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Medicine by the numbers

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Gabapentin for Treatment of Radicular Low Back Pain - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - ...

Sep 1, 2019 - Gabapentin is not effective for the treatment of radicular low back pain and is associated with adverse effects.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0901/p309.html

Musculoskeletal Care - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - This collection features AFP content on musculoskeletal care and related issues, including fracture management, joint aspiration, joint injections, pain in various parts of the body (foot and ankle; neck and back; hip; knee; arm and shoulder; and wrist and hand). This collection ...

American Family Physician : AFP By Topic

https://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=17

Management of Chronic Tendon Injuries - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2019 - Chronic tendon injuries are common athletic and occupational injuries that account for many physician visits. Tendons have a complex biology that provides a unique combination of strength, flexibility, and elasticity but also predisposes them to injury. The term tendinopathy is ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p147.html

Plantar Fasciitis - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2019 - Plantar fasciitis is a common problem that one in 10 people will experience in their lifetime. Plantar fasciopathy is an appropriate descriptor because the condition is not inflammatory. Risk factors include limited ankle dorsiflexion, increased body mass index, and standing for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0615/p744.html

Manipulative Therapies: What Works - American Family Physician

Feb 15, 2019 - Manipulative therapies include osteopathic manipulative treatment and many other forms of manual therapies used to manage a variety of conditions in adults and children. Spinal manipulative therapy may provide short-term improvement in patients with acute or chronic low back pain, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0215/p248.html

Hyperpronation Method for Reduction of Nursemaid's Elbow - Medicine by the Numbers - ...

May 15, 2018 - Although data are limited, the results have consistently shown a higher rate of success with first attempt reduction of nursemaids' elbow when the hyperpronation method was used. For other outcomes, including pain and adverse effects such as bruising, no conclusions could be drawn ...

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0515/od2.html

Charcot Foot: Clinical Clues, Diagnostic Strategies, and Treatment Principles - ...

May 1, 2018 - Acute Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle is often difficult to diagnose because of limited findings in the patient history, physical examination, imaging, and laboratory studies. Delay in treatment results in the development of rigid foot and ankle deformities, increasing ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2018/0501/p594.html

Placebo Plus Message of Benefit Decreases Chronic Low Back Pain - POEMs - American ...

Apr 1, 2017 - These investigators gave twice daily placebo to patients with chronic back pain and told them it was placebo. They also told them that placebos can have a pronounced effect (which is true). The addition of placebo to usual care improved patients' pain and disability scores over the ...

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0401/p456.html

Common Occupational Disorders: Asthma, COPD, Dermatitis, and Musculoskeletal Disorders ...

Jun 15, 2016 - An occupational illness is an event or exposure that occurs in the workplace that causes or contributes to a condition or worsens a preexisting condition. If an occupational disorder is suspected, a directed history should be taken with particular attention to establishing a temporal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0615/p1000.html

Cyclobenzaprine in the Treatment of Low Back Pain - Medicine by the Numbers - American ...

Feb 1, 2016 - Studies show that 1 in 3 patients experiences global improvement in back pain symptoms at 10 days, while 1 in 4 patients experiences medication adverse effects. Read more.

American Family Physician : Medicine by the Numbers

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/od2.html

Quinine for Leg Cramps - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2016 - Quinine is moderately effective in decreasing the frequency and intensity of muscle cramps, but it is also associated with an increase in minor adverse effects. In addition, there is a risk of rare but serious adverse effects.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0201/p177.html

Gabapentin Equals Epidural Steroid for Radicular Pain - POEMs - American Family Physician

Nov 1, 2015 - After controlling for the placebo effect that may accompany an epidural steroid injection, treatment with gabapentin is as effective as the injection in reducing radicular leg pain in the short term (three months). A placebo bump in response, if present, is likely to be transient.

American Family Physician : POEMs

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1101/p814a.html

Corticosteroid Injections for Common Musculoskeletal Conditions - American Family ...

Oct 15, 2015 - Family physicians considering corticosteroid injections as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for musculoskeletal diagnoses will find few high-quality studies to assist with evidence-based decision making. Most studies of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/1015/p694.html

Management of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture - FPIN's Clinical Inquiries - American ...

Jun 1, 2015 - There are no clear evidence-based criteria to decide which patients should undergo operative vs. nonoperative management of acute Achilles tendon rupture.

American Family Physician : FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0601/p794.html

Evaluation of the Patient with Hip Pain - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2014 - Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0101/p27.html

Evaluation and Diagnosis of Wrist Pain: A Case-Based Approach - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2013 - Patients with wrist pain commonly present with an acute injury or spontaneous onset of pain without a definite traumatic event. A fall onto an outstretched hand can lead to a scaphoid fracture, which is the most commonly fractured carpal bone. Conventional radiography alone can miss up ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0415/p568.html

Is Spinal Manipulation an Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain? Yes: Spinal ...

Apr 15, 2012 - Yes: Spinal Manipulation Is a Useful Adjunct Therapy. Spinal manipulation is one of many potential treatment options that have been used by many different types of clinicians for more than a century. Only in the past 50 years have research studies evaluated the benefits of spinal ...

