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Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2018 - Stable coronary artery disease refers to a reversible supply/demand mismatch related to ischemia, a history of myocardial infarction, or the presence of plaque documented by catheterization or computed tomography angiography. Patients are considered stable if they are asymptomatic or ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0315/p376.html

Palpitations: Evaluation in the Primary Care Setting - American Family Physician

Dec 15, 2017 - Palpitations are a common problem in the ambulatory primary care setting, and cardiac causes are the most concerning etiology. Psychiatric illness, adverse effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and substance use should also be considered. Distinguishing cardiac from ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1215/p784.html

Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Diagnosis and Management - American ...

Nov 1, 2017 - Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, also referred to as diastolic heart failure, causes almost one-half of the 5 million cases of heart failure in the United States. It is more common among older patients and women, and results from abnormalities of active ventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/1101/p582.html

Perioperative Cardiovascular Medication Management in Noncardiac Surgery: Common ...

May 15, 2017 - Several medications have been used perioperatively in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery in an attempt to improve outcomes. Antiplatelet therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular events should generally be discontinued seven to 10 days before surgery to avoid increasing the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0515/p645.html

Syncope: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2017 - Syncope is an abrupt and transient loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. It accounts for 1% to 1.5% of emergency department visits, resulting in high hospital admission rates and significant medical costs. Syncope is classified as neurally mediated, cardiac, and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0301/p303.html

Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2017 - Myocardial infarction (MI), a subset of acute coronary syndrome, is damage to the cardiac muscle as evidenced by elevated cardiac troponin levels in the setting of acute ischemia. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Chest pain is a common ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0201/p170.html

Hyperlipidemia: Drugs for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Adults - American Family ...

Jan 15, 2017 - Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the U.K. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) indicate that lipid-lowering drugs have benefit for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0115/p78.html

Heart Failure Due to Reduced Ejection Fraction: Medical Management - American Family ...

Jan 1, 2017 - Heart failure is an increasingly common condition resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. For patients who have heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, randomized clinical trials demonstrate consistent mortality benefit from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0101/p13.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2016 - Atrial fibrillation is a supraventricular arrhythmia that adversely affects cardiac function and increases the risk of stroke. It is the most common arrhythmia and a major source of morbidity and mortality; its prevalence increases with age. Pulse rate is sensitive, but not specific, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0915/p442.html

Aortic Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2016 - Aortic stenosis affects 3% of persons older than 65 years. Although survival in asymptomatic patients is comparable to that in age- and sex-matched control patients, it decreases rapidly after symptoms appear. During the asymptomatic latent period, left ventricular hypertrophy and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0301/p371.html

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - American Family Physician

Jan 15, 2016 - Elevated blood pressure in pregnancy may represent chronic hypertension (occurring before 20 weeks’ gestation or persisting longer than 12 weeks after delivery), gestational hypertension (occurring after 20 weeks’ gestation), preeclampsia, or preeclampsia superimposed on chronic ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0115/p121.html

Diagnosis and Management of Common Types of Supraventricular Tachycardia - American ...

Nov 1, 2015 - Supraventricular tachycardia refers to rapid rhythms that originate and are sustained in atrial or atrioventricular node tissue above the bundle of His. The condition is caused by reentry phenomena or automaticity at or above the atrioventricular node, and includes atrioventricular ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p793.html

Diagnosis and Management of Kawasaki Disease - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2015 - Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects patients younger than five years. It represents the most prominent cause of acquired coronary artery disease in childhood. In the United States, 19 per 100,000 children younger than five years are hospitalized ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0315/p365.html

Should Family Physicians Follow the New ACC/AHA Cholesterol Treatment Guideline? Yes: ...

Aug 15, 2014 - The recommendations appropriately focus treatment on those most likely to benefit.

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0815/p212.html

Acute Pericarditis: Diagnosis and Management - American Family Physician

Apr 1, 2014 - Acute pericarditis, inflammation of the pericardium, is found in approximately 5% of patients admitted to the emergency department for chest pain unrelated to acute myocardial infarction. It occurs most often in men 20 to 50 years of age. Acute pericarditis has a number of potential ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0401/p553.html

Myocardial Infarction: Management of the Subacute Period - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2013 - Optimal management of myocardial infarction in the subacute period focuses on improving the discharge planning process, implementing therapies early to prevent recurrent myocardial infarction, and avoiding hospital readmission. Evidence-based guidelines for the care of patients with ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1101/p581.html

