotyping - Diagnostic Tests: What ...

Nov 1, 2019 - The allopurinol hypersensitivity assay, or HLA-B*58:01 test, is a blood test to detect the presence of a human leukocyte antigen B (HLA-B) genetic variant that increases the risk of life-threatening, severe cutaneous adverse reactions in patients taking allopurinol.

American Family Physician : Diagnostic Tests: What Physicians Need to Know

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1101/p530.html

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with COPD - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Jun 1, 2019 - This research fails to determine whether the modest potential benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outweigh the risk of resistance. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0601/od1.html

Antibiotics for Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Because of the relatively high rate of reported adverse effects and the high likelihood of resolution of symptoms with supportive care and symptomatic management, the authors recommend selective antibiotic use in patients with acute sinusitis. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/od1.html

Antibiotics for Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Medicine by ...

Feb 1, 2020 - Prescription of antibiotics for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial due to the variety of etiologies. This review examined the use of antibiotics to treat COPD in outpatient, inpatient, and ICU settings. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/od1.html

Antidepressants Plus Benzodiazepines for Adults with Major Depression - Cochrane for ...

May 1, 2020 - A combination of tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines is more effective for major depression in adults than tricyclic antidepressants alone in the first four weeks of treatment.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/p527.html

Aromatase Inhibitors Such as Letrozole (Femara) vs. Clomiphene (Clomid) for Subfertile ...

May 1, 2019 - When treated with letrozole, subfertile women with PCOS who are trying to conceive have increased chances of pregnancy (number needed to treat [NNT] = 11) and live birth (NNT = 10) compared with those treated with clomiphene.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/p545.html

Bedtime Instead of Morning Ingestion of Hypertension Medication Equals a Significantly ...

Apr 1, 2020 - This study found a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity among patients who took their once-daily anti-hypertensive medications at bedtime instead of in the morning. No significant difference occurred in compliance rates between bedtime and morning ingestion times. Individual...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p434a.html

Benzodiazepines for Panic Disorder in Adults - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Apr 1, 2020 - Should benzodiazepeines continue to be prescribed during the initiation phase of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for acute relief of panic attacks? Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/od1.html

Blood Pressure Targets for Patients with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease - ...

Sep 1, 2018 - Achieving a target BP of 135/85 mm Hg or less does not decrease the risk of total cardiovascular events vs. treating to a target of 140 to 160/90 to 100 mm Hg. Further, treating to the lower BP target does not improve total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0901/p276.html

Branched-chain Amino Acids for Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy - Medicine by the ...

Jan 1, 2020 - ...Medicine by the Numbers A Collaboration of TheNNT.com and AFP Branched-chain Amino Acids for Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy AHMED HAMED, MD; AMIRA HAMED, MD; and KARISSA LAMBERT, MD Am Fam Physician. 2020 Jan 1;101(1):online. Enlarge Print BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS FOR...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/od1.html

Bridging Warfarin Before Colonoscopy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation - FPIN's ...

Apr 15, 2019 - A limited number of trials that examined the risk of temporary interruption of anticoagulation before a variety of procedures did not find a reduction in the risk of stroke, but they did show an increased risk of bleeding events and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients who were ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p519.html

Clopidogrel Plus Aspirin Provides More Net Benefit Than Aspirin Alone After Minor ...

Feb 1, 2019 - This study provides support for a strategy of adding clopidogrel to aspirin for the first week or so after a minor ischemic stroke or TIA because this is when the greatest benefit occurs. Harms were spread fairly evenly throughout the study period.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/p188a.html

Coaching Patients About Successful Blood Pressure Management - Lown Right Care: ...

Mar 15, 2019 - A collaboration between AFP and the Lown Institute promotes a vision of delivering heath care that is based on the evidence, balanced in its approach, and focused on the patient.

American Family Physician : Lown Right Care: Reducing Overuse and Underuse

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p357.html

Dapagliflozin in High-Risk Type 2 Diabetes Reduces Hospitalization for Heart Failure ...

Aug 1, 2019 - The only cardiovascular benefit to treatment with dapagliflozin was a reduction in the likelihood of hospitalization; 125 patients would need to be treated for 10 years to prevent one hospitalization.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p184.html

Deep Venous Thrombosis: Home vs. Inpatient Treatment - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Patients treated at home with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) have lower rates of recurrent VTE than those treated in a hospital.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/p642.html

Denosumab for Reducing Risk of Fractures in Postmenopausal Women - Medicine by the ...

May 1, 2019 - Denosumab appears to be effective in reducing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Treatment with denosumab does not increase the risk of cancer or death but might increase the risk of infection. However, more studies are required.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0501/od1.html

Deprescribing Is an Essential Part of Good Prescribing - Editorials - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2019 - There are four important medication issues to discuss with patients as they get older. Find out more and learn the five steps to individualize deprescribing practices for each patient.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p7.html

Dual Antiplatelet Therapy for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease - FPIN's Clinical ...