American Family Physician : Editorials: Controversies in Family Medicine

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p760.html

Clinical Significance of Meniscal Damage on Knee MRI - AFP Journal Club - American ...

May 15, 2011 - Can you make the assumption that, in a patient with knee pain, meniscal damage found on MRI is responsible for his or her symptoms? Meniscal findings on knee MRI do not correlate well with pain.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0515/p1160.html

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention - American ...

Oct 15, 2010 - There are an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repairs in the United States each year. Most ACL tears occur from noncontact injuries. Women experience ACL tears up to nine times more often than men. Evaluation of the ACL should be performed immediately after ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2010/1015/p917.html

Costochondritis: Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician

Sep 15, 2009 - Costochondritis, an inflammation of costochondral junctions of ribs or chondrosternal joints of the anterior chest wall, is a common condition seen in patients presenting to the physician's office and emergency department. Palpation of the affected chondrosternal joints of the chest ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0915/p617.html

Corticosteroid Injections for Trigger Finger - Cochrane for Clinicians - American ...

Sep 1, 2009 - Based on limited evidence, corticosteroid injection combined with lidocaine (Xylocaine) was more effective than lidocaine alone for the treatment of trigger finger in adults. Compared with those who received lidocaine alone, 38 percent more of the patients who received corticosteroid ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0901/p454.html

The Limping Child: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2009 - Deviations from a normal age-appropriate gait pattern can be caused by a wide variety of conditions. In most children, limping is caused by a mild, self-limiting event, such as a contusion, strain, or sprain. In some cases, however, a limp can be a sign of a serious or even ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0201/p215.html

Principles of Casting and Splinting - American Family Physician

Jan 1, 2009 - The ability to properly apply casts and splints is a technical skill easily mastered with practice and an understanding of basic principles. The initial approach to casting and splinting requires a thorough assessment of the injured extremity for proper diagnosis. Once the need for ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/0101/p16.html

Musculoskeletal Injections: A Review of the Evidence - American Family Physician

Oct 15, 2008 - Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1015/p971.html

Choosing a Skeletal Muscle Relaxant - American Family Physician

Aug 1, 2008 - Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/p365.html

Antidepressants to Treat Nonspecific Low Back Pain - Cochrane for Clinicians - American...

Jul 1, 2008 - Although antidepressants have been shown to be superior to placebo in some forms of chronic pain, they do not reduce pain or improve functional status or depression in patients with nonspecific low back pain.

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0701/p51.html

Evaluation of Back Pain in Children and Adolescents - American Family Physician

Dec 1, 2007 - Back pain is fairly prevalent in healthy children and adolescents. When children or adolescents seek medical care for back pain, it is highly likely that underlying pathology will be identified. Common causes of back pain include nonspecific pain or muscle strain, herniated disk, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1669.html

NSAIDs vs. Acetaminophen for the Treatment of Ankle Sprains - AFP Journal Club - ...

Dec 1, 2007 - Are NSAIDs better than acetaminophen for ankle sprains? Extended-release acetaminophen provides equivalent analgesia and return to activity as an NSAID in patients with mild to moderate ankle sprains. All NSAIDs have equivalent analgesic effect.

American Family Physician : AFP Journal Club

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1605.html

Nonspecific Low Back Pain and Return to Work - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2007 - As many as 90 percent of persons with occupational nonspecific low back pain are able to return to work in a relatively short period of time. As long as no

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1115/p1497.html

Common Problems in Endurance Athletes - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2007 - Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries....

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0715/p237.html

Evaluation and Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2007 - Acute low back pain with or without sciatica usually is self-limited and has no serious underlying pathology. For most patients, reassurance, pain medications, and advice to stay active are sufficient. A more thorough evaluation is required in selected patients with

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0415/p1181.html

Braces and Splints for Musculoskeletal Conditions - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2007 - Braces and splints can be useful for acute injuries, chronic conditions, and the prevention of injury. There is good evidence to support the use of some braces and splints; others are used because of subjective reports from patients, relatively low cost, and few adverse effects, despite...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0201/p342.html

Acute Ankle Sprain: An Update - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2006 - Acute ankle injury, a common musculoskeletal injury, can cause ankle sprains. Some evidence suggests that previous injuries or limited joint flexibility may contribute to ankle sprains. The initial assessment of an acute ankle injury should include questions about the timing and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1115/p1714.html

Ultrasonography in Assessment of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip - Editorials - ...

Oct 15, 2006 - ...In specialty settings, hip ultrasonography decreased the number of children treated for DDH and decreased the number of hip-related hospitalizations and subspecialist office visits. However, it had no impact on the number of infants who eventually underwent hip surgery for DDH. This...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1015/p1284.html

Exercises for Mechanical Neck Disorders - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Oct 1, 2006 - There is some evidence that a variety of exercises help patients with mechanical neck pain. Evidence is strongest for a multimodal approach that includes exercise and mobilization or manipulation of the cervical spine, although this research has been criticized for having an imperfect ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/1001/p1126.html

Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Children: Part I. Initial Evaluation - American Family ...