Perioperative Cardiac Risk Reduction - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2012 - Cardiovascular complications are the most common cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Noninvasive stress testing is rarely helpful in assessing risk, and for most patients there is no evidence that coronary revascularization provides more protection against perioperative ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0201/p239.html

Evaluation of Syncope - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2011 - Syncope is a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness with complete return to preexisting neurologic function. It is classified as neurally mediated (i.e., carotid sinus hypersensitivity, situational, or vasovagal), cardiac, orthostatic, or neurogenic. Older adults are more likely to ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0915/p640.html

Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension - American Family Physician

Sep 1, 2011 - Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing when compared with blood pressure from the sitting or supine position. It results from an inadequate physiologic...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p527.html

Common Types of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Diagnosis and Management - American ...

Oct 15, 2010 - The most common types of supraventricular tachycardia are caused by a reentry phenomenon producing accelerated heart rates. Symptoms may include palpitations (pulsation in the neck), chest pain, lightheadedness or dizziness, and dyspnea. It is unusual for supraventricular tachycardia to...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p942.html

Global Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Assessment and Application - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2010 - Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in the United States. The conventional risk factor approach to primary prevention excludes many patients who could benefit from preventive therapies. A global risk approach allows more accurate estimates of risk to guide clinical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0801/p265.html

Diet and Exercise in the Management of Hyperlipidemia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2010 - Dietary factors that influence lipid levels include modification of nutritional components, consumption of specific foods, use of food additives and supplements, and major dietary approaches. The most beneficial changes result from reducing intake of saturated and trans fats; increasing...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0501/p1097.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Ulcers - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2010 - Venous ulcer, also known as stasis ulcer, is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration, affecting approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population. Possible causes of venous ulcers include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/0415/p989.html

Drug-Eluting Coronary Artery Stents - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2009 - Many advances have been made in the percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease during the past 30 years. Although balloon angioplasty alone is still performed, the use of coronary artery stents is much more common. Approximately 40 percent of patients treated with balloon ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1201/p1245.html

Cardiac Rehabilitation - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2009 - An estimated 80 million (nearly one in three) Americans have cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the United States alone, more than 850,000 deaths are attributed annually to cardiovascular disease, and more than 8 million Americans...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1101/p955.html

Pharmacologic Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2008 - Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with diabetes, and adequate control of blood pressure significantly reduces the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Patients with diabetes should achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm Hg. The use of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1277.html

Evaluating Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents - ...

Nov 1, 2008 - Obesity continues to be a growing public health problem. According to the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 17 percent of persons two to 19 years of age are overweight. The number of obese children and adolescents has tripled in the past 20 years. Obesity in ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1101/p1052.html

Managing Hypertension Using Combination Therapy - American Family Physician

May 1, 2008 - Combination therapy of hypertension with separate agents or a fixed-dose combination pill offers the potential to lower blood pressure more quickly, obtain target blood pressure, and decrease adverse effects. Antihypertensive agents from different classes may offset adverse reactions ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1279.html

Pharmacologic Management of Heart Failure Caused by Systolic Dysfunction - American ...

Apr 1, 2008 - Heart failure caused by systolic dysfunction affects more than 5 million adults in the United States and is a common source of outpatient visits to primary care physicians. Mortality rates are high, yet a number of pharmacologic interventions may improve outcomes. Other interventions, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0401/p957.html

Prevention of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2007 - Recurrent ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack are common problems in primary care, with stroke survivors averaging 10 outpatient visits per year. Risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia should be evaluated during each office visit. Attention ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0801/p382.html

Home Monitoring of Glucose and Blood Pressure - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2007 - Home monitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure levels can provide patients and physicians with valuable information in the management of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Home monitoring allows patients to play an active role in their care and may improve treatment adherence and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/p255.html

Management of Hypertriglyceridemia - American Family Physician

May 1, 2007 - Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and acute pancreatitis. Along with lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lowering triglyceride levels in high-risk patients (e.g., ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0501/p1365.html

Noninvasive Cardiac Imaging - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Noninvasive cardiac imaging can be used for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. It is central to the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, or acute coronary syndromes with or without ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1219.html

Preparation of the Cardiac Patient for Noncardiac Surgery - American Family Physician

Mar 1, 2007 - Approximately 20 to 40 percent of patients at high risk of cardiac-related morbidity develop myocardial ischemia perioperatively. The preferred approach to diagnostic evaluation depends on the interactions of patient-specific risk factors, surgery-specific risk factors, and exercise ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p656.html

Kawasaki Disease: Summary of the American Heart Association Guidelines - American ...