Oct 15, 2019 - Patients with established cardiovascular disease or risk factors (e.g., ischemic cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, high risk of atherothrombotic disease) should receive dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin plus clopidogrel, which confers additional benefit over ...

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1015/p463.html

Dyspnea Due to Acute Heart Failure Syndrome - Medicine by the Numbers - American Family...

Feb 1, 2019 - This review concluded that the individual components of the clinical history and physical examination, electrocardiography, and chest radiography are not useful independently for confirming or excluding the diagnosis of acute heart failure syndrome in patients presenting to the ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0201/od1.html

e-Cigarettes More Effective Than Nicotine Replacement for Cessation of Tobacco Use in ...

Oct 1, 2019 - Among adults who smoked a median of 15 cigarettes per day, those who were randomized to receive e-cigarettes were more likely to be abstinent at one year than those who received nicotine replacement (number needed to treat [NNT] = 12).

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1001/p442.html

Early Cardioversion No Better Than Delayed Cardioversion for Recent-Onset Symptomatic ...

Nov 15, 2019 - For patients presenting to the emergency department with recent-onset symptomatic atrial fibrillation, early cardioversion is no better than delayed cardioversion in achieving sinus rhythm within four weeks.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1115/p648.html

Early Invasive Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Dec 1, 2018 - Does early invasive management help patients with unstable angina or acute non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in reducing occurence of death, myocardial infarction, angina symptoms, and rehospitalization at six- to 12-month follow-up? Find out.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1201/od1.html

Evaluating Benefits and Harms of Anticoagulation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation -...

Dec 15, 2018 - In patients with NVAF, anticoagulants decrease the risk of stroke by approximately 60%. However, they also significantly increase the risk of a major bleeding event or intracranial hemorrhage.

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1215/p751.html

Gabapentin for Treatment of Radicular Low Back Pain - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

Sep 1, 2019 - Gabapentin is not effective for the treatment of radicular low back pain and is associated with adverse effects.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p309.html

Gabapentinoids for Pain: Potential Unintended Consequences - Editorials - American ...

Dec 1, 2019 - The widespread and often indiscriminate prescribing of gabapentinoids is not supported by robust evidence, and it carries known and unknown risks.

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/p672.html

H. pylori Screening Before Initiation of Long-term NSAIDs - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries -...

Jun 15, 2019 - Physicians should perform laboratory screening for and eradicate H. pylori before initiating long-term NSAID therapy in NSAID-naive patients to reduce the risk of peptic ulcer disease.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p783.html

High-Dose vs. Standard-Dose Heparin for VTE Prophylaxis in Obese Patients - FPIN's Help...

Jun 1, 2018 - In most patients weighing more than 220 lb (100 kg), high-dose heparin prophylaxis (7,500 units subcutaneously three times per day) does not further reduce the risk of VTE compared with standard-dose heparin (5,000 units subcutaneously two or three times per day).

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0601/od2.html

Hormone Therapy for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal ...

Oct 1, 2018 - No benefit was observed in postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Find out more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/1001/od1.html

Increased Readmissions and Adverse Events with Intensification of Antihypertensive ...

Feb 15, 2020 - The intensification of antihypertensive regimens on discharge in older adults hospitalized for noncardiac conditions is associated with an increased risk of readmission (number needed to harm [NNH] = 27) and medication-related serious adverse events (NNH = 63) within 30 days.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0215/p248a.html

Individual Behavioral Counseling for Smoking Cessation - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Jul 1, 2018 - Individual behavioral counseling conducted by a trained therapist provides some benefit when compared with brief counseling and support; however, this benefit is less pronounced in the context of pharmacotherapy.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0701/p21.html

LABA Plus Inhaled Corticosteroid Reduces Exacerbations, But Not Hospitalizations - ...

Jan 1, 2019 - Adding a LABA to an inhaled corticosteroid is safe but does not reduce the likelihood of a serious exacerbation requiring hospitalization. There is a small reduction in nonsevere asthma exacerbations, with one fewer exacerbation for every 53 patients treated for six months.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p53.html

Liberal vs. Conservative Oxygen Therapy in the Acutely Ill - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

Jan 1, 2019 - This review compares liberal and conservative oxygen therapy in acutely ill adults and their effect on mortality (in-hospital, 30-day, and longest follow-up) and morbidity (disability at longest follow-up, risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia, any hospital-acquired infection, and length ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/od1.html

Linagliptin and Glimepiride Equally Effective for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus ...