Jul 1, 2006 - Musculoskeletal pain can be difficult for children to characterize. Primary care physicians must determine whether the pain may be caused by a systemic disease. Change in activity, constitutional symptoms such as fevers and fatigue, or abnormal examination findings without obvious ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p115.html

Management of Hip Fracture: The Family Physician's Role - American Family Physician

Jun 15, 2006 - The incidence of hip fracture is expected to increase as the population ages. One in five persons dies in the first year after sustaining a hip fracture, and those who survive past one year may have significant functional limitation. Although surgery is the main treatment for hip ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2195.html

Screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Recommendation Statement - U.S. ...

Jun 1, 2006 - This statement summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations on screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and the supporting scientific evidence.

American Family Physician : U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0601/p1992.html

Glucosamine Treatment for Osteoarthritis - Cochrane for Clinicians - American Family ...

Apr 1, 2006 - This review shows that, compared with placebo, glucosamine sulfate produces a moderate, clinically significant reduction in pain and improvement in function for patients with osteoarthritis. However, study results were not consistent. Most studies in the review used preparations of ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0401/p1189.html

Childhood and Adolescent Sports-Related Overuse Injuries - American Family Physician

Mar 15, 2006 - Youth sports participation carries an inherent risk of injury, including overuse injuries. Little leaguer's shoulder, a stress fracture of the proximal humerus that presents as lateral shoulder pain, usually is self-limited. Little leaguer's elbow is a medial stress injury; treatment ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0315/p1014.html

Plantar Fasciitis: Evidence-Based Review of Diagnosis and Therapy - American Family ...

Dec 1, 2005 - Plantar fasciitis causes heel pain in active as well as sedentary adults of all ages. The condition is more likely to occur in persons who are obese or in those who are on their feet most of the day. A diagnosis of plantar fasciitis is based on the patient's history and physical ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1201/p2237.html

Intra-articular Corticosteroid for Treating Osteoarthritis of the Knee - Cochrane for ...

Oct 1, 2005 - An injection of the knee joint with a corticosteroid may improve the patient’s symptoms for up to three weeks after the injection (number needed to treat [NNT]= 3 to 4). There is no evidence that this intervention improves function, and there is little evidence of the benefits ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1222.html

Improving Physical Therapy Referrals - Editorials - American Family Physician

Oct 1, 2005 - ...JENNIFER JOYCE, M.D., and JANICE KUPERSTEIN, M.S.ED., University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky Am Fam Physician. 2005 Oct 1;72(7):1183-1184. Research suggests that primary care physicians will refer more patients to physical therapists when they have more...

American Family Physician : Editorials

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1001/p1183.html

Common Overuse Tendon Problems: A Review and Recommendations for Treatment - American ...

Sep 1, 2005 - There is a common misconception that symptomatic tendon injuries are inflammatory; because of this, these injuries often are mislabeled as tendonitis. Acute inflammatory tendinopathies exist, but most patients seen in primary care will have chronic symptoms suggesting a degenerative ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0901/p811.html

Diagnosing Rotator Cuff Tears - Point-of-Care Guides - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2005 - As with many conditions, single physical examination maneuvers rarely are sensitive enough to rule out disease when absent or specific enough to rule in disease when present. By themselves, these maneuvers increase or decrease the likelihood of disease slightly, and it remains up to the...

American Family Physician : Point-of-Care Guides

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/0415/p1587.html

Acute Shoulder Injuries - American Family Physician

Nov 15, 2004 - The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the human body. The cost of such versatility is an increased risk of injury. It is important that family physicians understand the anatomy of the shoulder, mechanisms of injury, typical physical and radiologic findings, approach to management of ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1115/p1947.html

Hand and Wrist Injuries: Part II. Emergent Evaluation - American Family Physician

Apr 15, 2004 - Primary care physicians must be able to recognize wrist and hand injuries that require immediate attention. A complete history and physical examination, including assessment of distal limb function, are essential. Hemorrhage control is necessary in patients with vessel lacerations and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0415/p1949.html

Which Nonsurgical Treatments for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Are Beneficial? - Cochrane for ...

Aug 15, 2003 - A 10- to 14-day course of oral corticosteroids, wrist splints, ultrasonography, yoga, and carpal bone mobilization provide short-term benefit. Ergonomic keyboards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), exercise, neurodynamic mobilization, magnet ...

American Family Physician : Cochrane for Clinicians

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0815/p649.html

Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - American Family Physician

Jul 15, 2003 - Carpal tunnel syndrome affects approximately 3 percent of adults in the United States. Pain and paresthesias in the distribution of the median nerve are the classic symptoms. While Tinel's sign and a positive Phalen's maneuver are classic clinical signs of the syndrome, hypalgesia and ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0715/p265.html

Hip Fractures in Adults - American Family Physician

Feb 1, 2003 - Patients with hip fracture typically present to the emergency department or their physician's office after a fall. They are often unable to walk, and they may exhibit shortening and external rotation of the affected limb. Frequently, they have hip pain. In some instances, however, ...

American Family Physician : Article

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0201/p537.html

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