Oct 1, 2006 - Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood that predominantly affects the coronary arteries. The etiology of Kawasaki disease remains unknown, although an infectious agent is strongly suspected based on clinical and epidemiologic features. A genetic predisposition is also ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1141.html

Digoxin Therapy for Heart Failure: An Update - American Family Physician

Aug 15, 2006 - Digoxin therapy has long been used to treat heart failure; however, its effectiveness was not completely known until recently. Results of the Digitalis Investigation Group trial showed that adding digoxin to standard heart failure therapy had no effect on mortality. However, adding ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0815/p613.html

Nonpharmacologic Strategies for Managing Hypertension - American Family Physician

Jun 1, 2006 - The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recommends lifestyle modification for all patients with hypertension or prehypertension. Modifications include reducing dietary sodium to less than 2.4 g per ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1953.html

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dyplasia - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2006 - Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a disorder in which normal myocardium is replaced by fibrofatty tissue. This disorder usually involves the right ventricle, but the left ventricle and septum also may be affected. Although the exact prevalence of ARVD is unknown, it ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0415/p1391.html

Nutritional Assessment and Counseling for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular ...

Jan 15, 2006 - Physicians face several barriers to counseling their patients about nutrition, including conflicting evidence of the benefit of counseling, limited training and understanding of the topic, and imperfect and varied guidelines to follow. Because cardiovascular disease remains the leading ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0115/p257.html

Diagnosing the Cause of Chest Pain - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2005 - Chest pain presents a diagnostic challenge in outpatient family medicine. Noncardiac causes are common, but it is important not to overlook serious conditions such as an acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism, or pneumonia. In addition to a thorough history and physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1115/p2012.html

Treatment of Cholesterol Abnormalities - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2005 - Cardiovascular disease and its subset coronary heart disease are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. In general, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0315/p1137.html

Evidence-Based Initiation of Warfarin (Coumadin) - Point-of-Care Guides - American ...

Feb 15, 2005 - Many physicians continue to use clinical judgment alone as the basis for initiating and adjusting warfarin dosages in patients who require oral anticoagulation. A number of studies have validated approaches to initiation of anticoagulation that provide more rapid anticoagulation with ...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0215/p763.html

Outpatient Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2004 - Optimal outpatient treatment of systolic heart failure has three goals that should be pursued simultaneously: (1) control of risk factors for the development and progression of heart failure, (2) treatment of heart failure, and (3) education of patients. Control of risk factors includes...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1201/p2157.html

Metabolic Syndrome: Time for Action - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2004 - The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is identified now as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. Soon, metabolic syndrome will ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0615/p2875.html

Automated Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Clinical Utility in the Family Practice...

Jun 1, 2003 - Although the percentage of patients who are treated for hypertension has increased, the percentage of those who demonstrate control of blood pressure has declined. As a result of this trend, clinicians may increasingly rely on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to improve the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0601/p2343.html

Diagnosis and Treatment of Sick Sinus Syndrome - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2003 - Sick sinus syndrome comprises a variety of conditions involving sinus node dysfunction and commonly affects elderly persons. While the syndrome can have many causes, it usually is idiopathic. Patients may experience syncope, pre-syncope, palpitations, or dizziness; however, they often ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0415/p1725.html

Managing Hypertension in Athletes and Physically Active Patients - American Family ...

Aug 1, 2002 - Athletes and other physically active patients should be screened for hypertension and given appropriate therapy if needed. Mild hypertension should be treated with non-pharmacologic measures for six months. If blood pressure control is adequate, lifestyle modifications are continued. If...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0801/p445.html

Optimal Management of Cholesterol Levels and the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease ...

Jan 15, 2002 - Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in women, is largely preventable. Lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet and exercise) are the cornerstone of primary and secondary prevention. Elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides and low levels of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0115/p217.html

Treating Obstructive Sleep Apnea Improves Essential Hypertension and Quality of Life - ...

Jan 15, 2002 - About one half of patients who have essential hypertension have obstructive sleep apnea, and about one half of patients who have obstructive sleep apnea have essential hypertension. A growing body of evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea is a major contributing factor in the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0115/p229.html

Spironolactone in Left-Sided Heart Failure: How Does It Fit In? - American Family ...

Oct 15, 2001 - The familiar diuretic spironolactone has taken on new life as a treatment for left-sided congestive heart failure. Spironolactone has been shown to decrease mortality in such patients who are New York Heart Association class IV. It can be used in addition to agents such as ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1015/p1393.html

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