Mar 1, 2020 - This study found that linagliptin is noninferior to glimepiride for reducing the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in adults with type 2 diabetes at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0301/p309a.html

Lithium for Acute Mania - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

May 1, 2020 - Lithium is more effective at inducing a reduction of at least 50% on the validated Young Mania Rating Scale compared with placebo (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6; 95% CI, 5 to 8; six studies; n = 1,707).

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0501/p528.html

Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Options - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2018 - In the United States, prostate cancer will be diagnosed in one out of seven men in his lifetime. Most cases are localized, and only one in 39 men will die from the disease. Prostate cancer is most often detected using serum prostate-specific antigen testing. The National Comprehensive ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0615/p798.html

Lorcaserin Is Safe, But Only Modestly Effective for Weight Loss - POEMs - American ...

Mar 15, 2019 - Lorcaserin, 10 mg twice daily, helps some patients lose 10% or more of their body weight (number needed to treat [NNT] = 10) and appears to be safe in terms of cardiovascular events.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/od4.html

Medication Management for Chronic Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction - ...

Jul 1, 2019 - Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce hospitalizations for patients with HFpEF. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have not been shown to change the morbidity or mortality in patients with HFpEF.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p17.html

Migraine Headache Prophylaxis - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2019 - Migraines impose significant health and financial burdens. Approximately 38% of patients with episodic migraines would benefit from preventive therapy, but less than 13% take prophylactic medications. Preventive medication therapy reduces migraine frequency, severity, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0101/p17.html

No Reduction in Delirium with the Use of Haloperidol or Ziprasidone in Critically Ill ...

Apr 1, 2019 - For patients with acute respiratory failure or shock who develop delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU), the use of haloperidol or ziprasidone (Geodon) does not reduce the duration of delirium. This trial was powered to detect at least a two-day difference in the duration of ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0401/p460.html

OnabotulinumtoxinA for Prevention of Migraine in Adults - Cochrane for Clinicians - ...

Feb 1, 2020 - OnabotulinumtoxinA reduces the number of migraine days per month by two days compared with placebo in adults with chronic migraines.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0201/p144.html

One Month of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Followed by Clopidogrel Alone is Superior to 12 ...

Dec 15, 2019 - This study found that one month of dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus clopidogrel or prasugrel [Effient]) followed by clopidogrel monotherapy for up to five years is both noninferior and superior to 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy followed by aspirin for up to five years for...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1215/od5.html

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Women - Medicine ...

Dec 1, 2019 - ...Medicine by the Numbers A Collaboration of TheNNT.com and AFP Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Women DONALD M. CHAFFEE, MD, and ELIZABETH T. HARPSTER, MD Am Fam Physician. 2019 Dec 1;100(11):online. Enlarge Print PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE TRAINING FOR...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/1201/od1.html

Pharmacologic Therapy for Heart Failure - FPIN's Help Desk Answers - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2019 - Compared with monotherapy, the combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB has not been shown to improve cardiovascular or overall mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure. The combination is associated with an increased number of adverse drug effects.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Help Desk Answers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0701/p49.html

Positional Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Jan 1, 2020 - Positional therapy for OSA reduces scores on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale compared with no treatment. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves AHI scores more than positional therapy, patients seem to better tolerate positional therapy ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0101/p16.html

Prasterone (Intrarosa) for Dyspareunia - STEPS - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2019 - Prasterone is similarly effective to nonprescription options for treating vaginal dryness and itching associated with menopause and may offer a small benefit in the treatment of dyspareunia.

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0115/p117.html

Primary Care of Breast Cancer Survivors - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2019 - With declining mortality rates, the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing. Ongoing care after breast cancer treatment is often provided by primary care physicians. This care includes surveillance for cancer recurrence with a history and physical examination every three to six ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0315/p370.html

Semaglutide (Ozempic) for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - STEPS - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2019 - Semaglutide can be added to existing treatment to improve glycemic control and induce weight loss. It may also protect against cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease.

American Family Physician : STEPS

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0715/p116.html

Sepsis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2020 - Guidelines published in 2016 provide a revised definition of sepsis: life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The guidelines define septic shock as sepsis with circulatory, cellular, and metabolic dysfunction that is associated with a ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2020/0401/p409.html

Should Adults with Prediabetes Be Prescribed Metformin to Prevent Diabetes Mellitus? ...

Aug 1, 2019 - Discussing with patients the pros and cons of medications for borderline glucose values could distract us from more important topics such as lifestyle changes, smoking cessation, and blood pressure control. Time is the most valuable resource in a physician-patient partnership, and there...

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p136.html

Should Adults with Prediabetes Be Prescribed Metformin to Prevent Diabetes Mellitus? ...

Aug 1, 2019 - High-quality evidence supports metformin use for diabetes prevention among younger or more obese individuals or for women with a history of gestational diabetes. Clinicians should consider prescribing metformin, in addition to intensive lifestyle interventions, in accordance with ...

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p134.html

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